Prior, derived from the Latin for "earlier, first", is an ecclesiastical title for a superior lower in rank than an abbot or abbess. Its earlier generic usage referred to any monastic superior. In the Rule of Saint Benedict, the term appears several times, referring to any superior, whether an abbot, dean, etc. In other old monastic rules the term is used in the same generic sense. With the Cluniac Reforms, the term prior received a specific meaning; the example of the Cluniac congregations was followed by all Benedictine monasteries, as well as by the Camaldolese, Cistercians, Hirsau congregations, other offshoots of the Benedictine Order. Monastic congregations of hermit origin do not use the title of abbot for the head of any of their houses, in an effort to avoid the involvement with the world the office of an abbot would entail; as a result, it is not in use for the congregation as a whole. Among them, the equivalent term of'prior general' is the one used; this applies, e.g. for the Camaldolese and the Carthusians.

The term is used by various mendicant orders, e.g. the Carmelites and the Dominicans. This applies the nuns of these orders; the term connotes the idea that the'prior general' is the "first among equals". The Benedictine Order and its branches, the Premonstratensian Order, the military orders have three kinds of priors: the claustral prior the conventual prior the obedientiary priorThe Claustral prior, called dean in a few monasteries, holds the first place after the abbot, whom he assists in the government of the monastery, functioning as the abbot's second-in-charge, he has no ordinary jurisdiction by virtue of his office, since he performs the duties of his office according to the will and under the direction of the abbot. His jurisdiction is, therefore, a delegated one and extends just as far as the abbot desires, or the constitutions of the congregation prescribe, he is appointed by the abbot after a consultation in chapter with the professed monks of the monastery, may be removed by him at any time.

In many monasteries larger ones, the claustral prior is assisted by a sub-prior, who holds the third place in the monastery. In former times there were in larger monasteries, besides the prior and the sub-prior a third and sometimes a fifth prior; each of these was called circa, because it was his duty to make the rounds of the monastery to see whether anything was amiss and whether the brethren were intent on the work allotted to them respectively. He had no authority to correct or punish the brethren, but was to report to the claustral prior whatever he found amiss or contrary to the rules. In the Congregation of Cluny and others of the tenth and twelfth centuries there was a greater prior who preceded the claustral prior in dignity and, besides assisting the abbot in the government of the monastery, had some delegated jurisdiction over external dependencies of the abbey. In the high days of Cluny, the abbot was assisted by a coadjutor styled Grand-Prior; the Conventual prior is the independent superior of a monastery, not an abbey.

In some orders, like the Benedictines, a monastery remains a priory until it is considered stable enough and large enough to be elevated to the rank of an abbey. In other Orders, like the Camaldolese and Carthusians, conventual priors are the norm and there are no abbots; this title, in its feminine form prioress, is used for monasteries of nuns in the Dominican and Carmelite orders. An Obedientiary Prior heads a monastery created as a satellite of an abbey; when an abbey becomes overlarge, or when there is need of a monastery in a new area, the abbot may appoint a group of monks under a prior to begin a new foundation, which remains a dependency of the mother abbey until such time as it is large and stable enough to become an independent abbey of its own. A Prior Provincial is the regional superior of certain Orders, such as the Order of Friars Preachers Dominicans or the Carmelite friars. In this last case, the head of the whole Order is called the prior general. Among communities of friars, the second superior is called the sub-prior and his office is similar to that of the claustral prior in the Benedictine Order.

Some Orders have only one Grand prior. Other Orders have several, each in charge of a geographical province called grand priory after him. Friar Catholic religious order Priory O'Neill, Elizabeth. "Prior". Encyclopædia Britannica. 22. Pp. 359–360. Media related to Priors at Wikimedia Commons

Notary Chamber of Georgia

The Notary Chamber of Georgia is a legal entity of public law, established on May 3, 1996 pursuant to the Georgian Law about Notary. The Notary Chamber of Georgia is based upon compulsory membership of notaries; the Supreme management body of the Notary Chamber of Georgia is the General Meeting of Members of the Chamber, while its executive body is the Board of the Chamber, consisting of 7 members to be elected by the General Meeting of Members at nomination of the Minister of Justice. The state control over notary activity is performed by the Ministry of Justice, being entitled to inspect notary’s official activities, but having no right to intervene in performing notary acts by the notary. Since October 2007, the Notary Chamber of Georgia has become a member of the International Union of Latin Notaries. International Union of Latin Notaries; the Notary Chamber of Georgia represents and protects notaries’ interests and assists them in performing their duties. The Chamber involves notaries solving the unique problems associated with notary services and implementation of general professional interests of notaries.

The Training Center under the Chamber administers training of notary candidates and oversees the qualification of notaries and notary offices. The Professional day of Notaries, on November 7, has been celebrated in Georgia since 2002; the day was associated with Christian festivities, in particular the remembrance day of Saint Marcianus and Martvir. In the 4th century these saints served in the cathedral of Constantinople and were notaries of the patriarch, Paul the Confessor, it is dedicated to summarizing introduced achievements of notary and charity. A Deontology code of notaries was approved in Georgia on October 6, 2011; the document is the first code of ethics in notary history. It determines the general principles of professional ethics and moral standards for notaries, which guide their relations with the general public, as well as state bodies and colleagues. In the Notary Chamber, one may access the notary archives. Archives of notary documents maintained by the notaries with terminated authority or deceased notaries are kept in the archives of the Notary Chamber and certified copies of such documents may be issued.

Accelerated services were introduced in the archives of the Notary Chamber. Since 2011 one may enjoy the services of the archive of the Notary Chamber at the Houses of Justice and notary offices as well. Notary certified documents have unquestionable probative force. Principal notary acts are: Certification of deals. 25 628 of which were certified on-line. Georgia is the first country worldwide. In 2011, 1,271 writs of execution were issued. A Notary issues a writ of execution on the basis of any deal associated with monetary liabilities. In 2012, 1,278 writs of execution were issued. Georgia Law, about notary” Official website of the Notary Chamber of Georgia

Human Tissue Act 2004

The Human Tissue Act 2004 is an act of the UK parliament applying to England, Northern Ireland and Wales. It consolidates previous legislation and created the Human Tissue Authority to "regulate the removal, storage and disposal of human bodies and tissue."The Act was brought about as a consequence of, among things, the Alder Hey organs scandal, in which organs of children had been retained by the Alder Hey Children's Hospital without consent, the Kennedy inquiry into heart surgery on children at the Bristol Royal Infirmary. A consultative exercise followed the Government's Green Paper, Human Bodies, Human Choices, earlier recommendations by the Chief Medical Officer, Sir Liam Donaldson; the Act allows for anonymous organ donation, requires licences for those intending to publicly display human remains, such as BODIES... The Exhibition; the Act specifies that in cases of organ donation after death the wishes of the deceased takes precedence over the wishes of relatives, but a parliamentary report concluded in 2006 that the Act would fail in this regard since most surgeons would be unwilling to confront families in such situations.

The Act prohibits selling organs. In 2007 a man became the first person convicted under the Act for trying to sell his kidney online for £24,000 in order to pay off his gambling debts; the Act does not extend to Scotland. The following orders have been made under this section: The Human Tissue Act 2004 Order 2005 The Human Tissue Act 2004 Order 2005 The Human Tissue Act 2004 Order 2005 The Human Tissue Act 2004 Order 2006 The Human Tissue Act 2004 Order 2006 The Human Tissue Act 2004 Order 2006 Human Transplantation Act 2013 Bell MD. "The UK Human Tissue Act and consent: surrendering a fundamental principle to transplantation needs?". J Med Ethics. 32: 283–6. Doi:10.1136/jme.2005.012666. PMC 2579415. PMID 16648279