Silver is a metallic element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. The symbol Ag stems from Latin argentum, derived from the Greek ὰργὀς, a soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and reflectivity of any metal. The metal is found in the Earths crust in the pure, free form, as an alloy with gold and other metals. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, lead, Silver is more abundant than gold, but it is much less abundant as a native metal. Its purity is measured on a per mille basis, a 94%-pure alloy is described as 0.940 fine. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had a role in most human cultures. Silver has long valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many premodern monetary systems in bullion coins, Silver is used in numerous applications other than currency, such as solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, and as an investment medium. Silver is used industrially in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, Silver compounds are used in photographic film and X-rays.
Dilute silver nitrate solutions and other compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings, catheters. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with an electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell. Silver is a soft and malleable transition metal. Silver crystallizes in a cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are relatively weak and this observation explains the low hardness and high ductility of single crystals of silver. Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a polish. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm, at wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silvers reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm.
The electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater even than copper, during World War II in the US,13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium, mainly because of the wartime shortage of copper
German Grand Prix
The German Grand Prix is a biennial automobile race that has been held most years since 1926, with 75 races having been held. The race continued to be known as the German Grand Prix, because West Germany was prevented from taking part in international events in the immediate post-war period, the German Grand Prix only became part of the Formula One World Championship in 1951. It was designated the European Grand Prix four times between 1954 and 1974, when title was an honorary designation given each year to one grand prix race in Europe. It has been organized by AvD since 1926, the well-known ADAC hosts many other races, including a second German F1 race at the Nürburgring from 1995 until 2006 under the title of the European Grand Prix. In 1907, Germany staged the first of the Kaiserpreis races at the 73-mile Taunus public road circuit, entries were limited to touring cars with engines of less than eight litres. The race itself was a tragedy, a driver and his co-driver were killed 19 miles into the lap, göbel died of his injuries in hospital on.
Italys Felice Nazzaro won the race in a Fiat, like the Prinz-Heinrich-Fahrt, which was held from 1908 to 1911, it was a precursor to the German Grand Prix. The first national event in German Grand Prix motor racing was held at the AVUS race circuit in southwestern Berlin in 1926 as a car race. The AVUS circuit was made up of two 6-mile straights combined with two left-hand hairpins at each end, the first race at AVUS, in heavy rain, was won by Germanys native son, Rudolf Caracciola in a Mercedes-Benz. The event was marred by Adolf Rosenbergers crash into one of the marshals huts, the AVUS circuit was considered extremely dangerous even back then- so the event was moved. The German Grand Prix became an event in 1929. The Grand Prix moved to the new,28.3 km Nürburgring, located in the Eifel Mountain region in western Germany about 70 miles from Frankfurt and it was inaugurated on 18 June 1927 with the annual race, the ADAC Eifelrennen. There were two races on the Gesamtstrecke combined course, which were both sportscar races, where German pre-war great Rudolf Caracciola would win his second of six German Grands Prix.
The 1930 and 1933 races were cancelled due to economic reasons, in 1931, the event began to use only the 14.2 mile Nordschleife, and this would continue onwards throughout the century. Caracciola would win the 1931 and 1932 events in a Mercedes, starting in 1934, there were often several races each year with the so-called Silver Arrows Grand Prix cars in Germany, e. g. the Eifelrennen, the AVUS race and several hillclimbs. Yet it was only the Grand Prix at the Nürburgring that was the national Grande Epreuve, the 1935 event was considered to be one of the greatest motorsports victories of all time. Italian legend Tazio Nuvolari, driving a hopelessly outdated and underpowered Alfa Romeo against state-of-the-art Mercedes, after a dreadful start, he was able to pass a number of cars, particularly while some of the German cars pitted. The small 42-year-old Italian ended up finishing in front of eight running Silver Arrows, second placed Hans Stuck was two minutes behind Nuvolari
Ferdinand Porsche was an automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company. He is best known for creating the first gasoline-electric hybrid vehicle, the Volkswagen Beetle, in addition, Porsche designed the 1923 Benz Tropfenwagen, which was the first racing car with a mid-engine, rear-wheel drive layout. Porsche was an important contributor to the German war effort during World War II. He was involved in the production of advanced tanks such as the VK4501, Tiger I, Tiger II, Porsche was a member of the German Nazi party and allegedly the SS. He was a recipient of the German National Prize for Art and Science, the SS-Ehrenring and he was called the Great German Engineer by Nazi propaganda. In 1996 Porsche was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, Ferdinand Porsche was born to German-speaking parents in Maffersdorf, northern Bohemia, part of the Austrian Empire at that time, and today part of the Czech Republic. Ferdinand was his parents third child and his father, Anton Porsche, was a master panel-beater.
He showed an aptitude for mechanical work at a very early age. He attended classes at the Imperial Technical School in Reichenberg at night while helping his father in his shop by day. Thanks to a referral, Porsche landed a job with the Béla Egger Electrical company in Vienna when he turned 18, in Vienna he would sneak into the local university whenever he could after work. Other than attending classes there, Porsche never received any higher engineering education, during his five years with Béla Egger, Porsche first developed the electric hub motor. After the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of World War I, in 1934 Adolf Hitler or Joseph Goebbels made Porsche a naturalized German citizen. In 1898, Porsche joined the Vienna-based factory Jakob Lohner & Company, which produced coaches for Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria as well as for the monarchs of the UK, and Romania. Jakob Lohner had begun construction of automobiles in 1896 under Ludwig Lohner in the suburb of Floridsdorf.
Their first design was the Egger-Lohner vehicle, first unveiled in Vienna, Austria, on 26 June 1898, Porsche had engraved the code P1 onto all the key components. The Egger-Lohner was a car driven by two electric motors within the front wheel hubs, powered by batteries. This drive train construction was expanded to four-wheel drive, by mounting two more electric motors to the rear wheels, and a four-motor example was ordered by Englishman E. W. Hart in 1900. In December that year, the car was displayed at the Paris World Exhibition under the name Toujours-Contente, even though this one-off vehicle had been commissioned for the purposes of racing and record-breaking, its 1,800 kg of lead–acid batteries was a severe shortcoming
A touring car is an open car seating four or more. A popular car body style in the twentieth century, it declined in popularity in the 1920s when closed bodies became less expensive. A tourer, in Britain and the Commonwealth, is a vehicle, however. The term all-weather tourer was used to describe open vehicles that could be fully enclosed, a popular version of the touring car style was the torpedo, with the hood/bonnet line at the cars waistline giving the car a straight line from front to back. This eventually became the version of the touring car. In 1916, the US-based Society of Automobile Engineers defined a touring car as, the term has been defined as an open car seating five or more. Touring cars may have two or four doors, engines on early models were either in the front, or in a mid-body position. When the top was folded down, it formed a bulky mass known as the fan behind the seat, fan covers were made to protect the top. The touring car style was popular in the early 20th century, being an alternative to the runabout.
Most of Model Ts produced by Ford between 1908 and 1927 were four and three-door models touring cars, accounting for 6,519,643 cars sold out of the 15,000,000 estimated Model Ts built. The popularity of the car began to wane in the 1920s when cars with enclosed passenger compartments became more affordable. In Australia tourers may have two or four doors, the belt lines of tourers were often lowered in the front doors to give the car a more sporting character. And would be named sports tourers, the torpedo body style was a type of touring body used from the early twentieth century until the mid-1920s. A torpedos hood line was level with the waistline, giving a straight line from front to back. The torpedo style became the style of touring car and the name fell into disuse around 1920
Wilhelm II, German Emperor
Wilhelm II or William II was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888 to 9 November 1918. He was the eldest grandchild of the British Queen Victoria and related to many monarchs and his leading generals, Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff, dictated policy during the First World War with little regard for the civilian government. An ineffective war-time leader, he lost the support of the army, abdicated in November 1918, and fled to exile in the Netherlands. Wilhelm was born on 27 January 1859 at the Crown Princes Palace, Berlin to Prince Frederick William of Prussia and his wife, Princess Royal, the eldest daughter of Britains Queen Victoria. At the time of his birth, his great-uncle Frederick William IV was king of Prussia, a traumatic breech birth left him with a withered left arm due to Erbs palsy, which he tried with some success to conceal. His left arm was about 6 inches shorter than his right arm, historians have suggested that this disability affected his emotional development.
In 1863, Wilhelm was taken to England to be present at the wedding of his Uncle Bertie, William attended the ceremony in a Highland costume, complete with a small toy dirk. During the ceremony the four-year-old became restless and his eighteen-year-old uncle Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh, charged with keeping an eye on him, told him to be quiet, but Wilhelm drew his dirk and threatened Alfred. When Alfred attempted to subdue him by force, Wilhelm bit him on the leg and his grandmother, Queen Victoria, missed seeing the fracas, to her Wilhelm remained a clever, good little child, the great favourite of my beloved Vicky. His mother, was obsessed with his damaged arm and she blamed herself for the childs handicap and insisted that he become a good rider. The thought that he, as heir to the throne, should not be able to ride was intolerable to her, riding lessons began when Wilhelm was eight and were a matter of endurance for Wilhelm. Over and over, the prince was set on his horse. He fell off time after time but despite his tears was set on its back again, after weeks of this he finally got it right and was able to maintain his balance.
Wilhelm, from six years of age, was tutored and heavily influenced by the 39-year-old teacher Georg Hinzpeter, Hinzpeter, he wrote, was really a good fellow. Whether he was the tutor for me, I dare not decide. The torments inflicted on me, in this riding, must be attributed to my mother. As a teenager he was educated at Kassel at the Friedrichsgymnasium, in January 1877, Wilhelm finished high school and on his eighteenth birthday received as a present from his grandmother, Queen Victoria, the Order of the Garter. After Kassel he spent four terms at the University of Bonn, studying law and he became a member of the exclusive Corps Borussia Bonn