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Prions are misfolded proteins with the ability to transmit their misfolded shape onto normal variants of the same protein. They characterize several fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative diseases in humans and many other animals, it is not known what causes the normal protein to misfold, but the abnormal three-dimensional structure is suspected of conferring infectious properties, collapsing nearby protein molecules into the same shape. The word prion derives from "proteinaceous infectious particle"; the hypothesized role of a protein as an infectious agent stands in contrast to all other known infectious agents such as viruses, bacteria and parasites, all of which contain nucleic acids. Prion variants of the prion protein, whose specific function is uncertain, are hypothesized as the cause of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, including scrapie in sheep, chronic wasting disease in deer, bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in humans. All known prion diseases in mammals affect the structure of other neural tissue.

Until 2015, all known mammalian prion diseases were considered to be caused by the prion protein. Prions form abnormal aggregates of proteins called amyloids, which accumulate in infected tissue and are associated with tissue damage and cell death. Amyloids are responsible for several other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Prion aggregates are stable, this structural stability means that prions are resistant to denaturation by chemical and physical agents: they cannot be destroyed by ordinary disinfection or cooking; this makes containment of these particles difficult. A prion disease is disease of structurally abnormal proteins. In humans, prions are believed to be the cause of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, its variant, Gerstmann–Sträussler–Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia and kuru. There is evidence suggesting prions may play a part in the process of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, these have been termed prion-like diseases.

Several yeast proteins have been identified as having prionogenic properties. Prion replication is subject to epimutation and natural selection just as for other forms of replication, their structure varies between species. In the 1950s, Carleton Gajdusek began research which showed that kuru could be transmitted to chimpanzees by what was a new infectious agent, work for which he won the 1976 Nobel prize. During the 1960s, two London-based researchers, radiation biologist Tikvah Alper and biophysicist John Stanley Griffith, developed the hypothesis that the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are caused by an infectious agent consisting of proteins. Earlier investigations by E. J. Field into scrapie and kuru had found evidence for the transfer of pathologically inert polysaccharides that only become infectious post-transfer, in the new host. Alper and Griffith wanted to account for the discovery that the mysterious infectious agent causing the diseases scrapie and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease resisted ionizing radiation.

Griffith proposed three ways. In the first hypothesis, he suggested that if the protein is the product of a suppressed gene, introducing the protein could induce the gene's expression, that is, wake the dormant gene up the result would be a process indistinguishable from replication, as the gene's expression would produce the protein, which would go wake the gene up in other cells, his second hypothesis forms the basis of the modern prion theory, proposed that an abnormal form of a cellular protein can convert normal proteins of the same type into its abnormal form, thus leading to replication. His third hypothesis proposed that the agent could be an antibody if the antibody was its own target antigen, as such an antibody would result in more and more antibody being produced against itself. However, Griffith acknowledged that this third hypothesis was unlikely to be true due to the lack of a detectable immune response. Francis Crick recognized the potential significance of the Griffith protein-only hypothesis for scrapie propagation in the second edition of his "Central dogma of molecular biology": While asserting that the flow of sequence information from protein to protein, or from protein to RNA and DNA was "precluded", he noted that Griffith's hypothesis was a potential contradiction.

The revised hypothesis was formulated, in part, to accommodate reverse transcription. In 1982, Stanley B. Prusiner of the University of California, San Francisco announced that his team had purified the hypothetical infectious protein, which did not appear to be present in healthy hosts, though they did not manage to isolate the protein until two years after Prusiner's announcement; the protein was named a prion, for "Proteinacious infectious particle", derived from the words protein and infectious. When the prion was discovered, Griffith's first hypothesis, that the protein was the product of a silent gene was favored by many, it was subsequently discovered, that the same protein exists in normal hosts but in different form. Following the discovery of the same protein in different form in uninfected individuals, the specific protein


The Arabic name السعودية, romanized as AlSaudiah, is the Internationalized country code top-level domain for Saudi Arabia. The top-level domain was installed in the DNS on May 5, 2010, it was among the first non-Latin top-level domains to go live. Government organizations were able to register the domain name for the first time from 31 May 2010 to 12 July 2010, followed by a public launch a few months later. By 2013, 1,939 AlSaudiah domain names were registered. AlSaudiah is the Internationalized country code top-level domain for Saudi Arabia. Only persons or entities related to Saudi Arabia are able to register; the top-level domain is managed by the Saudi Network Information Center. The ASCII name of this domain in the Domain Name System is xn--mgberp4a5d4ar, obtained by application of the Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications rules for the translation of the Unicode representation of the script version. Saudi Arabia is assigned the country code top-level Saudi Network Information

List of kings of Burundi

This page contains two versions of the list of kings of Burundi, the traditional version before 1680 and the modern genealogy. The regnal names of Burundian sovereigns, titled Mwami, followed a cycle: Ntare, Mwezi and Mwambutsa. Traditionally, it was thought that there had been four complete cycles but the modern genealogy indicates that there were only two complete cycles, starting with Ntare III Rushatsi. In the 16th century, Burundi was a kingdom characterized by a hierarchical political authority and tributary economic exchange. A king headed a princely aristocracy which owned most of the land governing its subjects with superiority and required a tribute, or tax, from local farmers and herders who lived in forests; the Tutsi monarchy ruled the nation for centuries, but became ceremonial with the colonization of the nation by the German Empire in 1899. The kings continued to nominally rule through German and Belgian colonial periods, the monarchy continued after the nation gained independence from Belgium in 1962.

Burundi ceased to be a monarchy when king Ntare V Ndizeye was deposed by his Prime Minister and Chief of Staff, Colonel Michel Micombero, who abolished the monarchy and declared a republic following the November 1966 coup d'état. The traditional list of Kings of Burundi; the dates before 1900 are estimates. Ntare I Rushatsi Cambarantama: c.1530–c.1550 Mwezi I Baridamunka: c.1550–c.1580 Mutaga I Mutabazi: c.1580–c.1600 Mwambutsa I Nkomati: c.1600–c.1620 Ntare II Kibogora: c.1620–c.1650 Mwezi II Nyaburunga: c.1650–c.1680 Mutaga II Senyamwiza Mutamo: c.1680–c.1700 Mwambutsa II Nyarushamba: c.1700–c.1720 Ntare III Kivimira Semuganzashamba: c.1720–c.1750 Mwezi III Kavuyimbo: c.1750–c.1780 Mutaga III Sebitungwa: c.1780–c.1800 Mwambutsa III Mbonyuburundi: c.1800–c.1830 Ntare IV Runzi: c.1830–c.1850 Mwezi IV Gisabo Bikata-Bijoga: c.1850–1908 Mutaga IV Mbikije: c.1908–1915 Mwambutsa IV Bangiricenge Rubangishamiheto: 1915–1966 Ntare V Ndizeye: 1966–1966 This is the modern genealogy: Ntare III Rushatsi: c.1680–c.1709 Mwezi III Ndagushimiye: c.1709–c.1739 Mutaga III Senyamwiza Mutamo: c.1739–c.1767 Mwambutsa III Serushambo Butama: c.1767–c.1796 Ntare IV Rutaganzwa Rugamba: c.1796–c.1850 Mwezi IV Gisabo: c.1850–21 August 1908 Mutaga IV Mbikije: 1908–30 November 1915 Mwambutsa IV Bangiriceng: 16 December 1915–8 July 1966 Ntare V Ndizeye: 1 September–28 November 1966 History of Burundi Kingdom of Burundi President of Burundi List of presidents of Burundi Prime Minister of Burundi

The Swimming-Pool Library

The Swimming-Pool Library is a 1988 novel by Alan Hollinghurst. In 1983 London, Will, a privileged, sexually irresistible 25-year-old, saves the life of an elderly aristocrat who has a heart-attack in a public lavatory; this chance meeting requires Will to re-evaluate his sense of the past and his family's history. The title has at least three meanings; as recounted at the beginning of chapter 7, at Will's old prep school, prefects were known as'librarians', the designation taking a prefix to indicate the particular prefect's area of responsibility. Will, a keen swimmer at school as afterwards, became the'Swimming-Pool Librarian', his father, writing to offer congratulation, amusedly comments,'you must tell me what kind of books they have in the Swimming-Pool Library.' For Will, the Swimming-Pool Library is slang for the changing-room to which he and his friends would slip in the middle of the night for illicit sexual activities. At Charles Nantwich's home there is a room that has served as a library and was once a Roman bath.

Will borrows trashy homoerotic novels from one of the lifeguards at the Corinthian club. The club is a swimming pool library. William Beckwith is a privileged and promiscuous young gay man, he is the heir of Viscount Beckwith, an elder statesman and a recent peer. To avoid death duties, that grandfather has settled most of his estate on Will, who therefore has substantial private means and no need of work; as the novel opens, Will is seeing a young, working-class, black man named Arthur. Will is sexual and physically attractive, his preoccupation with Arthur is entirely physical. Will is a member of the Corinthian Club at which he swims and cruises men; the Corry is in no formal sense a gay club, indeed it is made clear that there are non-gay members, but there is a pervasive homoerotic atmosphere. Whilst cruising a young man in a London park, Will enters a public toilet to find a group of older men cottaging. One of them suffers what is a minor heart attack and collapses. Will saves the man's life.

He returns home to find terrified. Arthur has accidentally killed a friend of his brother Harold's, after an argument about drugs. Will agrees to shelter Arthur. At the Corry, Will learns that he is Lord Nantwich. Charles invites Will to lunch at Wicks': his club. Wicks' is filled with men "of fantastic seniority". Will studied History at Oxford, getting a 2.1 rather than the first that he says had been expected of him. That he has studied history will in the course of the novel be revealed as an irony. Trapped in close confinement with Arthur, Will begins to resent him, their boredom and tension erupts in bouts of vaguely abusive sex. Will goes to a cinema that has anonymous sex. On the train home, Will reads Valmouth, a novel by Ronald Firbank, given to him by his best friend, James. James is a hard-working doctor, insecure and sexually frustrated as a gay man; the novel by Firbank echoes themes central to The Swimming Pool Library. Back at the flat, William finds his small nephew Rupert, an enchantingly self-possessed boy of six, who has run away from home.

Rupert is interested in homosexuality. Despite his youth, Rupert exhibits a strong gay sensibility. Will calls his sister Philippa and her husband Gavin comes to collect Rupert. While they're waiting and Rupert look a photo album containing photos of a young Will and members of his family. Will goes to the Corry with James. Will visits Charles at his home. Lewis is curt slightly aggressive and seems jealously protective of Nantwich. Charles's house is filled with books. In the cellar, they look at some Roman mosaics and Charles asks Will to write his biography for him. At the Corry, Will is attracted to a young bodybuilder. Despite his physique, Phil is shy and a sexual novice. Will suspects. James believes that Will is wasting his intelligence and his literary skill and urges him to write Charles's biography. Will returns to Charles's house to find him locked in his bedroom by Lewis, their master/servant relationship is fraught. Will takes Charles' notes home. On the train, Will cruises a young man, he begins to read Charles's papers.

Charles's early life vividly illustrates themes central to the experience of being homosexual and British. Will reads of his boyhood at public school, where he experienced sexuality by turns brutal and tender, he is cruelly raped by one boy but taken under the protection of an older boy, who treats him gently. Strong was badly injured and died insane. Charles becomes aware that he is attracted to black men when he is propositioned by an American soldier, he experiences feelings of desperate arousal and revulsion and flees. As a student, Charles goes on a spree with some friends in the country, they go to an abandoned hunting lodge and drink champagne. Charles has sex with one of them; as a young man, Charles enters the Foreign Service and travels to Sudan to act as a regional administrator. He is enchanted by the land and powerfully drawn to A

Jake Bergey

Jake Bergey is a retired lacrosse player. Bergey played ten seasons for the Philadelphia Wings in the National Lacrosse League. Bergey is the son of former NFL star Bill Bergey, brother of fellow lacrosse player Josh Bergey. Bergey joined the Philadelphia Wings in 1998. Bergey became a fan favorite, wearing #66, the same number his father wore with the Philadelphia Eagles where he was a star linebacker, he was a member of both 2001 National Lacrosse League Champion's Cup Wings teams. Bergey was an alternate captain for the Wings from 2001 to 2007. and was Captain for the 2004 season. At the end of the 2007 season, Bergey was the second leading scorer in Wings history. After playing 10 years for the Wings, Bergey was chosen by Boston coach and former teammate Tom Ryan in the 2007 National Lacrosse League expansion draft. Subsequent to the draft, Boston put the "franchise tag" on him to retain his rights for the 2008 season. Boston drafted Bergey though he had off-season knee surgery and was considering retirement.

Bergey has stated. In the Philadelphia Daily News, Bergey was quoted as saying I expect to be back in Philadelphia," said Bergey, who has considered a future in coaching. "If things don't work out as planned, I have my hands filled enough with my family and my job that I can stay busy. During the 2007 Entry Draft, Bergey was traded back to the Wings in exchange for two late round draft picks. After the Blazers sat out the 2008 season, another expansion draft was held, again Bergey was chosen by Boston. However, in February 2009, he was traded back to the Wings for a conditional draft pick so that he could retire as a member of the only team he had played for. In 2001 & 2002, Bergey played in Major League Lacrosse for the Rochester Rattlers. In 2003, he was limited to one game with the Baltimore Bayhawks due to injury a knee injury that forced him to miss the entire 2003 NLL season, he has not played in the MLL since. Jake scored five goals in the NCAA Men's Lacrosse Championship game as a freshman at Salisbury State University in 1995, helping the team win its second-ever NCAA Division III national title.

He was a first-team All-American in 1995, 1996, 1997 at Salisbury. Bergey was a high school All-American in 1993 at Tatnall School, a respected prep school in Delaware

Musiq Soulchild

Taalib Johnson, professionally known as Musiq Soulchild or Musiq is an American singer and songwriter whose style blends R&B, blues, gospel influences fused with hip hop. Musiq was born in Philadelphia and raised in a strict Muslim household. During his teenage years he built a reputation for being musically gifted, beat boxing for MCs free styling on the open mic circuit, scatting at jazz clubs or just performing an a cappella for strangers on the streets, where he got the name "Musiq" and added "Soulchild", he cites as his inspiration such icons as Marvin Gaye, Stevie Wonder, Donny Hathaway as his most influential musical icons. He dropped out of high school to pursue a career in music. Musiq Soulchild released his debut album, Aijuswanaseing, in 2000, its lead single was "Just Friends". Musiq's. Musiq's second album, 2002's Juslisen, went platinum; the singles were "Halfcrazy" and "Dontchange". In 2003, Musiq released his third album, which went gold, it included the singles "Forthenight" and "Whoknows".

Musiq took a four-year break and changed his management to Solqi Management, as well as his record label from Def Soul to Atlantic Records. In March 2007, Musiq's released his fourth album Luvanmusiq, its singles were "B. U. D. D. Y.". An uptempo track, "Teachme", "Makeyouhappy", his fifth album OnMyRadio was released on December 2, 2008. The lead single "Radio" was a complete contrast to the usual smooth neo soul Musiq fans were accustomed to; the following singles were the duet IfULeave featuring Mary J. Blige. "SoBeautiful" marked the first collaboration between Musiq and the producer JR Hutson, after Hutson had spent "about eight months" trying to get Musiq to come by his studio. According to Hutson, the two plan to work together again. In May 2010, he changed management to Victor Grieg, his last album for Atlantic MusiqInTheMagiq was released on May 3, 2011, available on CDs and as a digital download. The first single was "Anything" featuring Swizz Beatz, followed by "Yes". In September 2013, he released a duet album with Syleena Johnson entitled 9ine.

This album was a compilation of nine reggae songs recorded in nine days on the independent Shanachie label. In September 2013, Musiq Soulchild announced his departure from Atlantic Records and becoming an independent artist, he revealed. Musiq worked with Campbell on his first two albums on Atlantic – 2007's Luvanmusiq and 2008's OnMyRadio, he released an EP titled The Husel through DatPiff on July 30, 2014. In April 2016, he released his first independent solo album through My Block/E1 Music, Life on Earth; the lead single is "I Do". Shortly after, he moved with eOne/SoulStar Music Company. In 2017, he released two new singles "Simple Things" and "Start Over" set for a new album titled Feel the Real due on September 15, 2017, he premiered music videos for the tracks in April 2017. Musiq Soulchild has featured on the song "Nothing at All" from Carlos Santana's October 2002 album Shaman. Soulchild has appeared on the soundtrack to Tyler Perry's February 2007 movie Daddy's Little Girls, he lent a song from his March 2007 album Luvanmusiq to the soundtrack for Perry's movie Why Did I Get Married?, released October 2007.

He recorded a remake of Arrested Development's song "People Everyday" with British rapper and singer Estelle for the soundtrack to Tyler Perry's March 2008 Meet the Browns entitled "People Everyday". He's guest starred as himself in the UPN sitcom Half and Half in May 2004 and The CW comedy The Game in October 2007. On June 25, 2012, Musiq released a book on love and relationships entitled "143 – Love According To Musiq"; the book's title is inspired by the favorite number of television host Fred Rogers, since the phrase "I love you" has 8 characters: 1 in "I", 4 in "love" and 3 in "you". Rogers stopped production of his television series a year. Since 2009, he has been in a relationship with 702 singer Kameelah Williams. In August 2009, their son Zac was born. In October 2017 his daughter Satori Solaris with influencer Ashley Wright was born. Soulchild has two platinum as well as two gold albums altogether. He's as well been bestowed with the ASCAP among others. Soulchild has received 13 Grammy nominations, including 3 for his 2007 album Luvanmusiq.

Official website Musiq Soulchild's AllMusic page