Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for so-called protection, gangs may become disciplined enough to be considered organized. A criminal organization or gang can be referred to as a mafia, mob, or crime syndicate, European sociologists define the mafia as a type of organized crime group that specializes in the supply of extra-legal protection and quasi law enforcement. There is a tendency to distinguish organized crime from other forms of crime, such as crime, financial crimes, political crimes, war crime, state crimes. This distinction is not always apparent and academics continue to debate the matter, for example, in failed states that can no longer perform basic functions such as education, security, or governance, organised crime and war sometimes complement each other. The term Oligarchy has been used to describe democratic countries whose political and economic institutions come under the control of a few families, in the United States, the Organized Crime Control Act defines organized crime as he unlawful activities of a highly organized, disciplined association.
Criminal activity as a process is referred to as racketeering. In the UK, police estimate that organized crime involves up to 38,000 people operating in 6,000 various groups, bureaucratic/corporate organized crime groups are defined by the general rigidity of their internal structures. An estimate on youth street gangs nationwide provided by Hannigan, et al. marked an increase of 35% between 2002 and 2010, the term “street gang” is commonly used interchangeably with “youth gang, ” referring to neighborhood or street-based youth groups that meet “gang” criteria. Some reasons youth join gangs include to feel accepted, attain status, a sense of unity brings together many of the youth gangs that lack the family aspect at home. Zones of transition are deteriorating neighborhoods with shifting populations, in such areas, conflict between groups, turf wars, and theft promote solidarity and cohesion. Participation in gang-related events during adolescence perpetuate a pattern of maltreatment on their own children years later, klein like Spergel studied the effects on members of social workers’ interventions.
More interventions actually lead to greater participation and solidarity and bonds between members. Downes and Rock on Parker’s analysis, strain theory applies, labeling theory, control theory and these may be defined by age or peer group influences, and the permanence or consistency of their criminal activity. These groups form their own identity or public representation which are recognizable by the community at large. Some studied street gangs involved in drug dealing - finding that their structure, members saw themselves as organized criminals, gangs were formal-rational organizations, Strong organizational structures, well defined roles and rules that guided members’ behavior. Also a specified and regular means of income, padilla agreed with the two above. However some have found these to be rather than well-defined and lacking persistent focus, there was relatively low cohesion, few shared goals
Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, establish a more effective penal system, or implement alternatives to incarceration. Prisons have only used as the primary punishment for criminal acts in the last few centuries. Far more common earlier were various types of punishment, public humiliation, penal bondage. Prisons contained both felons and debtors - the latter were allowed to bring in wives and children, the jailer made his money by charging the inmates for food and drink and legal services and the whole system was ripe with corruption. One reform of the century had been the establishment of the London Bridewell as a house of correction for women and children. This was the only place any medical services were provided, during the eighteenth century, British justice used a wide variety of measures to punish crime, including fines, the pillory and whipping. Transportation to America was often offered, until 1776, as an alternative to the death penalty, when they ran out of prisons in 1776 they used old sailing vessels which came to be called hulks as places of temporary confinement.
He was particularly appalled to discover prisoners who had been acquitted but were still confined because they couldnt pay the jailers fees and he proposed that each prisoner should be in a separate cell with separate sections for women felons, men felons, young offenders and debtors. The prison reform charity, the Howard League for Penal Reform and these were never built due to disagreements in the committee and pressures from wars with France and jails remained a local responsibility. But other measures passed in the few years provided magistrates with the powers to implement many of these reforms. Quakers such as Elizabeth Fry continued to publicize the dire state of prisons as did Charles Dickens in his novels David Copperfield and Little Dorrit about the Marshalsea. Samuel Romilly managed to repeal the death penalty for theft in 1806, the Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline, founded in 1816, supported both the Panopticon for the design of prisons and the use of the treadwheel as a means of hard labor.
By 1824,54 prisons had adopted this means of discipline, robert Peels Gaols Act of 1823 attempted to impose uniformity in the country but local prisons remained under the control of magistrates until the Prison Act of 1877. The American separate system attracted the attention of some reformers and led to the creation of Millbank Prison in 1816 and Pentonville prison in 1842. By now the end of transportation to Australia and the use of hulks was in sight, the main principles were separation and hard labour for serious crimes, using treadwheels and cranks. In 1877 he encouraged Disraelis government to remove all prisons from local government and he established a tradition of secrecy which lasted till the 1970s so that even magistrates and investigators were unable to see the insides of prisons. By the 1890s the prison population was over 20,000, in 1894-5 Herbert Gladstones Committee on Prisons showed that criminal propensity peaked from the mid-teens to the mid-twenties. Cross-country walks were encouraged, and no one ran away, Prison populations remained at a low level until after the second world war when Paterson died and the movement was unable to update itself
In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes. One form of tribunal is a court, the tribunal, which may occur before a judge, jury, or other designated trier of fact, aims to achieve a resolution to their dispute. Where the trial is held before a group of members of the community, where the trial is held solely before a judge, it is called a bench trial. Hearings before administrative bodies may have many of the features of a trial before a court, trials can be divided by the type of dispute at issue. A criminal trial is designed to resolve accusations brought against an accused of a crime. In common law systems, most criminal defendants are entitled to a trial held before a jury, because the state is attempting to use its power to deprive the accused of life, liberty, or property, the rights of the accused afforded to criminal defendants are typically broad. The rules of criminal procedure provide rules for criminal trials, a civil trial is generally held to settle lawsuits or civil claims—non-criminal disputes.
In some countries, the government can both sue and be sued in a civil capacity, the rules of civil procedure provide rules for civil trials. Although administrative hearings are not ordinarily considered trials, they retain many elements found in more formal trial settings, when the dispute goes to judicial setting, it is called an administrative trial, to revise the administrative hearing, depending on the jurisdiction. The types of disputes handled in these hearings is governed by administrative law, labor law is the body of laws, administrative rulings, and precedents which address the legal rights of, and restrictions on, working people and their organizations. As such, it mediates many aspects of the relationship between trade unions and employees, in Canada, employment laws related to unionized workplaces are differentiated from those relating to particular individuals. In most countries however, no distinction is made. However, there are two categories of labour law. First, collective labour law relates to the relationship between employee and union.
Second, individual labour law concerns employees rights at work and through the contract for work, the labour movement has been instrumental in the enacting of laws protecting labour rights in the 19th and 20th centuries. Labour rights have been integral to the social and economic development since the industrial revolution, there are two primary systems for conducting a trial, Adversarial, In common law systems, an adversarial or accusatory approach is used to adjudicate guilt or innocence. In several jurisdictions in more cases, there is a jury to determine the facts. This polarizes the issues, with each competitor acting in its own self-interest, to maintain fairness, there is a presumption of innocence, and the burden of proof lies on the prosecution
In sociology, deviance describes an action or behavior that violates social norms, including a formally enacted rule, as well as informal violations of social norms. It is the purview of criminologists, psychiatrists and sociologists to study how these norms are created, how they change over time, norms are rules and expectations by which members of society are conventionally guided. Deviance is an absence of conformity to these norms, social norms differ from culture to culture. For example, a deviant act can be committed in one society that breaks a social norm there, Deviance can be relative to place and time because what is considered deviant in one social context may be non-deviant in another. Killing another human is considered wrong, except when governments permit it during warfare or for self defense, deviant actions can be mala in se or mala prohibita. Three broad sociological classes exist that describe deviant behavior, structural functionalism, symbolic interaction, social integration is the attachment to groups and institutions, while social regulation is the adherence to the norms and values of the society.
Those who are very integrated fall under the category of altruism, those who are very regulated fall under fatalism and those who are very unregulated fall under anomie. Durkheims theory attributes social deviance to extremes of the dimensions of the social bond, altruistic suicide, egoistic suicide, and anomic suicide are the three forms of suicide that can happen due to extremes. Durkheim claimed that deviance was in fact a normal and necessary part of social organization, when he studied deviance he stated four important functions of deviance. Deviance affirms cultural values and norms, any definition of virtue rests on an opposing idea of vice, There can be no good without evil and no justice without crime. Deviance defines moral boundaries, people learn right from wrong by defining people as deviant, a serious form of deviance forces people to come together and react in the same way against it. Deviance pushes societys moral boundaries which, in turn leads to social change, robert K. Merton discussed deviance in terms of goals and means as part of his strain/anomie theory.
He postulated that a response to societal expectations and the means by which the individual pursued those goals were useful in understanding deviance. Often, non-routine collective behavior is said to map onto economic explanations, Merton described 5 types of deviance in terms of the acceptance or rejection of social goals and the institutionalized means of achieving them,1. Innovators accept societys goals, but reject socially acceptable means of achieving them, conformists accept societys goals and the socially acceptable means of achieving them. Ritualism refers to the inability to reach a cultural goal thus embracing the rules to the point where the people in question lose sight of their goals in order to feel respectable. Ritualists reject societys goals, but accept societys institutionalised means, ritualists are most commonly found in dead-end, repetitive jobs, where they are unable to achieve societys goals but still adhere to societys means of achievement and social norms. Retreatism is the rejection of both goals and means, letting the person in question drop out
A prisoner, known as an inmate or detainee, is a person who is deprived of liberty against his or her will. This can be by confinement, captivity, or by forcible restraint, the term applies particularly to those on trial or serving a prison sentence in a prison. Prisoner is a term for a person who is imprisoned. Prisoner was a term for a person prosecuted for felony. It was not applicable to a person prosecuted for misdemeanour, the abolition of the distinction between felony and misdemeanour by section 1 of the Criminal Law Act 1967 has rendered this distinction obsolete. Glanville Williams described as invidious the practice of using the term prisoner in reference to a person who had not been convicted, the earliest evidence of the existence of the prisoner dates back to 8,000 BC from prehistoric graves in Lower Egypt. This evidence suggests that people from Libya enslaved a San-like tribe, among the most extreme adverse effects suffered by prisoners, appear to be caused by solitary confinement for long durations.
When held in Special Housing Units, prisoners are subject to sensory deprivation, long durations may lead to depression and changes to brain physiology. Social connection and the support provided from social interaction are prerequisite to long-term social adjustment as a prisoner, Prisoners exhibit the paradoxical effect of social withdrawal after long periods of solitary confinement. A shift takes place from a craving for social contact. They may grow lethargic and apathetic, and no longer be able to control their own conduct when released from solitary confinement and they can come to depend upon the prison structure to control and limit their conduct. Long-term stays in solitary confinement can cause prisoners to develop clinical depression and those with pre-existing mental illnesses are at a higher risk for developing psychiatric symptoms. Some common behaviours are self-mutilation, suicidal tendencies, and psychosis, a psychopathological condition identified as SHU syndrome has been observed among such prisoners.
Symptoms are characterized as problems with concentration and memory, distortions of perception, most convicts suffering from SHU syndrome exhibit extreme generalized anxiety and panic disorder, with some suffering amnesia. The psychological syndrome known as Stockholm syndrome, describes a phenomenon where, over time. Competency in following the routines demanded by the code partly determined the identity as a convict. Sykes outlined some of the most salient points of this code as it applied in the period in the United States, Both federal. Prisoners in the United States do not have rights under the Constitution, they are protected by Amendment VIII which prohibits cruel
In ordinary language, a crime is an unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority. The term crime does not, in criminal law, have any simple and universally accepted definition. The most popular view is that crime is a created by law, in other words, something is a crime if declared as such by the relevant. One proposed definition is that a crime or offence is an act not only to some individual. Such acts are forbidden and punishable by law, the notion that acts such as murder and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide. What precisely is an offence is defined by criminal law of each country. While many have a catalogue of crimes called the criminal code, the state has the power to severely restrict ones liberty for committing a crime. In modern societies, there are procedures to which investigations and trials must adhere, usually, to be classified as a crime, the act of doing something criminal must – with certain exceptions – be accompanied by the intention to do something criminal.
While every crime violates the law, not every violation of the law counts as a crime, breaches of private law are not automatically punished by the state, but can be enforced through civil procedure. With institutional and legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the State can compel populations to conform to codes, authorities employ various mechanisms to regulate certain behaviors in general. In addition, authorities provide remedies and sanctions, and collectively these constitute a criminal justice system, Legal sanctions vary widely in their severity, they may include incarceration of temporary character aimed at reforming the convict. Some jurisdictions have penal codes written to inflict permanent harsh punishments, legal mutilation, usually a natural person perpetrates a crime, but legal persons may commit crimes. Conversely, at least under U. S. law, nonpersons such as animals cannot commit crimes, the sociologist Richard Quinney has written about the relationship between society and crime.
When Quinney states crime is a phenomenon he envisages both how individuals conceive crime and how populations perceive it, based on societal norms. The word crime is derived from the Latin root cernō, meaning I decide, originally the Latin word crīmen meant charge or cry of distress. The Ancient Greek word krima, from which the Latin cognate derives, typically referred to a mistake or an offense against the community. In 13th century English crime meant sinfulness, according to etymonline. com and it was probably brought to England as Old French crimne, from Latin crimen. In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following, indictment, crime, the word may derive from the Latin cernere – to decide, to sift
The Oxford English Dictionary defines penology as the study of the punishment of crime and prison management, and in this sense it is equivalent with corrections. Penology is concerned with the effectiveness of social processes devised and adopted for the prevention of crime. The study of penology therefore deals with the treatment of prisoners and it encompasses aspects of probation as well as penitentiary science relating to the secure detention and retraining of offenders committed to secure institutions. Penology concerns many topics and theories, including those concerning prisons, contemporary penology concerns itself mainly with criminal rehabilitation and prison management. The word seldom applies to theories and practices of punishment in less formal environments such as parenting, historical theories put based on the notion that fearful consequences would discourage potential offenders. Similarly, certain hudud offenses under Sharia hadith tradition may incur fearful penalties and they center on the concept of proportionality.
Subsequent development of the ideas of Beccaria made non-lethal punishment more socially acceptable, convicted prisoners had to be re-integrated into society when their punishment was complete. Auburn System Zebulon Brockway Jeremy Bentham Elmira System Incapacitation Panopticon Diiulio, John J. Governing Prisons, A Comparative Study of Correctional Management, Simon, ISBN 0-02-907883-0 The Florida State University College of Criminology and Criminal Justice CrimLinks UK based site
Justice is the legal or philosophical theory by which fairness is administered. The concept of justice differs in every culture, an early theory of justice was set out by the Ancient Greek philosopher Plato in his work The Republic. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice issues from God, in the 17th century, theorists like John Locke argued for the theory of natural law. Thinkers in the social contract tradition argued that justice is derived from the agreement of everyone concerned. In the 19th century, utilitarian thinkers including John Stuart Mill argued that justice is what has the best consequences, Theories of distributive justice concern what is distributed, between whom they are to be distributed, and what is the proper distribution. Egalitarians argued that justice can only exist within the coordinates of equality, John Rawls used a social contract argument to show that justice, and especially distributive justice, is a form of fairness. Property rights theorists take a view of distributive justice and argue that property rights-based justice maximizes the overall wealth of an economic system.
Theories of retributive justice are concerned with punishment for wrongdoing, restorative justice is an approach to justice that focuses on restoring what is good, and necessarily focuses on the needs of victims and offenders. Understandings of justice differ in culture, as cultures are usually dependent upon a shared history. Each cultures ethics create values which influence the notion of justice, although there can be found some justice principles that are one and the same in all or most of the cultures, these are insufficient to create a unitary justice apprehension. In his dialogue Republic, Plato uses Socrates to argue for justice that covers both the just person and the just City State, Justice is a proper, harmonious relationship between the warring parts of the person or city. Hence, Platos definition of justice is that justice is the having and doing of what is ones own, a just man is a man in just the right place, doing his best and giving the precise equivalent of what he has received.
This applies both at the level and at the universal level. A persons soul has three parts – reason and desire, similarly, a city has three parts – Socrates uses the parable of the chariot to illustrate his point, a chariot works as a whole because the two horses power is directed by the charioteer. Lovers of wisdom – philosophers, in one sense of the term – should rule because only they understand what is good, if one is ill, one goes to a medic rather than a farmer, because the medic is expert in the subject of health. Similarly, one should trust ones city to an expert in the subject of the good, not to a politician who tries to gain power by giving people what they want. For Socrates, the way the ship will reach its destination – the good – is if the navigator takes charge. Advocates of divine command theory argue that justice, and indeed the whole of morality, is the command of God
Besides their use for punishing crimes and prisons are frequently used by authoritarian regimes against perceived opponents. Prisons often have facilities that are designed with long term confinement in mind in comparison to jails. In times of war, prisoners of war or detainees may be detained in prisons or prisoner of war camps. The use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social organization, corresponding with the advent of the state was the development of written language, which enabled the creation of formalized legal codes as official guidelines for society. The best known of early legal codes is the Code of Hammurabi. Some Ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato, began to develop ideas of using punishment to reform instead of simply using it as retribution. Imprisonment as a penalty was used initially for those who could not afford to pay their fines, since impoverished Athenians could not pay their fines, leading to indefinite periods of imprisonment, time limits were set instead.
The prison in Ancient Athens was known as the desmoterion, the Romans were among the first to use prisons as a form of punishment, rather than simply for detention. A variety of existing structures were used to house prisoners, such as cages, basements of public buildings. One of the most notable Roman prisons was the Mamertine Prison, the Mamertine Prison was located within a sewer system beneath ancient Rome and contained a large network of dungeons where prisoners were held in squalid conditions, contaminated with human waste. Forced labor on public projects was a common form of punishment. In many cases, citizens were sentenced to slavery, often in ergastula, during the Middle Ages in Europe, castles and the basements of public buildings were often used as makeshift prisons. Another common punishment was sentencing people to slavery, which involved chaining prisoners together in the bottoms of ships. However, the concept of the modern prison largely remained unknown until the early 19th-century, Punishment usually consisted of physical forms of punishment, including capital punishment, flagellation and non-physical punishments, such as public shaming rituals.
However, an important innovation at the time was the Bridewell House of Corrections, located at Bridewell Palace in London and these houses held mostly petty offenders and the disorderly local poor. In these facilities, inmates were given jobs, and through prison labor they were taught how to work for a living, by the end of the 17th century, houses of correction were absorbed into local prison facilities under the control of the local justice of the peace. From the late 17th century and during the 18th century, popular resistance to public execution, rulers began looking for means to punish and control their subjects in a way that did not cause people to associate them with spectacles of tyrannical and sadistic violence. They developed systems of mass incarceration, often with hard labor, the prison reform movement that arose at this time was heavily influenced by two somewhat contradictory philosophies
Victimology is, not restricted to the study of victims of crime alone but may include other forms of human rights violations. In criminology and criminal law, a victim of a crime is a person who has been harmed individually and directly by the perpetrator. However, this may not always be the case, as victims of white collar crime. Victims of white collar crime are often denied their status as victims by the construction of the concept. The concept remains a topic within womens studies. Emotional distress as the result of crime is a theme for all victims of crime. The most common problems, affecting three quarters of victims, were problems, fear, nervousness, self-blame, shame. These problems often result in the development of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, post crime distress is linked to pre-existing emotional problems and sociodemographic variables. This has been known to become a case of the elderly to be more adversely affected. Victims may experience the psychological reactions, Increase in the realization of personal vulnerability.
The perception of the world as meaningless and incomprehensible, the view of themselves in a negative light. The experience of victimization may result in increasing fear on the part of the victim, the environmental theory posits that the location and context of the crime bring the victim of the crime and its perpetrator together. Studies in the early 2010s showed that crimes are negatively correlated to trees in urban environments and this relationship was established by studies in 2010 in Portland, Oregon and in 2012 in Baltimore, Maryland. Geoffrey Donovan of the United States Forest Service, one of the researchers, trees, which provide a range of other benefits, could improve quality of life in Portland by reducing crime. Because We believe that large trees can reduce crime by signaling to a potential criminal that a neighborhood is better cared for and, therefore. Note that the presence of street trees especially indicated a reduction in crime. We found that the relationship continued in both contexts, but the magnitude was 40% greater for public than for private lands.
There have been some studies recently to quantify the real existence of victim-proneness, contrary to the popular belief that more women are repeat victims, and thus more victim-prone than men, actually men in their prime are more likely to be victims of repeated crimes