Cody's Books was an independent bookstore based in Berkeley, California. It "was a pioneer in bookselling, bringing the paperback revolution to Berkeley, fighting censorship, providing a safe harbor from tear gas directed at anti-Vietnam War protesters throughout the 1960s and 1970s." The first store opened in 1956 on Euclid Avenue in California. It was founded by Pat Cody, it moved to a larger location on Telegraph Avenue in 1960 and moved to another Telegraph Avenue location in 1965. In 1968, "Cody's served as a first-aid station when anti-war protesters were tear gassed and clubbed just outside its Telegraph Avenue doors the store's employees were tending the wounded – anti-war protesters teargassed and clubbed by the police and the National Guard as protests broke out on Telegraph Avenue." In the early 1970s, Mario Savio worked as a clerk at the Telegraph Avenue store. In 1977, the Codys sold the store to Andy Ross, who owned it until 2006. Cody's was best known for its extensive selection of literary and scholarly titles.
On February 28, 1989, unknown persons threw a firebomb through the window of the store. It was thought that this was in response to the prominent display of Salman Rushdie's The Satanic Verses, banned by a fatwa by Iranian clerics one month prior. An undetonated pipe bomb was subsequently discovered in the store. In response the staff unanimously voted to keep the book on display despite the attack and the increasing willingness of chain bookstores to bow to pressure to withdraw it. Cody's pioneered a well-regarded author-reading series; some prominent authors and notables who appeared at Cody's were: Tom Robbins, Norman Mailer, Ken Kesey, Alice Walker, Allen Ginsberg, Maurice Sendak, Bill Clinton, Jimmy Carter, Muhammad Ali, Salman Rushdie. In the 1980s, Cody's was a plaintiff in several anti-trust lawsuits charging that independent book sellers were discriminated against in favor of chain stores. Cody's owner, Andy Ross, was a prominent spokesperson supporting independent businesses against chain stores and Internet retailers.
Cody's was a core bookseller among a coterie of independent booksellers, which included Moe's Books, located nearly next door to Cody's, Pendragon/Pellucidar/Pegasus, Shakespeare & Co. Black Oak Books and others, all located in the region from north Berkeley to north Oakland; this region includes the University of Berkeley. Together they were members of a significant regional supporter of independent bookselling, The Northern California Independent Bookseller's Association, or NCIBA; the Telegraph store was the flagship store until it closed in 2006, sparking a controversy in the local press over the cause. One explanation given for the closure was that it was caused by pressure from corporate chains like Borders; as of June 2015 the location was still vacant. The Cody's San Francisco location closed in 2007 for a similar reason. Cody's was sold to Japanese book distributor Yohan, Inc. in September 2006. In March 2008, the last remaining store moved from 4th Street to its final location on Shattuck Avenue due to a rent increase.
Financial pressures forced the closure of the store for good on June 20, 2008. The 2008 PBS TV documentary Paperback Dreams chronicles the related histories of Kepler's Books in Menlo Park and Cody's Books. Stores: Euclid Avenue, Berkeley 1956–1960 Telegraph Avenue and Dwight, Berkeley 1960–1965 2454 Telegraph Avenue at Haste Street, Berkeley 1965 – July 10, 2006 San Francisco 2005–2007 1730 4th St. Berkeley 1997 – March 2008 2201 Shattuck Ave. Downtown Berkeley April 1, 2008 – June 19, 2008 a final sale starting from August 14 – August 22 or August 23, 2008 Kepler's Books Printers Inc. Bookstore Cody's Books: the life and times of a Berkeley bookstore, 1956–1977 by Pat and Fred Cody, San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1992 Perman, Stacy. "Autopsy of an Indie Bookseller." Businessweek. January 12, 2009. Cody's Books: Paperback Dreams "Last Cody's Bookstore Bids Farewell to Berkeley" - The Daily Californian
Borders Group, Inc. was an international book and music retailer based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. In its final year, the company employed about 19,500 people throughout the U. S. in its Borders and Waldenbooks stores. At the beginning of 2010, the company operated 511 Borders superstores in the US; the company operated 175 stores in the Waldenbooks Specialty Retail segment, including Waldenbooks, Borders Express, Borders airport stores, Borders Outlet stores. In February 2011, Borders applied for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection and began liquidating 226 of its stores in the United States. Despite a purchase offer from the private-equity firm Najafi Companies, Borders was not able to find a buyer acceptable to its creditors before its July bidding deadline, so it began liquidating its remaining 399 retail outlets, with the last remaining stores closing their doors in September; the Chapter 11 case was converted to Chapter 7. Rival bookseller Barnes & Noble acquired Borders' trademarks and customer list.
By the end of December 2010, Borders employed an estimated 1,150 across its U. K. stores, which went into bankruptcy administration before the end of 2010. All stores were closed by December 31, 2010. Borders Group formerly operated stores in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore. However, these were sold off to Pacific Equity Partners in 2008 were sold again to REDgroup Retail; the stores continued to operate under the Borders brand as the unaffiliated "Borders Asia Pacific" until RedGroup was placed into voluntary administration in February 2011. The original Borders bookstore was located in Ann Arbor, where it was founded in 1971 by brothers Tom and Louis Borders during their undergraduate and graduate years at the University of Michigan; the first Borders bookshop opened at 209 State Street, Ann Arbor in 1971. Wahr's had been a textbook and school-supplies vendor, but the brothers did not deal in textbooks, they moved the retail bookshop to much larger quarters that had become available across the street at 303 South State, in the former location of the Wagner and Son men's clothing store.
The old shop was renamed Charing Cross Bookshop and Tom Frick was sent over from the new bookshop to help. The downtown Ann Arbor store moved across the street again in 1994 to 612 East Liberty, at the southwest corner of Liberty and State Streets, in the building once occupied by the defunct Jacobson's Department Store. Although not the original location, it was identified as "Borders #1" because it was the flagship store. Former Hickory Farms president Robert F. DiRomualdo was hired in 1989 to expand the company; the Borders brothers' inventory system tailored each store's offerings to its community. A sister company, Book Inventory Systems, was founded to serve as a wholesaler for and provide the brothers' custom inventory system to regional independent bookstores such as John Rollins, Thackeray's, Schuler Books, Joseph-Beth Booksellers. Borders was acquired in 1992 by Kmart, which had acquired mall-based book chain Waldenbooks eight years earlier. Kmart had struggled with the book division, having first tinkered with the assortment and with discounting.
In the Borders acquisition, Kmart merged the two companies in hopes that the experienced Borders senior management could bail out floundering Waldenbooks. Instead, many of the Borders senior management team left the company, leaving behind an larger and more unwieldy division for Kmart executives to handle on the heels of aggressive expansions by rivals Barnes & Noble and Crown Books. Facing its own fiscal problems and intense pressure from stockholders, Kmart spun off Borders in a structured stock-purchase plan; the newly formed company was called Borders-Walden Group and, by the end of the same year, renamed Borders Group. In 1994, Borders operated a mall-based toy store called All Wound Up, which sold toys and novelty items. Most All Wound Up stores were seasonal kiosks in shopping malls. Borders was slated to open stores in Canada, starting with a 50,000-square-foot retail store in Toronto. However, this was rejected for failing to meet Canadian ownership regulations for book retailers. In 1997, the company established its first international store in Singapore, occupying 32,000 square feet in Wheelock Place, Orchard Road, the largest bookstore there.
It subsequently opened another 41 stores in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and bought 35 Books etc. stores throughout Britain from Philip and Richard Joseph. In 1998, Borders Ltd. was established as a Borders Group subsidiary and with its Borders and Books etc. After becoming one of the country's leading booksellers, due to the fierce competition in the UK marketplace, a number of the Books etc. stores closed, Borders Ltd. was sold in 2007 to a private-equity investor. On November 26, 2009, Borders Ltd was placed into administration, the equivalent to Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the US. At that time, the Borders bookshop chain in the UK started a closing down sale in all of its 45 stores. On December 14, Borders UK announced it was going out of business. All UK stores were closed by the end of the year. In the third quarter of 2006, the Singapore store emerged as the best performing among the group's 559 outlets, with the highest revenue generated per square meter. At one point, the highest-grossing location in US territory was a remodeled and expanded store in Puerto Rico, generating
The New Inquiry
The New Inquiry is an online magazine of cultural and literary criticism, established by Mary Borkowski, Jennifer Bernstein and Rachel Rosenfelt in 2009 and administered as a 501 nonprofit organisation. The magazine's website updates daily, every few weeks a new edition of the magazine appears as a PDF. Alex Williams of The New York Times called the organization "an Intellectuals Anonymous of sorts for desperate members of the city’s literary underclass barred from the publishing establishment". Sasha Frere-Jones in The New Yorker’ called it "one of the rare publications that has succeeded in becoming an intellectual journal that can draw people in, that poses large theoretical questions without sliding back into the iron mountain of academia". Official website
Menlo Park, California
Menlo Park is a city at the eastern edge of San Mateo County, in the San Francisco Bay Area of California, in the United States. It is bordered by San Francisco Bay on the north and east. Menlo Park is one of the most educated cities in the state of the United States. Menlo Park had 32,026 inhabitants according to the 2010 United States Census, which had grown to an estimated 34,357 inhabitants by 2017. Menlo Park is the site of Facebook's main campus. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 17.4 square miles, of which 9.8 square miles is land and 7.6 square miles is water. The total area is 43.79% water. Menlo Park is narrow on a northeast to southwest axis; the northeast portion borders the San Francisco Bay and includes the Dumbarton Bridge that connects Menlo Park to Fremont on the east side of the bay. The city shoreline includes the city's largest park, Bedwell Bayfront Park 160 acres and the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. San Francisquito Creek marks much of the southeast border of the city.
West Menlo Park along Alameda de las Pulgas nearly separates the southwestern part of the city from the rest. The extreme southwest is clipped by Interstate 280; the Bayshore Freeway traverses Menlo Park northwest to southeast near the shoreline and somewhat parallel to it to the southwest is El Camino Real. The intersection of El Camino Real and Santa Cruz Avenue is considered the heart of the city. Nearby, the Menlo Park Civic center is bounded by Ravenswood Avenue, Alma Street, Laurel Street and Burgess Drive, it contains the council offices, police station and Burgess Park which has various recreational facilities. Other major roads include Sand Hill Road in the Sharon Heights area; the residential areas of Menlo Park are unofficially divided into several neighborhoods. Belle Haven is the only neighborhood east of the Bayshore Freeway. Between Middlefield road and Bayshore are the neighborhoods of the Willows, Suburban Park, Lorelei Manor, Flood Triangle, Vintage Oaks, South of Seminary. Between Middlefield and El Camino Real are Felton Gables, Linfield Oaks, Park Forest.
West of El Camino Real until the hills are the neighborhoods of Downtown Menlo Park, Central Menlo Park, Allied Arts. In the hills are Sharon Heights and Stanford Hills. Several other neighborhoods are associated with Menlo Park but are in unincorporated San Mateo county; the area of Menlo Park was inhabited by the Ohlone people. In 1795 the Rancho de las Pulgas land grant was made. In 1851 two Irish immigrants, Dennis J. Oliver and his brother-in-law D. C. McGlynn, purchased a 1,700-acre tract of land on the former Rancho de las Pulgas. In 1854, they erected a gate with a wooden arch bearing the inscription "Menlo Park" and the date "August 1854" at the entrance to their property; the word "Menlo" derived from the owners' former home of Menlo in County Galway, is an Anglicized version of the original Irish name of the place, meaning "middle lake."In 1863, the San Francisco and San Jose Rail Road had built the railroad from San Francisco to as far as Mayfield and started running trains to the area.
They named a nearby station "Menlo Park" after the sign. The 1867 station building still stands on the platform of the current Caltrain station, used by the local Chamber of Commerce; the town of Menlo Park grew up around this station, becoming a popular home for San Francisco businessmen. A post office arrived in 1870, the city was incorporated in 1874; the original arch which gave its name to the stations and the city, survived until 1922, when the original arch was destroyed in an automobile accident. The origin of the name of Menlo Park, California pre-dates any work done by Thomas Edison in Menlo Park, New Jersey. In 1917/1918 a large portion of Menlo Park was the site of Camp Fremont, a training camp for, at its height, 27,000 men being sent to fight in World War I, it didn't last long, but army engineers paved the first streets in Menlo Park and laid the first water and gas lines. The army did retain the camp hospital, it is now the site of a Veterans Administration hospital off of Willow road in Menlo Park.
In the autumn of 1918 a flu pandemic hit Camp Fremont and killed 147. At the start of World War II, the US government bought the 260-acre estate of Timothy Hopkins from his widow and created the Palo Alto General Hospital renamed the Dibble General Hospital. After the war ended, some of the land was sold to the city and became the sites of the main library and city hall. More of
Vikram Seth, is an Indian novelist and poet. He has written several novels and poetry books, he has received several awards such as Padma Shri, Sahitya Academy Award, Pravasi Bharatiya Samman, WH Smith Literary Award and Crossword Book Award. Seth's collections of poetry such as Mappings and Beastly Tales are notable contributions to the Indian English language poetry canon. Vikram Seth was born on 20 June 1952 in Calcutta, his father, Prem Nath Seth, was an executive of Bata Shoes and his mother, Leila Seth, a barrister by training, became the first female Chief Justice of the Delhi High Court. He studied at St. Michael's High School, Patna and at The Doon School in Dehradun, where he edited The Doon School Weekly. After graduating from Doon, Seth went to England, to complete his A-levels, he studied at St. Xavier's High School, Patna, he moved to the United Kingdom and read Philosophy and Economics at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. He pursued a Ph. D. in Economics at Stanford University though never completed it.
Seth has published eight books of four novels. In 1980, he wrote his first book of poetry; the publication of A Suitable Boy, a 1,349-page novel, propelled Seth into the public limelight. His second novel An Equal Music deals with the troubled love life of a violinist. Seth's work Two Lives published in 2005 is a memoir of the marriage of his great aunt. In addition to The Golden Gate, Seth has written other works of poetry including Mappings, The Humble Administrator's Garden, All You Who Sleep Tonight and Three Chinese Poets, his children's book, Beastly Tales from Here and There consists of ten stories about animals. He has authored a travel book, From Heaven Lake: Travels through Sinkiang and Tibet, an account of a journey through Tibet and Nepal. Vikram Seth was commissioned by the English National Opera to write a libretto based on the Greek legend of Arion and the Dolphin; the opera was performed for the first time in June 1994. Seth's former literary agent Giles Gordon recalled being interviewed by Seth for the position, "Vikram sat at one end of a long table and he began to grill us.
It was incredible. He wanted to know our literary tastes, our views on poetry, our views on plays, which novelists we liked. Seth explained to Gordon that he had passed the interview not because of commercial considerations, but because unlike the others he was the only agent who seemed as interested in his poetry as in his other writing. Seth followed what he has described as "the ludicrous advance for that book" with £500,000 for An Equal Music and £1.4 million for Two Lives. He prepared an acrostic poem for his address at Gordon's 2005 memorial service. Seth was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 2001; the Golden Gate A Suitable Boy An Equal Music A Suitable Girl Mappings The Humble Administrator's Garden All You Who Sleep Tonight Beastly Tales Three Chinese Poets The Frog and the Nightingale The Tale Of Melon City Summer Requiem: A Book of Poems Arion and the Dolphin From Heaven Lake: Travels Through Sinkiang and Tibet Two Lives The Rivered Earth The Golden Treasure of Writers Workshop Poetry ed. by Rubana Huq and published by Writers Workshop, Calcutta The Oxford India Anthology of Twelve Modern Indian Poets ed. by Arvind Krishna Mehrotra and published by Oxford University Press, New Delhi Having lived in London for many years, Seth maintains residences near Salisbury, where he is a participant in local literary and cultural events, having bought and renovated the house of the Anglican poet George Herbert in 1996, in Jaipur, India.
In 2006, he became a leader of the campaign against Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, a law against sodomy. His mother has written about Seth's homosexuality and her coming to terms with it in her memoir. 1983 – Thomas Cook Travel Book Award for From Heaven Lake: Travels Through Sinkiang and Tibet 1985 – Commonwealth Poetry Prize for The Humble Administrator's Garden 1988 – Sahitya Akademi Award for The Golden Gate 1993 – Irish Times International Fiction Prize for A Suitable Boy 1994 – Commonwealth Writers Prize for A Suitable Boy 1994 – WH Smith Literary Award for A Suitable Boy 1999 – Crossword Book Award for An Equal Music 2001 – Order of the British Empire, Officer 2001 – EMMA for Best Book/Novel for An Equal Music 2005 – Pravasi Bharatiya Samman 2007 – Padma Shri in Literature & Education 2013 – The 25 Greatest Global Living Legends In India Chaudhuri, Amit. "Vikram Seth." The Vintage Book of Modern Indian Literature. New York: Vintage, 2004:508–537; the Telegraph British Council Bio Vikram Seth on IMDb "Poetic License" by Cynthia Haven, "Stanford Magazine," May/June 1999 Selected poems of Vikram Seth from Poemist BOMB Magazine interview with Vikram Seth by Ameena Meer
Mountain View, California
Mountain View is a city located in Santa Clara County, United States, named for its views of the Santa Cruz Mountains. From its origins as a stagecoach stop, it grew to a large suburb with a pedestrian-friendly downtown and a population of 74,066; the city borders Palo Alto and the San Francisco Bay to the north, Los Altos to the south, Moffett Federal Airfield and Sunnyvale to the east. Situated in the southern end of the Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, in the northwest corner of Santa Clara county, Mountain View is home to many high technology companies. In 1956, Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, the first company to develop silicon semiconductor devices in what came to be known as Silicon Valley, was established in the city by William Shockley. Today, many of the largest technology companies in the world are headquartered in the city, including Google, Mozilla Foundation and Intuit; the original Byte Shop computer store was opened at 1063 El Camino Real, Mountain View, by Paul Terrell, the first 50 Apple I computers were sold from that location.
The Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority integrates the city with the neighboring cities of Palo Alto, Los Altos, Sunnyvale. The Mexican land grant of Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas was given in 1842 by Alta California Governor Juan Alvarado to Francisco Estrada; this grant was passed on to Mariano Castro, who sold half of the land to Martin Murphy, Jr. Eventually, the former land grant became the cities of Mountain View and Sunnyvale; the area, on the southwest shore of San Francisco Bay, was settled in 1852 as a stagecoach station. By the early 1900s, it was a shipping point for fruit and grain, as well as a center of religious book publishing, it was first known as the major center of Fremont Twp. before the first California 1852 census, for Santa Clara County. Which meant that it was a predecessor to Palo Alto. Mountain View Station named in 1864, had its beginnings earlier as a stagecoach stop on the route between San Francisco and San Jose, including the Butterfield Overland Mail.
Incorporated on November 7, 1902. Phyllis Ave. & El Camino Real of today, was closer to what was once the original town center and its San Jose Road. The early pioneers were buried at the old cemetery between Mercy & Church, off Castro Street, now the present city Library and park, aka Pioneer Park. Reverend Henry Merrill Henderson, born in Maryland, age 35, arrived in Spring of 1852, with his family to meet with relatives Ricketts and many others from Missouri and Kentucky, he was the first Baptist minister in town and soon was going by horse to Half-Moon Bay, McCartersville for services. His next-door neighbor arrived that year, Seligman Weilheimer and brother Samuel from Dossenheim, Germany, who built at that property, the first big general merchandise store in 1856; the Fremont twp. population was about 560 by 1860, less Mayfield Post office section, which began north of present San Antonio Road. The town's early growth was due to agriculture, William Bubb being a town figure, buying 80 acres to farm in October 1851, where he died in 1864.
His heirs intermarried in the area. Agriculture remained the primary industry into the middle of the 20th century; the U. S. Navy's adjacent 1000 acre Moffett Field Complex began after 1931 and brought many economic opportunities. After World War II, the population grew with the development of the aerospace and electronics industries. Between 1950 and 1960, the population grew from 6,563 to 30,889, an increase of 370.7%. Between 1929 and 1994, the city was the home of the Moffett Field Naval Air Station. In 1940, the city became the home of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, influencing the city's development of its aerospace and electronics industries. Today, high technology is the foundation of the local economy, there exist few remnants of the city's agricultural past. In 1990, Kevin Duggan began his position as city manager, he built a relationship with Google, Inc. and issued a long-term lease to that and other technology companies. As of 2014, those leases generate over $5 million per year in city revenue.
Duggan reinstituted a special tax district for the Shoreline area, a landfill and pig farm in 1990. That money allowed the city to create a large golf course on the site; the Castro Street downtown area benefited from a special tax district. In 2016, the city's voters approved a rent control ordinance. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.3 sq mi, of which 12.0 sq mi is land and 0.27 sq mi is water. Mountain View is located at the north end of State Route 85, where it meets U. S. Route 101. State Route 82 follows the route of the historic El Camino Real through Mountain View; the city is bounded to the northwest by Palo Alto, to the north by the Bay, to the south and southwest by Los Altos, to the east by Sunnyvale and Moffett Federal Airfield. To the west lie the Santa Cruz Mountains, after which the city is named and which separate it from the Pacific Ocean. To the east lies the Diablo Range; the two ranges demarcate the Santa Clara Valley. Most of Mountain View consists of residential neighborhoods.
Business parks are located in the North Shoreline neighborhood, north of Highway 101, east of Highway 85. Mountain View has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate. Summers are warm and dry, while winters a
A sonnet is a poem in a specific form which originated in Italy. The term sonnet is derived from the Italian word sonetto. By the thirteenth century it signified a poem of fourteen lines that follows a strict rhyme scheme and specific structure. Conventions associated with the sonnet have evolved over its history. Writers of sonnets are sometimes called "sonneteers"; the sonnet was created by Giacomo da Lentini, head of the Sicilian School under Emperor Frederick II. Guittone d'Arezzo rediscovered it and brought it to Tuscany where he adapted it to his language when he founded the Siculo-Tuscan School, or Guittonian school of poetry, he wrote 250 sonnets. Other Italian poets of the time, including Dante Alighieri and Guido Cavalcanti, wrote sonnets, but the most famous early sonneteer was Petrarch. Other fine examples were written by Michelangelo; the structure of a typical Italian sonnet of the time included two parts that together formed a compact form of "argument". First, the octave, forms the "proposition", which describes a "problem", or "question", followed by a sestet, which proposes a "resolution".
The ninth line initiates what is called the "turn", or "volta", which signals the move from proposition to resolution. In sonnets that don't follow the problem/resolution structure, the ninth line still marks a "turn" by signaling a change in the tone, mood, or stance of the poem; the ABBA ABBA pattern became the standard for Italian sonnets. For the sestet there were two different possibilities: CDE CDE and CDC CDC. In time, other variants on this rhyming scheme were introduced, such as CDCDCD. Petrarch used an ABBA ABBA pattern for the octave, followed by either CDE CDE or CDC CDC rhymes in the sestet; the Crybin variant of the Italian sonnet has the rhyme scheme ABBA CDDC EFG EFG. In English, both the English or Shakespearean sonnet, the Italian Petrarchan sonnet are traditionally written in iambic pentameter; the first known sonnets in English, written by Sir Thomas Wyatt and Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, used the Italian, Petrarchan form, as did sonnets by English poets, including John Milton, Thomas Gray, William Wordsworth and Elizabeth Barrett Browning.
Early twentieth-century American poet Edna St. Vincent Millay wrote Petrarchan sonnets. On His Blindness by Milton, gives a sense of the Petrarchan rhyme scheme: Most Sonnets in Dante's La Vita Nuova are Petrarchan. Chapter VII gives sonnet "O voi che per la via", with two sestets and two quatrains, Ch. VIII, "Morte villana", with two sestets and two quatrains; the sole confirmed surviving sonnet in the Occitan language is confidently dated to 1284, is conserved only in troubadour manuscript P, an Italian chansonnier of 1310, now XLI.42 in the Biblioteca Laurenziana in Florence. It is addressed to Peter III of Aragon, it employs the rhyme scheme ABAB ABAB CDCDCD. This poem is interesting for its information on north Italian perspectives concerning the War of the Sicilian Vespers, the conflict between the Angevins and Aragonese for Sicily. Peter III and the Aragonese cause was popular in northern Italy at the time and Paolo's sonnet is a celebration of his victory over the Angevins and Capetians in the Aragonese Crusade: An Occitan sonnet, dated to 1321 and assigned to one "William of Almarichi", is found in Jean de Nostredame and cited in Giovanni Mario Crescimbeni's, Istoria della volgar poesia.
It congratulates Robert of Naples on his recent victory. Its authenticity is dubious. There are two poorly regarded sonnets by the Italian Dante de Maiano. In the 16th century, around Ronsard ), Joachim du Bellay and Jean Antoine de Baïf, there formed a group of radical young noble poets of the court, who began writing in, amongst other forms of poetry, the Petrarchan sonnet cycle; the character of La Pléiade literary program was given in Du Bellay's manifesto, the "Defense and Illustration of the French Language", which maintained that French was a worthy language for literary expression and which promulgated a program of linguistic and literary production and purification. By the late 17th century poets on relied on stanza forms incorporating rhymed couplets, by the 18th century fixed-form poems – and, in particular, the sonnet – were avoided; the resulting versification – less constrained by meter and rhyme patterns than Renaissance poetry – more mirrored prose. The Romantics were responsible for a return to many of the fixed-form poems used during the 15th and 16th centuries, as well as for the creation of new forms.
The sonnet however was little used until the Parnassians brought it back into favor, the sonnet would subsequently find its most significant practitioner in Charles Baudelaire. The traditional French sonnet form was however modified by Baudelaire, who used 32 different forms of sonnet with non-traditional rhyme patterns to great effect in his Les Fleurs du mal; when English sonnets were introduced by Thomas Wyatt in the early 16th century, his sonnets and those of his contemporary the Earl of Surrey were chiefly translations from the Italian of Petrarch and the French of Ronsard and others. While Wyatt introduced the