Colorado Territorial Correctional Facility
Colorado Territorial Correctional Facility, colloquially known as "Territorial," is a medium security prison in Cañon City, Colorado. CTCF is the oldest prison in the Colorado DOC system, it was built in 1871 as a territorial prison and became a state prison in 1876. The Colorado DOC system only has two infirmaries, one of, located in CTCF; the other is located in the Denver Diagnostic Center. From the 1890s to the 1990s, the Colorado death row was located at the Colorado Territorial Correctional Facility; the execution chamber was located in this prison. In the 1990s the Colorado State Penitentiary opened, death row moved there; as of 2012 the Sterling Correctional Facility houses Colorado's death row prisoners. Colorado Territorial Correctional Facility
Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary
The Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary or United States Penitentiary, Alcatraz Island was a maximum security federal prison on Alcatraz Island, 1.25 miles off the coast of San Francisco, United States, which operated from August 11, 1934 until March 21, 1963. Alcatraz had been the site of a fort since the 1850s; the United States Department of Justice acquired the United States Disciplinary Barracks, Pacific Branch on Alcatraz on October 12, 1933, the island became a prison of the Federal Bureau of Prisons in August 1934 after the buildings were modernized and security increased. Given this high security and the island's location in the cold waters and strong currents of San Francisco Bay, prison operators believed Alcatraz to be escape-proof and America's strongest prison. Alcatraz was used to hold prisoners. One of the world's most notorious and best known prisons over the years, it housed some 1,576 federal inmates, including some of America's most ruthless, such as Al Capone, Robert Franklin Stroud, George "Machine Gun" Kelly, Bumpy Johnson, Rafael Cancel Miranda, Mickey Cohen, Arthur R. "Doc" Barker, Whitey Bulger, Alvin "Creepy" Karpis.
The Bureau of Prisons' staff and their families lived on the island as well. 36 prisoners made 14 escape attempts during the prison’s 29 year history. Faced with high maintenance costs and a poor reputation, Alcatraz closed on March 21, 1963; the three-story cellhouse included the four main cell blocks, A-block through D-block, the warden's office, visitation room, the library, the barber shop. The prison cells measured 9 feet by 5 feet and 7 feet high; the cells were primitive and lacked privacy, with a bed, desk and toilet on the back wall and few furnishings except a blanket. African-Americans were segregated from other inmates in cell designation due to racial abuse being prevalent. D-Block housed the worst inmates, five cells at its end were designated as "The Hole," where badly behaving prisoners would be sent for periods of punishment brutally so; the dining hall and kitchen extended from the main building. Prisoners and staff ate three meals a day together; the Alcatraz Hospital was above the dining hall.
Prison corridors were named after major U. S. streets such as Broadway and Michigan Avenue. Working at the prison was considered a privilege for inmates and many of the better inmates were employed in the Model Industries Building and New Industries Building during the day involved in providing for the military in jobs such as sewing and woodwork, performing various maintenance and laundry chores. Today, Alcatraz is a public museum and one of San Francisco's major tourist attractions, attracting some 1.5 million visitors annually. Now operated by the National Park Service's Golden Gate National Recreation Area, the timeworn former prison is being restored and maintained; the main cellhouse was built incorporating some parts of Fort Alcatraz’s citadel, a fortified barracks from 1859 that had come to be used as a jail. A new cellhouse was built from 1910–1912 on a budget of $250,000, upon completion, the 500 feet long concrete building was reputedly the longest concrete building in the world at the time.
This building was modernized in 1933 and 1934 and became the main cellhouse of the federal penitentiary until its closure in 1963. When the new concrete prison was built, many materials were reused in its construction. Iron staircases in the interior and the cellhouse door near the barber's shop at the end of A-block were retained from the old citadel and massive granite blocks used as gun mounts were reused as the wharf's bulkheads and retaining walls. Many of the old cell bars were used to reinforce the walls, causing structural problems due to the fact that many placed near the edge were subject to erosion from the salt air and wind over the years. After the United States Army's use of the island for over 80 years, it was transferred to the Federal Bureau of Prisons, which hoped an escape-proof jail would help break the crime wave of the 1920s and 1930s; the Department of Justice acquired the Disciplinary Barracks on Alcatraz on October 12, 1933, it became a Federal Bureau of Prisons facility in August 1934.
$260,000 was spent to modernize and improve it from January 1934. George Hess of the United States Public Health Service was appointed chief medical officer and Edward W. Twitchell became a consultant in psychiatry for Alcatraz in January 1934; the hospital was checked by three officials from the Marine Hospital of San Francisco. The Bureau of Prisons personnel arrived on Alcatraz in early February. In April 1934, the old material was removed from the prison. Two of four new stairways were built, as were 12 doors to the utility corridors and gratings at the top of the cells. On April 26, an accidental small fire broke out on the roof and an electrician injured his foot by dropping a manhole cover on it; the Anchor Post Fence Company added fencing around Alcatraz and the Enterprise Electric Works added emergency lighting in the morgue and switchboard operations. In June 1934, the Teletouch Corporation of New York
Cañon City, Colorado
Cañon City is a Home Rule Municipality, the county seat and the most populous municipality of Fremont County, United States. The city population was 16,400 at the 2010 United States Census. Cañon City straddles the easterly flowing Arkansas River and is a popular tourist destination for sightseeing, whitewater rafting, rock climbing; the city is known for its many public parks, fossil discoveries, Skyline Drive, The Royal Gorge railroad, the Royal Gorge, extensive natural hiking paths, the tropical-like weather year-round."In 1994, the United States Board on Geographic Names approved adding the tilde to the official name of Cañon City, a change from Canon City as the official name in its decisions of 1906 and 1975. It is one of the few U. S. cities to have an Ñ in others being La Cañada Flintridge, California. Cañon City was laid out on January 17, 1858, during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush, but the land was left idle. A new company "jumped the claim" to the town's site in late 1859, it put up the first building in February 1860.
This town was intended as a commercial center for mining in South Park and the upper Arkansas River. In 1861, the town raised two companies of volunteers to serve with the Second Colorado Infantry during the American Civil War; this regiment fought in skirmishes in nearby New Mexico and as far east as the Indian Territory and Missouri before ending its organization in 1865. In 1862, A. M. Cassaday drilled for petroleum 6 miles north of Cañon City, close to a known oil seep. Cassaday struck oil at the depth of 50 feet, he completed the first commercial oil well west of the Mississippi River, he drilled five or six more wells nearby, he refined kerosene and fuel oil from the petroleum. Cassaday sold the products in Denver. A number of metal ore smelters were built in Cañon City following the discovery of gold at Cripple Creek in 1891; the Cañon City Downtown Historic District is an historic district, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. Cañon City is located in eastern Fremont County at 38°26′48″N 105°13′42″W at an altitude of 5,332 feet.
It sits on the north side of the Arkansas River, just east of where the river exits from Royal Gorge. It is bordered to the south by the unincorporated community of Lincoln Park. Via U. S. Route 50, Pueblo is 39 miles to the east and Poncha Springs is 62 miles to the west. Colorado Springs is 45 miles to the northeast. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.5 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles, or 0.09%, is water. Cañon City sits in the "high desert" land of southern Colorado, the same desert lands of Pueblo and Florence; the city's nickname, "the Climate Capital of Colorado", derives from the combination of unique geography and 5,300-foot elevation protecting the city from harsh weather conditions. The average daily high temperature in January is 14 °F warmer in Cañon City than in Grand Junction though the elevation of Cañon City is higher; the average minimum temperature in January is 20 °F. During July, overnight lows are 59 °F on average. Cañon City has a semi-arid climate.
As Cañon City has grown, the city has both annexed surrounding communities and developed new subdivisions to create the city that exists today. Dawson Ranch Eagle Heights Fireman's Bluff Four Mile Ranch Gold Cañon Meadowbrook Orchard Park South Cañon, a historic neighborhood located on the west side south of the Arkansas River Sunrise Mesa Western Meadows Wolf Park Cañon City is home to many city-owned parks, as well as parks owned by the Cañon City Area Recreation and Park District. Centennial Park known as "Duck Park" Denver & Rio Grande Western Park known as "Depot Park" Greydene Park Magdalene Park Margaret Park Mountain View Park, home of the city's skate park Red Canyon Park, a 500-acre park located 10 miles north of the city Royal Gorge Park, home of the Royal Gorge Bridge and Park Rudd Park Temple Canyon Park Veterans Park, known for Entertainment in the Park concerts during the summer The Cañon City Area Recreation and Park District called the Rec District, was created in 1965 to better serve the community's recreational needs with parks, the R.
C. Icabone Pool, a dog park, an archery range and a ropes course along with a rec district office with a community room; the following parks are operated and owned by the Rec District: John Griffin Park, located near the Sell's Avenue Trailhead of the Riverwalk Harrison Park, the former playground of the former Harrison Elementary School, relocated to a newer, larger school building housing both elementary and middle school students Pathfinder Regional Park, a joint-managed park located in the county between Cañon City and Florence Rouse Park As of the census of 2000, there were 15,431 people, 6,164 households, 3,803 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,284.1 people per square mile. There were 6,617 housing units at an average density of 550.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.15% White, 1.59% African American, 1.04% Native American, 0.54% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.61% from other races, 2.01% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 8.33% of the population.
There were 6,164 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.0% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.3% were non-families. 33.7% of all households
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
A prison officer known as corrections officer, correctional officer, detention officer or penal officer, is a uniformed official, responsible for the supervision and security of prisoners in a prison, jail, or similar form of secure custody. Terms such as jailer, jail guard, prison guard, turnkey have been used. Corrections Officers are responsible for the care and control of individuals who have been arrested and are awaiting trial while on remand or who have been convicted of a crime and sentenced to serve time in a prison or jail, they are responsible for the safety and security of the facility itself. Most officers are employed by the government of the jurisdiction in which they operate, though some are employed by private companies. Prison officers must maintain order and daily operations of the facility and are responsible for the care and control of inmates. A correction officer has a responsibility to control inmates who may be dangerous, that society themselves do not wish to accommodate.
An officer must always prevent disturbances and escapes by supervising activities and work assignments of inmates. Officers have a responsibility to protect the public from incarcerated criminals, protect fellow officers from inmates and protect inmates from other inmates at all times. An officer must be aware of any and all movement taking place inside the facility. Prevention is one of the key components to an officer's duties. Officers can utilize prevention by searching inmates and their living quarters for potential threats such as weapons or drugs. An officer must remain assertive and refuse to back down. An officer must enforce the rules and punish when rules are violated. Correction officers must take full concern for the health and safety of the facility. Officers check for unsanitary conditions, fire hazards, and/or any evidence of tampering or damage to locks, grilles and gates. Officers must screen all incoming and outgoing mail as well as all visitors as a prevention method for future issues that could cause risk to safety and security of the facilities and staff.
Correction officers must assist in transportation responsibilities that may include transfers to other facilities, medical appointments, court appearances and other approved locations. Correction officers may assist police officers on/off duty depending on their peace officer status and jurisdiction. Corrections officers' training will vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction as well as facility to facility depending on the legislated power given, the nature of the facilities, or the socioeconomics of the region. Training may be provided by external agencies or at the facility with a peer-group or supervisor instructor. In North America, standard training includes: Use of force and restraints Weapons Self-defense First aid and CPR Report writing Giving testimony in court Defusing hostility Interpersonal communication Correction law Criminal law Criminal procedure law Case work and criminal investigations Hostage negotiation Gang intelligenceMany jurisdictions have in recent years, expanded basic training to include: Suicide prevention/crisis intervention Critical incident stress management Occupational Safety and Health Act or Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System Gang awareness and intervention Crisis or hostage negotiation Drug abuse training Rehabilitation programs Rapid response training Bailiff Correctional Emergency Response Team Correctional Service of Canada Federal Bureau of Prisons Her Majesty's Prison Service Irish Prison Service Justizwache Law enforcement officer Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision Punjab Prisons Scottish Prison Service Deputy Sheriff Texas Department of Criminal Justice Davenport, D.
K.. State of Arizona Office of the Auditor General Performance Audit: Arizona Department of Corrections. Sunset Factors Retrieved 8 March 2008 from http://www.auditorgen.state.az.us/Reports/State_Agencies/Agencies/Corrections Tracy, S. J.. The construction of correctional officers: Layers of emotionality behind bars. Qualitative Inquiry, 10, 509–533. Tracy, S. J. Meyers, K. & Scott, C.. Cracking jokes and crafting selves: Sensemaking and identity management among human service workers. Communication Monographs, 73, 283–308. Correctional Service of Canada.
Oklahoma State Penitentiary
The Oklahoma State Penitentiary, nicknamed "Big Mac", is a prison of the Oklahoma Department of Corrections located in McAlester, Oklahoma, on 1,556 acres. Opened in 1908 with 50 inmates in makeshift facilities, today the prison holds more than 750 male offenders, the vast majority of which are maximum-security inmates. Before Oklahoma became a state in 1907, felons convicted in Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were sent to the Kansas State Penitentiary in Lansing, Kansas. At statehood, Kate Barnard became Oklahoma Commissioner of Corrections. During the summer of 1908, Barnard arrived unannounced at the Kansas prison to investigate widespread complaints she had received about mistreatment of Oklahoma inmates, she took a regular tour with other visitors first identified herself to prison officials and asked that she be allowed to conduct an inspection of the facility. Barnard discovered widespread torture of inmates. Upon her return to Oklahoma, Barnard recommended that all Oklahoma inmates be removed from the Lansing facility and returned to the state.
Governor of Oklahoma Charles N. Haskell supported Barnard's proposal, within two months of Barnard's visit to Kansas, on October 14, 1908, two groups of 50 offenders each were sent by train to McAlester; the inmates were temporarily housed in the former federal jail in the town. Under direction from Warden Robert W. Dick, they built a stockade to house themselves on a 120 acres plot northwest of McAlester, donated to the state by a group of McAlester citizens; the remaining Oklahoma inmates in Lansing were moved to the United States Penitentiary, Leavenworth until the state could build adequate facilities to house them all. The next spring, in 1909, the Oklahoma Legislature appropriated $850,000 to build the permanent facility. Construction began in May 1909 on a prison designed after the Leavenworth facility; the state purchased about 1,556 acres surrounding the original plot of land. Using prison labor, the West Cellhouse and Administration Building were completed first; the steep hills and grades required more than 6,250 cubic yards of concrete and more than 2,000,000 cubic yards of rocks and soil to be moved for the prison's walls alone.
The F Cellhouse was added in 1935, the New Cellhouse was constructed. A shoe manufacturing plant and a tailor shop were part of the prison's inmate industry program, designed to provide work for offenders; the Warden's House, across the street from the prison, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Female prisoners were sent to Kansas in territorial days also; the first females brought back from Kansas stayed in a ward near the East Gate, built in 1911, on the fourth floor of the West Cellhouse. The female population had grown to 26 by the time a separate building about 1 mile west of the main institution was completed in 1926; the first prison escape occurred on January 19, 1914. Three inmates stole a gun and killed three prison employees and retired federal judge John Robert Thomas during the escape attempt; the convicts were killed behind a rock ledge located on a ridge overlooking a wagon road. By the early 1970s, advocacy groups warned the state government that the situation was becoming dire.
From 1970 until July 27, 1973 the facility cataloged 19 violent deaths, 40 stabbings and 44 serious beatings. On January 22, 1973, prisoners staged a hunger strike that lasted 3 days in an attempt to draw attention to the conditions at the facility. On July 27, 1973, trouble began in the prison's mess hall by five inmates who, according to a prison spokesman, "were doped up on something." It spread through the rest of the facility. At the end of the riot, three days three inmates were dead, 12 buildings were burned, 21 inmates and guards had been injured. Damage was estimated at $30 million. A federal court in 1978 found conditions at OSP unconstitutional; the lawsuit, filed by one inmate before the riot, was changed to a class action suit after the riot. U. S. District Judge Luther Bohannon put the Department of Correction under federal control; the last issue of the lawsuit, medical care for offenders, was settled 27 years in 2001. Consequent to the court's orders, four new housing units were built at OSP, in 1984 the aging East and West Cellhouses were closed.
In 1983, all female inmates were moved to Mabel Bassett Correctional Center in Oklahoma City. On December 17, 1985, the inmates became disruptive gained control and took five employees as hostages on A and C units. Three of the hostages were injured before their release the next day; the disturbance caused more than $375,000 in damage and two of the hostages were permanently disabled. After this incident, security was overhauled at the prison to reduce inmate movements, limit recreation, institute a level-ranking system for offenders to improve safety; the Talawanda Heights Minimum Security Unit was opened outside the East Gate Area in October 1989 to house inmates who hold support jobs inside the facility. In 1992, a special-care unit opened to provide mental health care to offenders, reducing the need for psychiatric hospitalization outside the prison. A medium security unit with a capacity of 140 inmates is located on G and I units to help prisoners adjust to a lower security classification.
Another addition to the prison, H Unit, houses inmates under both administrative and disciplinary segregation. H Unit is the site of Oklahoma's death row and the state's lethal injection death chamber. Between 1915 and 2014, Oklahoma executed a total of 3 women. 3 different methods of
Queensland is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia. Situated in the north-east of the country, it is bordered by the Northern Territory, South Australia and New South Wales to the west, south-west and south respectively. To the east, Queensland is bordered by the Coral Pacific Ocean. To its north is the Torres Strait, with Papua New Guinea located less than 200 km across it from the mainland; the state is the world's sixth-largest sub-national entity, with an area of 1,852,642 square kilometres. As of 15 May 2018, Queensland has a population of 5,000,000, concentrated along the coast and in the state's South East; the capital and largest city in the state is Australia's third-largest city. Referred to as the "Sunshine State", Queensland is home to 10 of Australia's 30 largest cities and is the nation's third-largest economy. Tourism in the state, fuelled by its warm tropical climate, is a major industry. Queensland was first inhabited by Torres Strait Islanders.
The first European to land in Queensland was Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon in 1606, who explored the west coast of the Cape York Peninsula near present-day Weipa. In 1770, Lieutenant James Cook claimed the east coast of Australia for the Kingdom of Great Britain; the colony of New South Wales was founded in 1788 by Governor Arthur Phillip at Sydney. Queensland was explored in subsequent decades until the establishment of a penal colony at Brisbane in 1824 by John Oxley. Penal transportation ceased in 1839 and free settlement was allowed from 1842; the state was named in honour of Queen Victoria, who on 6 June 1859 signed Letters Patent separating the colony from New South Wales. Queensland Day is celebrated annually statewide on 6 June. Queensland was one of the six colonies which became the founding states of Australia with federation on 1 January 1901; the history of Queensland spans thousands of years, encompassing both a lengthy indigenous presence, as well as the eventful times of post-European settlement.
The north-eastern Australian region was explored by Dutch and French navigators before being encountered by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. The state has witnessed frontier warfare between European settlers and Indigenous inhabitants, as well as the exploitation of cheap Kanaka labour sourced from the South Pacific through a form of forced recruitment known at the time as "blackbirding"; the Australian Labor Party has its origin as a formal organisation in Queensland and the town of Barcaldine is the symbolic birthplace of the party. June 2009 marked the 150th anniversary of its creation as a separate colony from New South Wales. A rare record of early settler life in north Queensland can be seen in a set of ten photographic glass plates taken in the 1860s by Richard Daintree, in the collection of the National Museum of Australia; the Aboriginal occupation of Queensland is thought to predate 50,000 BC via boat or land bridge across Torres Strait, became divided into over 90 different language groups.
During the last ice age Queensland's landscape became more arid and desolate, making food and other supplies scarce. This led to the world's first seed-grinding technology. Warming again made the land hospitable, which brought high rainfall along the eastern coast, stimulating the growth of the state's tropical rainforests. In February 1606, Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon landed near the site of what is now Weipa, on the western shore of Cape York; this was the first recorded landing of a European in Australia, it marked the first reported contact between European and Aboriginal Australian people. The region was explored by French and Spanish explorers prior to the arrival of Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Cook claimed the east coast under instruction from King George III of the United Kingdom on 22 August 1770 at Possession Island, naming Eastern Australia, including Queensland,'New South Wales'; the Aboriginal population declined after a smallpox epidemic during the late 18th century. In 1823, John Oxley, a British explorer, sailed north from what is now Sydney to scout possible penal colony sites in Gladstone and Moreton Bay.
At Moreton Bay, he found the Brisbane River. He established a settlement at what is now Redcliffe; the settlement known as Edenglassie, was transferred to the current location of the Brisbane city centre. Edmund Lockyer discovered outcrops of coal along the banks of the upper Brisbane River in 1825. In 1839 transportation of convicts was ceased, culminating in the closure of the Brisbane penal settlement. In 1842 free settlement was permitted. In 1847, the Port of Maryborough was opened as a wool port; the first free immigrant ship to arrive in Moreton Bay was the Artemisia, in 1848. In 1857, Queensland's first lighthouse was built at Cape Moreton. A war, sometimes called a "war of extermination", erupted between Aborigines and settlers in colonial Queensland; the Frontier War was notable for being the most bloody in Australia due to Queensland's larger pre-contact indigenous population when compared to the other Australian colonies. About 1,500 European settlers and their alli