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Priscillianism

Priscillianism is a Christian-inspired belief system developed in the Iberian Peninsula under the Roman Empire in the 4th century by Priscillian. It is derived from the Gnostic-Manichaean doctrines taught by an Egyptian from Memphis. Priscillianism was considered a heresy by both the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church. Marcus, a native of Memphis in Egypt, taught Gnostic and Manichean theories. Two of his followers, a Spanish lady named Agape and the rhetorician Helpidius, converted Priscillian, a layman "of noble birth, of great riches, restless, learned through much reading ready at debate and discussion". Through his oratorical gifts and reputation for extreme asceticism, Priscillian attracted a large following, including a rhetorician named Helpidus and two bishops and Salvianus, they established a new sect as an oath-bound society, attracting the attention of the bishop Hyginus of Cordoba. Hyginus made his fears known to Hydatius, Bishop of Emerita, Ithacius of Ossonoba.

The bishops of Hispania and Aquitaine held a synod at Zaragoza in 380. Though summoned, the Priscillianists refused to appear; the synod pronounced sentence of excommunication against the four leaders, Salvianus and Priscillian. Ithacius was chosen to enforce the synod's decrees. In defiance Priscillian was ordained to the appointed Bishop of Avila. Ithacius appealed to the imperial authorities; the Emperor Gratian issued a decree which deprived the Priscillianists of their churches and sentenced them to exile. Instantius and Priscillian proceeded to Rome to gain the aid of Pope Damasus I in having this sentence revoked. On their journey they were joined by many supporters from Gaul, including a large number of women mentioned in contemporary sources. Reports of improper behavior by their followers and benefactors- fabricated- were circulated against them. Denied an audience by Pope Damasus, they went to Milan to make a similar request of St Ambrose, but with the same result, they resorted to intrigue and bribery at the Court with such success that they were not only freed from the sentence of exile, but permitted to regain possession of their churches in Hispania, under the patronage of the imperial officials, they enjoyed such power as to compel Ithacius to leave the country.

He, in turn, appealed to Gratian, but before anything had been accomplished the emperor was murdered in Lyon, Magnus Maximus had taken his place. Maximus treated the matter not as one of morality and society; as he wished to curry favour with the orthodox bishops and to replenish his treasury through confiscations, the Emperor gave orders for a synod, held in Bordeaux in 384. Instantius was first condemned to deposition. Priscillian appealed to the emperor at Trier. Ithacius acted as his accuser and was so vehement in his denunciations that St Martin of Tours, in Trier, intervened. After expressing his disapproval of bringing an ecclesiastical case before a civil tribunal, he obtained from the emperor a promise not to carry his condemnation to the extent of shedding blood. After St Martin had left the city, the emperor appointed the Prefect Evodius as judge, he found some others guilty of the crime of magic. This decision was reported to the emperor, who ordered the execution of Priscillian and several of his followers.

The property of others was confiscated and they were banished. The conduct of Ithacius was criticized. St Martin, hearing what had taken place, returned to Trier and compelled the emperor to rescind an order to military tribunes, who were on their way to Iberia to extirpate the heresy; the Church did not invoke civil authority to punish heretics. The pope censured not only the actions of Ithacius but that of the emperor. St Ambrose was stern in his denunciation of the case; some of the Gallican bishops, who were in Trier under the leadership of Theognistus, broke off communion with Ithacius. He was subsequently deposed from his see by a synod of Hispanic bishops, his friend and abettor, was compelled to resign. After the executions of Priscillian and his followers by the emperor, the numbers and zeal of the heretics increased. In 400 another synod was held in Toledo to deal with this problem. Dictinnius was the author of a moral treatise from the Priscillianist viewpoint; the upheaval in the Iberian Peninsula due to the invasion of the Vandals, the Alans and the Suevi aided the spread of Priscillianism.

Paulus Orosius, a Gallaecian priest from northwest Hispania, wrote to St Augustine to enlist his aid in combating the heresy. Pope Leo I at a date took active steps for its repression and at his urgent insistence, councils were held in 446 and 447 at Astorga and Braga. In spite of these efforts, the sect continued to spread during the fifth century. In the following century it began to decline. After the First Council of Braga, which targeted its doctrines, it soon died out; the Priscillianists taught a Gnostic-Manichaean doctrine of dualism, a belief in the existence of two kingdoms, one of Light and one of Darkness. Angels and the souls of men were said to be severed from the substance of the Deity. Human souls were intended to conquer the Kingdom of Darkness, but fell and were imprisoned in material bodies, thus both kingdoms were represented in man. Their conflict was symbolized on the side of Light by the Twelve Patriarchs, heavenly spirits, who corresponded to certain of man's powers, on

1996 Chico State Wildcats football team

The 1996 Chico State Wildcats football team represented Chico State University during the 1996 NCAA Division II football season. Chico State competed in the Northern California Athletic Conference in 1996; the 1996 Wildcats were led by first-year head coach Rob Tomlinson. They played home games at University Stadium in California. Chico State finished the season with a record of five losses; the Wildcats were outscored by their opponents 181–187 for the season. 1996 was the last year. On February 5, 1997, the school announced it was dropping the football program citing the cost of the program and lack of fan support. No Chico State players were selected in the 1997 NFL Draft

Arash Bayat

Arash Bayat is a former Iranian-Swedish footballer, Arash was voted the best middle eastern player of Sweden in 4 different time: 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005. Bayat has made an impressive career in Swedish second tier football with Västra Frölunda IF and GIF Sundsvall. GIF took the step up to Allsvenskan at the end of the 2007 season. On August 17, 2008 it was announced that Bayat would join IFK Mariehamn for the remainder of the 2008 season on a loan. In December 2010 resigned his contract with Superettan club Ljungskile SK and joined as player to Assyriska BK, he plays as a midfielder but can play as a striker if required. Bayat played from 1999 to 2001 37 games and scored sixteen goals for the Swedish U-16 and U-18 national football team; as of 24 May 2019