The Tracks of My Tears
"The Tracks of My Tears" is a song written by Smokey Robinson, Pete Moore, Marv Tarplin. It is a multiple award-winning 1965 hit R&B song recorded by their group, The Miracles, on Motown's Tamla label. In 1967, Johnny Rivers covered the song and his version was a number 10 hit on the Billboard Hot 100. Linda Ronstadt recorded a hit cover of her own in 1975. Numerous other artists have recorded the song over the years. "The Tracks of My Tears" was written by Miracles members Smokey Robinson, Pete Moore, Marv Tarplin. In the five-LP publication The Motown Story, by Motown Records, Robinson explained the origin of this song in these words: "'Tracks of My Tears' was started by Marv Tarplin, a young cat who plays guitar for our act. So he had this musical thing, you know, we worked around with it, worked around, it became'Tracks of My Tears'." Tarplin's guitar licks at the song's intro are among the most famous in pop music history."The Tracks of My Tears" was a number 2 hit on the Billboard R&B chart, it reached number 16 on the Billboard Hot 100.
Belatedly released in the UK in 1969, it became a Top Ten hit that summer, reaching number 9. This song is considered to be among the finest recordings of The Miracles, it sold over one million records within two years, making it The Miracles' fourth million-selling record; the Miracles can be seen performing "The Tracks of My Tears" on their 2006 Motown DVD release, The Miracles' Definitive Performances. The Miracles' recording of "The Tracks of My Tears" ranked at #50 on Rolling Stone's The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time in 2004. On May 14, 2008, the track was preserved by the United States Library of Congress as an "culturally and aesthetically significance" to the National Recording Registry; the song "The Tracks of My Tears" was awarded "The Award Of Merit" from The American Society of Composers, Authors,and Publishers for Miracles members/composers Pete Moore, Marv Tarplin, Smokey Robinson. Ranked by the RIAA and the National Endowment for the Arts at number 127 in its list of the Songs of the Century - the 365 Greatest Songs of the 20th Century - "The Tracks of My Tears" was chosen as one of The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs that Shaped Rock and Roll.
Additionally the song ranked at number 5 of the "Top 10 Best Songs of All Time" by a panel of 20 top industry songwriters and producers including Hal David, Paul McCartney, Brian Wilson, Jerry Leiber, others as reported to Britain's Mojo music magazine.and Rolling Stone Magazine chose it as # 50 in it's list of "The 500 Greatest Songs of All Time". Smokey Robinson - lead vocals, co-writer Marv Tarplin - guitar,co-writer Claudette Rogers Robinson - background vocals Pete Moore - background vocals, vocal arranger, co-writer Ronnie White - background vocals Bobby Rogers - background vocals Other instrumentation by The Funk Brothers and the Detroit Symphony Orchestra In 1975, Linda Ronstadt recorded a cover version of "The Tracks of My Tears" for her studio album Prisoner in Disguise that became a pop Top 40 hit in the US; the single was issued on Asylum Records as that album's second single. Ronstadt's version of the song was a success peaking at number 25 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, reaching number 11 on the Billboard C&W chart in tandem with its B-side: the Emmylou Harris duet "The Sweetest Gift", number 42 in 1976 on the UK Singles Chart.
Conversely, Ronstadt would score one of her biggest hits with her 1978 single "Ooh Baby Baby", a remake of the Miracles' hit single release precedent to "The Tracks of My Tears". Ronstadt and Smokey Robinson performed both "The Tracks of My Tears" and "Ooh Baby Baby" on the Motown 25: Yesterday, Forever special broadcast on May 16, 1983. In 1967, "The Tracks of My Tears" was covered by Johnny Rivers, his version of the song reached number 10 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart. Aretha Franklin recorded the song for her Soul'69 album from which it was issued as a single although as the B-side. Franklin's version of "The Weight", became the favored track with "Tracks of My Tears" peaking at number 76 Pop and number 21 R&B. In 1993, Go West reached number 16 in the UK Singles Chart with "Tracks of My Tears". A 1982 version by Colin Blunstone reached number 60 in the UK Singles Chart. In 2000, American singer Pru sampled "The Track of My Tears" for her single "Candles", released from her self-titled debut album.
The lyrics and instrumental for "Candles" were directly inspired by The Miracles' single. Coryton, Demitri. Hits Of The Sixties: The Million Sellers. P. 131. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics See The Miracles perform the song on YouTube
Lowell Thomas George was an American songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, record producer, the primary guitarist and songwriter for the rock band Little Feat. Lowell George was born in Hollywood, the son of Willard H. George, a furrier who raised chinchillas and supplied furs to the movie studios. George's first instrument was the harmonica. At the age of six he appeared on Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour performing a duet with his older brother, Hampton; as a student at Hollywood High School, he took up the flute in the school marching band and orchestra. He had started to play Hampton's acoustic guitar at age 11, progressed to the electric guitar by his high school years, learned to play the saxophone and sitar. During this period, George viewed the teen idol-oriented rock and roll of the era with contempt, instead favoring West Coast jazz and the soul jazz of Les McCann and Mose Allison. Following graduation in 1963, he worked at a gas station to support himself while studying art and art history at Los Angeles Valley College for two years.
Funded by the sale of his grandfather's stock, George's first band The Factory formed in 1965 and released at least one single on the Uni Records label, "Smile, Let Your Life Begin". Members included future Little Feat drummer Richie Hayward, Martin Kibbee who would co-write several Little Feat songs with George, Warren Klein on guitar. Frank Zappa produced two tracks for the band, but they were not released until 1993 on the album Lightning-Rod Man, credited to Lowell George and The Factory; the band made an appearance on the 1960s sitcom F Troop as "The Bedbugs". They were featured in an episode of Gomer Pyle, U. S. M. C. "Lost, the Colonel's Daughter". They appeared in the scene with their music heard playing loudly, they received credits at the end of the episode as "'The Factory' Lowell-Warren-Martin-Rich, Courtesy of Universal Records". Following the disbanding of The Factory, George joined The Standells. In November 1968, George joined Zappa's Mothers of Invention as rhythm guitarist and nominal lead vocalist.
During this period, he absorbed Zappa's autocratic leadership style and avant garde-influenced conceptual/procedural-oriented compositional methods. He earned his first production credit on Permanent Damage, an album recorded by "groupie group" The GTOs. George asserted that "he performed no real function in the band" and left the group in May 1969 under nebulous circumstances. GTOs member Pamela Des Barres has claimed that George was fired by the abstemious Zappa for smoking marijuana, while he claimed at a 1975 Little Feat concert that he was fired because he "wrote a song about dope." On the other hand, biographer Mark Brend asserts that Zappa "liked the song" but "thought there was no place for it in the Mothers' set". George claimed to have played uncredited guitar on Hot Rats. After leaving the Mothers of Invention, George invited fellow musicians former Zappa bassist Roy Estrada, keyboardist Bill Payne and drummer Richie Hayward to form a new band, which they named Little Feat. George played lead guitar and focused on slide guitar, but Ry Cooder played the slide on "Willin'" on the debut Little Feat album after George badly injured his hand while working on a powered model airplane, although George rerecorded some of his material and he played the rest of the slide work on the album.
Mark Brend wrote that George's "use of compression defined his sound and gave him the means to play his extended melodic lines." George began his slide playing using the casing of Roebuck and Co.. 11/16ths spark plug socket wrench, rather than the traditional steel finger tube. Little Feat signed to Warner Bros. Records through Zappa's efforts and their first album was Little Feat, produced by Russ Titelman, but it was not a commercial success and only sold 11,000 copies on initial release; the follow-up album Sailin' Shoes, produced by Ted Templeman, was the band's first record to feature cover artwork by Neon Park, but despite good reviews and an improvement on its predecessor, the album fared no better commercially. Estrada left the band in 1972 to join Captain Beefheart's Magic Band as well as to get away from the pollution in Los Angeles and he was replaced on bass by Kenny Gradney. In addition, Little Feat expanded to a sextet by adding a second guitarist Paul Barrere and percussionist Sam Clayton, thus cementing the classic line-up, they took on a New Orleans funk direction with their next album Dixie Chicken, the first to be produced by George.
By the spring of 1976, Little Feat were touring North America opening for The. Little Feat released several other studio albums in the 1970s, including: Feats Don't Fail Me Now, The Last Record Album, Time Loves a Hero; the group's 1978 live album Waiting for Columbus became their best-selling album. Tensions within the group between George and Payne and, to a lesser extent, Barrère, regarding musical direction and leadership led to Payne and Barrère's departure from the group in 1979 and the group's
I Will Always Love You
"I Will Always Love You" is a song written and recorded in 1973 by American singer-songwriter Dolly Parton. Her country version of the track was released in 1974 as a single and was written as a farewell to her one-time partner and mentor of seven years, Porter Wagoner, following Parton's decision to pursue a solo career. Parton's version of "I Will Always Love You" was a commercial success, it reached. It first reached number one in June 1974, in October 1982, with her re-recording on the soundtrack of the movie version of The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas. Thus, she achieved the number one position twice with the same song, a rare feat that Chubby Checker had done with "The Twist" becoming number one in 1960 and again in 1962. Whitney Houston recorded her version of the song for the 1992 film The Bodyguard, her single spent 14 weeks at number one on the Billboard Hot 100 chart making it one of the best-selling singles of all time. It holds the record for being the best-selling single by a woman in music history.
Houston's version of "I Will Always Love You" re-entered the charts in 2012 after her death, making it the second single to reach the top three on the Billboard Hot 100 in separate chart runs. The song has been recorded by many other artists including John Doe and LeAnn Rimes. Country music singer-songwriter Dolly Parton wrote the song in 1973 for her one-time partner and mentor Porter Wagoner, from whom she was separating professionally after a seven-year partnership, she recorded it in RCA's Studio B in Nashville on June 13, 1973. "I Will Always Love You" was issued on June 6, 1974, as the second single from Parton's thirteenth solo studio album, Jolene. In 1982, Parton re-recorded the song, when it was included on the soundtrack to the film The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas. In addition to the 1982 re-recording for the soundtrack album, Parton's original 1974 recording of the song appeared in Martin Scorsese's film Alice Doesn't Live Here Anymore, the 1996 film It's My Party; the song won Parton Female Vocalist of the Year at the 1975 CMA Awards.
Author Curtis W. Ellison stated that the song "speaks about the breakup of a relationship between a man and a woman that does not descend into unremitting domestic turmoil, but instead envisions parting with respect – because of the initiative of the woman". According to sheet music published at musicnotes.com by Hal Leonard Corporation, the country love track is set in a time signature of common time with a tempo of 66 beats per minute. Although Parton found much success with the song, many people are unaware of its origin. During an interview on the The Bobby Bones Show, Dolly Parton revealed that she wrote her signature song "Jolene" on the same day that she wrote "I Will Always Love You."Several times, Dolly Parton suggested to singer Patti Labelle that she record "I Will Always Love You" because she felt Patti could have sung it so well. However, Patti admitted she kept putting off the opportunity to do so and deeply regretted it after she heard Whitney Houston's rendition. During its original release in 1974, "I Will Always Love You" reached number four in Canada on the Canadian RPM Country Tracks chart and peaked at number one on the Billboard Hot Country Songs chart, becoming one of the best selling singles of 1974.
When Parton re-recorded the song in 1982 for the soundtrack of the film The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas, the track was issued as a single and once again charted at number one on Hot Country Songs — making her the first artist to earn a number one record twice with the same song. The 1982 version reached #53 on Billboard's Hot 100 and #17 on its adult contemporary charts. After recording a duet with Vince Gill in 1995 for the album Something Special, the duet version of "I Will Always Love You" made the Billboard country chart and peaked at number 15. Parton and Gill were awarded the CMA's "Vocal Event of the Year" award in 1996 for their recording of the song. Another duet version of the song was released in 2017 with Michael Bolton from his album Songs of Cinema; when the 1974 recording of the song was reaching number one on the country charts, Elvis Presley indicated that he wanted to cover the song. Parton was interested until Presley's manager, Colonel Tom Parker, told her that it was standard procedure for the songwriter to sign over half of the publishing rights to any song Elvis recorded.
Parton refused. She recalls:I said,'I'm sorry,' and I cried all night. I mean, it was like the worst thing. You know, it's like, Oh, my God … Elvis Presley.' And other people were saying,'You're nuts. It's Elvis Presley.'... I said,'I can't do that. Something in my heart says, `, and I just didn't do it... He would have killed it, but anyway, so he didn't. When Whitney came out, I made enough money to buy Graceland. In Curtis W. Ellison's book, Country Music Culture: From Hard Times to Heaven, he stated: "In the early 1990s, when ambiguity in romantic relationships accompanies changing expectations for both men and women, this song demonstrates Dolly Parton's appeal as a songwriter in the pop music market." Ken Knight, author of The Midnight Show: Late Night Cable-TV "Guy-Flicks" of the'80s, commented that Parton is the only singer who can sing "I Will Always Love You" and "make it memorable". Writer Paul Simpson criticized the singer, stating that the track was only written to "soften the blow" of Parton and Wagoner's split.
7" vinyl"I Will Always Love You" – 2:53 "L
Dolly Rebecca Parton is an American singer, multi-instrumentalist, record producer, author and philanthropist, known for her work in country music. After achieving success as a songwriter for others, Parton made her album debut in 1967 with Hello, I'm Dolly. With steady success during the remainder of the 1960s, her sales and chart peak came during the 1970s and continued into the 1980s. Parton's albums in the 1990s sold less well, but she achieved commercial success again in the new millennium and has released albums on various independent labels since 2000, including her own label, Dolly Records. Parton's music includes 25 Recording Industry Association of America -certified gold and multi-platinum awards, she has had 25 songs reach No. 1 on the Billboard country music charts, a record for a female artist. She has 41 career top-10 country albums, a record for any artist, she has 110 career charted singles over the past 40 years, she has garnered nine Grammy Awards, two Academy Award nominations, ten Country Music Association Awards, seven Academy of Country Music Awards, three American Music Awards, is one of only seven female artists to win the Country Music Association's Entertainer of the Year Award.
Parton has received 47 Grammy nominations. In 1999, Parton was inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame, she has composed over 3,000 songs, including "I Will Always Love You", "Jolene", "Coat of Many Colors", "9 to 5". She is one of the few to have received at least one nomination from the Academy Awards, Grammy Awards, Tony Awards, Emmy Awards; as an actress, she has starred in films such as 9 to 5 and The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas, for which she earned Golden Globe nominations for Best Actress, as well as Rhinestone, Steel Magnolias, Straight Talk and Joyful Noise. Dolly Rebecca Parton was born January 19, 1946, in a one-room cabin on the banks of the Little Pigeon River in Pittman Center, Tennessee, a small community in Sevier County in the Great Smoky Mountains of East Tennessee, she is the fourth of 12 children born to Avie Lee Caroline and Robert Lee Parton Sr.. Mr. Parton worked in the mountains of east Tennessee, first as a sharecropper and tending his own small farm and acreage.
He worked temporary side jobs to make ends meet. He write. Despite his lack of formal education, Parton has said that he was one of the smartest people she has known. Avie Lee was homemaker for the large family, her 11 pregnancies in 20 years made her a mother of 12 by age 35. In poor health, she still managed to keep house and entertain her children with songs and tales of mountain folklore. Avie Lee's father, Jake Owens, was a Pentecostal preacher, so Parton and her siblings all attended church regularly. Parton has long credited her father for her business savvy, her mother's family for her musical abilities. While she was still young, Dolly Parton's family moved to a farm on nearby Locust Ridge. Most of her cherished memories of youth happened there, it is the place about which she wrote the song "My Tennessee Mountain Home" in the 1970s. Parton bought back the Locust Ridge property in the 1980s. Two of her siblings are no longer living. Dolly Parton's middle name comes from her maternal great-great-grandmother Rebecca Whitted.
She has described her family as "dirt poor." Parton's father paid the doctor. She outlined her family's poverty in her early songs "Coat of Many Colors" and "In the Good Old Days", they lived in a rustic, one-room cabin in Locust Ridge, just north of the Greenbrier Valley of the Great Smoky Mountains, a predominantly Pentecostal area. Music played an important role in her early life, she was brought up in the Church of the church her grandfather, Jake Robert Owens, pastored. Her earliest public performances were beginning at age six. At seven, she started playing a homemade guitar; when she was eight, her uncle bought her first real guitar. Parton began performing as a child, singing on local radio and television programs in the East Tennessee area. By ten, she was appearing on The Cas Walker Show on both WIVK Radio and WBIR-TV in Knoxville, Tennessee. At 13, she was recording on a small Louisiana label, Goldband Records, appeared at the Grand Ole Opry, where she first met Johnny Cash, who encouraged her to follow her own instincts regarding her career.
After graduating from Sevier County High School in 1964, Parton moved to Nashville the next day. Her initial success came as a songwriter, having signed with Combine Publishing shortly after her arrival, her songs were recorded by many other artists during this period, including Kitty Wells and Hank Williams Jr. She signed with Monument Records in 1965, at age 19, she released a string of singles, but the only one that charted, "Happy, Happy Birthday Baby", did not crack the Billboard Hot 100. Although she expressed a desire to record country material, Monument resisted, thinking her unique voice with its strong vibrato was not suited to the genre
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s. It takes its roots from genres such as folk blues. Country music consists of ballads and dance tunes with simple forms, folk lyrics, harmonies accompanied by string instruments such as banjos and acoustic guitars, steel guitars, fiddles as well as harmonicas. Blues modes have been used extensively throughout its recorded history. According to Lindsey Starnes, the term country music gained popularity in the 1940s in preference to the earlier term hillbilly music. In 2009 in the United States, country music was the most listened to rush hour radio genre during the evening commute, second most popular in the morning commute; the term country music is used today to describe many subgenres. The origins of country music are found in the folk music of working class Americans, who blended popular songs and Celtic fiddle tunes, traditional English ballads, cowboy songs, the musical traditions of various groups of European immigrants.
Immigrants to the southern Appalachian Mountains of eastern North America brought the music and instruments of Europe along with them for nearly 300 years. Country music was "introduced to the world as a Southern phenomenon." The U. S. Congress has formally recognized Bristol, Tennessee as the "Birthplace of Country Music", based on the historic Bristol recording sessions of 1927. Since 2014, the city has been home to the Birthplace of Country Music Museum. Historians have noted the influence of the less-known Johnson City sessions of 1928 and 1929, the Knoxville sessions of 1929 and 1930. In addition, the Mountain City Fiddlers Convention, held in 1925, helped to inspire modern country music. Before these, pioneer settlers, in the Great Smoky Mountains region, had developed a rich musical heritage; the first generation emerged in the early 1920s, with Atlanta's music scene playing a major role in launching country's earliest recording artists. New York City record label Okeh Records began issuing hillbilly music records by Fiddlin' John Carson as early as 1923, followed by Columbia Records in 1924, RCA Victor Records in 1927 with the first famous pioneers of the genre Jimmie Rodgers and the first family of country music The Carter Family.
Many "hillbilly" musicians, such as Cliff Carlisle, recorded blues songs throughout the 1920s. During the second generation, radio became a popular source of entertainment, "barn dance" shows featuring country music were started all over the South, as far north as Chicago, as far west as California; the most important was the Grand Ole Opry, aired starting in 1925 by WSM in Nashville and continuing to the present day. During the 1930s and 1940s, cowboy songs, or Western music, recorded since the 1920s, were popularized by films made in Hollywood. Bob Wills was another country musician from the Lower Great Plains who had become popular as the leader of a "hot string band," and who appeared in Hollywood westerns, his mix of country and jazz, which started out as dance hall music, would become known as Western swing. Wills was one of the first country musicians known to have added an electric guitar to his band, in 1938. Country musicians began recording boogie in 1939, shortly after it had been played at Carnegie Hall, when Johnny Barfield recorded "Boogie Woogie".
The third generation started at the end of World War II with "mountaineer" string band music known as bluegrass, which emerged when Bill Monroe, along with Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs were introduced by Roy Acuff at the Grand Ole Opry. Gospel music remained a popular component of country music. Another type of stripped-down and raw music with a variety of moods and a basic ensemble of guitar, dobro or steel guitar became popular among poor whites in Texas and Oklahoma, it became known as honky tonk, had its roots in Western swing and the ranchera music of Mexico and the border states. By the early 1950s a blend of Western swing, country boogie, honky tonk was played by most country bands. Rockabilly was most popular with country fans in the 1950s, 1956 could be called the year of rockabilly in country music, with Johnny Cash emerging as one of the most popular and enduring representatives of the rockabilly genre. Beginning in the mid-1950s, reaching its peak during the early 1960s, the Nashville sound turned country music into a multimillion-dollar industry centered in Nashville, Tennessee.
The late 1960s in American music produced a unique blend as a result of traditionalist backlash within separate genres. In the aftermath of the British Invasion, many desired a return to the "old values" of rock n' roll. At the same time there was a lack of enthusiasm in the country sector for Nashville-produced music. What resulted was a crossbred genre known as country rock. Fourth generation music included outlaw country with roots in the Bakersfield sound, country pop with roots in the countrypolitan, folk music and soft rock. Between 1972 and 1975 singer/guitarist John Denver released a se
In music, an arrangement is a musical reconceptualization of a composed work. It may differ from the original work by means of reharmonization, melodic paraphrasing, orchestration, or development of the formal structure. Arranging differs from orchestration in that the latter process is limited to the assignment of notes to instruments for performance by an orchestra, concert band, or other musical ensemble. Arranging "involves adding compositional techniques, such as new thematic material for introductions, transitions, or modulations, endings.... Arranging is the art of giving an existing melody musical variety". Arrangement and transcriptions of classical and serious music go back to the early history of this genre. In particular, music written for the piano has undergone this treatment. Pictures at an Exhibition, a suite of ten piano pieces by Modest Mussorgsky, has been arranged over twenty times, notably by Maurice Ravel. Due to his lack of expertise in orchestration, the American composer George Gershwin had his Rhapsody in Blue orchestrated and arranged by Ferde Grofé.
Popular music recordings include parts for brass and other instruments that were added by arrangers and not composed by the original songwriters. Popular music arrangements may be considered to include new releases of existing songs with a new musical treatment; these changes can include alterations to tempo, key and other musical elements. Well-known examples include Joe Cocker's version of the Beatles' "With a Little Help from My Friends," Cream's "Crossroads", Ike and Tina Turner's version of Creedence Clearwater Revival's "Proud Mary"; the American group Vanilla Fudge and British group Yes based their early careers on radical re-arrangements of contemporary hits. Bonnie Pointer performed disco and Motown-themed versions of "Heaven Must Have Sent You." Remixes, such as in dance music, can be considered arrangements. Though arrangers may contribute to finished musical products, they hold no legal claim to their work for the purpose of copyright and royalty payments. Arrangements for small jazz combos are informal and uncredited.
Larger ensembles have had greater requirements for notated arrangements, though the early Count Basie big band is known for its many head arrangements, so called because they were worked out by the players themselves and never written down. Most arrangements for big bands, were written down and credited to a specific arranger, as with arrangements by Sammy Nestico and Neal Hefti for Count Basie's big bands. Don Redman made innovations in jazz arranging as a part of Fletcher Henderson's orchestra in the 1920s. Redman's arrangements introduced a more intricate melodic presentation and soli performances for various sections of the big band. Benny Carter became Henderson's primary arranger in the early 1930s, becoming known for his arranging abilities in addition to his previous recognition as a performer. Beginning in 1938, Billy Strayhorn became an arranger of great renown for the Duke Ellington orchestra. Jelly Roll Morton is sometimes considered the earliest jazz arranger. While he toured around the years 1912 to 1915, he wrote down parts to enable "pickup bands" to perform his compositions.
Big-band arrangements are informally called charts. In the swing era they were either arrangements of popular songs or they were new compositions. Duke Ellington's and Billy Strayhorn's arrangements for the Duke Ellington big band were new compositions, some of Eddie Sauter's arrangements for the Benny Goodman band and Artie Shaw's arrangements for his own band were new compositions as well, it became more common to arrange sketchy jazz combo compositions for big band after the bop era. After 1950, the big bands declined in number. However, several bands continued and arrangers provided renowned arrangements. Gil Evans wrote a number of large-ensemble arrangements in the late 1950s and early 1960s intended for recording sessions only. Other arrangers of note include Vic Schoen, Pete Rugolo, Oliver Nelson, Johnny Richards, Billy May, Thad Jones, Maria Schneider, Bob Brookmeyer, Lou Marini, Nelson Riddle, Ralph Burns, Billy Byers, Gordon Jenkins, Ray Conniff, Henry Mancini, Ray Reach, Vince Mendoza, Claus Ogerman.
In the 21st century, the big-band arrangement has made a modest comeback. Gordon Goodwin, Roy Hargrove, Christian McBride have all rolled out new big bands with both original compositions and new arrangements of standard tunes; the string section is a body of instruments composed of various stringed instruments. By the 19th century orchestral music in Europe had standardized the string section into the following homogeneous instrumental groups: first violins, second violins, violas and double basses; the string section in a multi-sectioned orchestra is referred sometimes to as the "string choir."The harp is a stringed instrument, but is not a member of nor homogeneous with the violin family and is not considered part of the string choir. Samuel Adler classifies the harp as a plucked string instrument in the same category as the guitar, banjo, or zither. Like the harp these instruments do not belong to the violin family and are not homogeneous with the string choir. In modern arranging these instruments are considered part of the rhythm section.
The electric bass and upright string bass—depending on the circumstance—can be treated by the arranger as either string section or rhythm section instruments. A group of instruments in which each member plays a unique part—rather than playing in u