Artha is one of the four aims of human life in Indian philosophy. The word artha translates as "meaning, goal, purpose or essence" depending on the context. Artha is a broader concept in the scriptures of Hinduism; as a concept, it has multiple meanings, all of which imply "means of life", activities and resources that enable one to be in a state one wants to be in. Artha applies to a government. In an individual's context, artha includes wealth, activity to make a living, financial security and economic prosperity; the proper pursuit of artha is considered an important aim of human life in Hinduism. At government level, artha includes social, legal and worldly affairs. Proper Arthashastra is considered an necessary objective of government. In Hindu traditions, Artha is connected to the three other aspects and goals of human life: Dharma and Moksha. Together, these mutually non-exclusive four aims of life are called Puruṣārtha. Artha as a concept includes multiple meanings, it is difficult to capture the meaning of artha, or related terms of dharma and moksha, each in a single English word.
John Lochtefeld describes artha as the means of life, includes material prosperity. Karl Potter explains it as an attitude and capability that enables one to make a living, to remain alive, to thrive as a free person, it includes economic prosperity and health of oneself and those one feels responsible for. Artha includes everything in one's environment, it is neither an end state nor an endless goal of aimlessly amassing money, claims Karl Potter, rather it is an attitude and necessary requirement of human life. John Koller takes a different viewpoint than Karl Potter's interpretation. John Koller suggests. A central premise of Hindu philosophy, claims Koller, is that every person should live a joyous and pleasurable life, that such fulfilling life requires every person's needs and desires be acknowledged and fulfilled, that needs can only be satisfied through activity and when sufficient means for those activities are available. Artha is best described as pursuit of activities and means necessary for a joyous and pleasurable life.
Daya Krishna argues that artha, as well as the concept of Puruṣārthas, is a myth. The various schools and ancient Sanskrit texts provide no consensus opinion, notes Krishna, rather they present a debate, a diversity of views on what artha and Puruṣārtha means. Inconsistencies and conflicting verses are present within the same script, such as the Manusmriti; some ancient Indian texts suggest. Some of this, suggests Krishna, reflects differences in human needs. Conjectures Krishna, artha is just a subset of kama and karma. Vatsyayana in Kama Sutra defines artha as the acquisition of arts, cattle, wealth and friends, he explains, artha is protection of what is acquired, the increase of what is protected. Gavin Flood explains artha as "worldly success" without violating dharma and one's journey towards moksha. Flood clarifies that artha in ancient Hindu literature, as well as purushartha, is better understood as a goal of Man. In other words, it is one of the four purposes of human life; the survival and the thriving of humans requires artha - that is, economic activity and its creation, worldly success, political success and all, necessary for human existence.
The word Artha appears in the oldest known scriptures of India. However, the term connotes'purpose', goal or'aim' of something as purpose of ritual sacrifices. Over time, artha evolves into a broader concept in the Upanishadic era, it is first included as part of Trivarga concept, which over time expanded into the concept Caturvarga. Caturvarga is referred to as Puruṣārtha; the Mimamsa school of Hinduism explained artha and kama by contrasting Puruṣārtha and Kratvartha. Puruṣārtha is human purpose of a yajna, they recognized and explained all human actions have two effects: first, every act affects itself regardless of actors involved. Jaimini explained in 3rd century BC, that this human meaning cannot be separated from the human goal; the phala of a sacrifice is implicit in the artha of the sacrifice. Mimamsa school argued that man is for the purpose of actions demanded by Vedic injunctions, such subordination of man to rituals allows man to reach heaven. Other schools of Hinduism, such as Yoga and Vedanta schools, disagreed with Mimamsa school.
They argued, not ends. Their emphasis shifted from rituals to effort and knowledge, from heaven to moksha, from freedom after life to freedom in this life, from human being as a cog in cosmic wheel to human being as an end in himself. For example, Aitareya Aranyaka recites: Thereafter came a flowering of the Shastraic literature on Artha and other aims of human beings: of dharma in Dharmashastras, of artha in Arthashastras, of kama in Kamashastras. Different schools of Hinduism offer different perspectives on artha, just like dharma, karma a
Hindu mythology are narratives found in Hindu texts such as the Vedic literature, epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, the regional literatures like Periya Puranam. Hindu mythology is found in translated popular texts such as the Panchatantra and Hitopadesha, as well as Southeast Asian texts. Hindu mythology does not have a consistent, monolithic structure; the same myth appears in various versions, can be represented differently across socio-religious traditions. These myths have been noted to have been modified by various philosophical schools over time and in the Hindu tradition; these myths are taken to have deeper symbolic and have been given a complex range of interpretations. The Hindu Epic literature is found in genre of Hindu texts such as: Vedic literature Epics Puranas VedasMany of these legends evolve across these texts, the character names change or the story is embellished with greater details, yet the central message and moral values remain the same. According to Wendy Doniger, Every Hindu epic is different.
Each Hindu epic celebrates the belief that the universe is boundlessly various, that everything occurs that all possibilities may exist without excluding the other. There is no single basic version of a Hindu epic. Great epics are richly elusive. Moreover, epics are living organisms. Hindu epic shares human values found in epic everywhere. However, the particular details vary and its diversity is immense, according to Doniger; the Hindu legends embed the Indian thought about the nature of existence, the human condition and its aspirations through an interwoven contrast of characters, the good against the evil, the honest against the dishonest, the dharma-bound lover against the anti-dharma bully, the gentle and compassionate against the cruel and greedy. In these epics, everything is impermanent including matter and peace. Magic and miracles thrive, gods are defeated and fear for their existence, triggering wars or debates. Death threatens and re-threatens life, while life finds a way to creatively re-emerge thus conquering death.
Eros persistently prevails over chaos. The Hindu epics integrate in a wide range of subjects, they include stories about how and why cosmos originated and why humans or all life forms originated along with each's strengths and weaknesses, how gods originated along with each's strengths and weaknesses, the battle between good gods and bad demons, human values and how humans can live together, resolve any disagreements, healthy goals in stages of life and the different ways in which each individual can live, the meaning of all existence and means of personal liberation as well as legends about what causes suffering and the end of time with a restart of a new cycle. A significant collection of Vaishnavism traditional reincarnations includes those related to the avatars of Vishnu; the ten most common of these include: Matsya: It narrates a great flood, similar to one found in many ancient cultures. The savior here is the Matsya; the earliest accounts of Matsya mythology are found in the Vedic literature, which equate the fish saviour to the deity Prajapati.
The fish-savior merges with the identity of Brahma in post-Vedic era, still as an avatar of Vishnu. The legends associated with Matsya expand and vary in Hindu texts; these legends have embedded symbolism, where a small fish with Manu's protection grows to become a big fish, the fish saves earthly existence. Kurma: The earliest account of Kurma is found in the Shatapatha Brahmana, where he is a form of Prajapati-Brahma and helps with the samudra manthan. In the Epics and the Puranas, the legend expands and evolves into many versions, with Kurma becoming an avatar of Vishnu, he appears in the form of a tortoise or turtle to support the foundation for the cosmos and the cosmic churning stick. Varaha: The earliest versions of the Varaha or boar legend are found in the Taittiriya Aranyaka and the Shatapatha Brahmana, both Vedic texts, they narrate. The earth was trapped in it; the god Prajapati in the form of a boar brings the earth out. In post-Vedic literature the Puranas, the boar mythology is reformulated through an avatar of god Vishnu and an evil demon named Hiranyaksha who persecutes people and kidnaps goddess earth.
Varaha-Vishnu kills the demon and rescues earth. Narasimha: The Narasimha mythology is about the man-lion avatar of Vishnu, he destroys an evil king, ends religious persecution and calamity on Earth, saves his devotee from the suffering caused by torments and punishments for pursuing his religious beliefs, thereby Vishnu restores the Dharma. Vamana Parashurama Rama Krishna Balarama Kalki Dowson, John. A Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology and Religion, Geography and Literature. Trubner & Co. London. Buitenen, J. A. B. van. Classical Hindu mythology: a reader in the Sanskrit Puranas. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. ISBN 0-87722-122-7. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Campbell, Joseph. Myths of light: Eastern Metaphors of the Eternal. Novato, California: New World Library. ISBN 1-57731
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
Prithvi or Prithvi Mata "the Vast One" is the Sanskrit name for the earth as well as the name of a devi in Hinduism and some branches of Buddhism. She is known as Bhūmi, she is Dyaus Pita both. As Pṛthvī Mātā she is complementary to Dyaus Pita. In the Rigveda and Sky are addressed in the dual as Dyavapṛthivi, she is associated with the cow. Prithu, an incarnation of Viṣṇu, milked her in cow's form, she is a national personification in Indonesia. In Buddhist texts and visual representations, Pṛthvī is described as both protecting Gautama Buddha and as being his witness for his enlightenment. Prithvi appears in Early Buddhism in the Pāli Canon, dispelling the temptation figure Mara by attesting to Gautama Buddha's worthiness to attain enlightenment; the Buddha is depicted performing the bhūmisparśa or "earth-touching" mudrā as a symbolic invocation of the goddess. The Pṛthvī Sūkta is a hymn of the Atharvaveda. Vasudhara Phra Mae Thorani Doniger O'Flaherty, Wendy, ed.. The Rig Veda: An Anthology: One Hundred and Eight Hymns.
Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780140449891. Shaw, Miranda Eberle. Buddhist Goddesses of India. Princeton University Press. P. 27. ISBN 978-0-691-12758-3. Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend by Anna Dallapiccola Hindu Goddesses: Vision of the Divine Feminine in the Hindu Religious Traditions by David Kinsley
An avatar, a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", refers to the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth. The relative verb to "alight, to make one's appearance" is sometimes used to refer to any guru or revered human being; the word avatar does not appear in the Vedic literature, but appears in verb forms in post-Vedic literature, as a noun in the Puranic literature after the 6th century CE. Despite that, the concept of an avatar is compatible with the content of the Vedic literature like the Upanishads as it is symbolic imagery of the Saguna Brahman concept in the philosophy of Hinduism; the Rigveda describes Indra as endowed with a mysterious power of assuming any form at will. The Bhagavad Gita expounds the doctrine of Avatara but with terms other than avatar. Theologically, the term is most associated with the Hindu god Vishnu, though the idea has been applied to other deities. Varying lists of avatars of Vishnu appear in Hindu scriptures, including the ten Dashavatara of the Garuda Purana and the twenty-two avatars in the Bhagavata Purana, though the latter adds that the incarnations of Vishnu are innumerable.
The avatars of Vishnu are important in Vaishnavism theology. In the goddess-based Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, avatars of the Devi in different appearances such as Tripura Sundari and Kali are found. While avatars of other deities such as Ganesha and Shiva are mentioned in medieval Hindu texts, this is minor and occasional; the incarnation doctrine is one of the important differences between Vaishnavism and Shaivism traditions of Hinduism. Incarnation concepts similar to avatar are found in Buddhism and other religions; the scriptures of Sikhism include the names of numerous Hindu gods and goddesses, but it rejected the doctrine of savior incarnation and endorsed the view of Hindu Bhakti movement saints such as Namdev that formless eternal god is within the human heart and man is his own savior. The Sanskrit noun is derived from the Sanskrit roots ava and tṛ; these roots trace back, states Monier-Williams, to -taritum, -tarati, -rītum. Avatar means "descent, alight, to make one's appearance", refers to the embodiment of the essence of a superhuman being or a deity in another form.
The word implies "to overcome, to remove, to bring down, to cross something". In Hindu traditions, the "crossing or coming down" is symbolism, states Daniel Bassuk, of the divine descent from "eternity into the temporal realm, from unconditioned to the conditioned, from infinitude to finitude". An avatar, states Justin Edwards Abbott, is a saguna embodiment of Atman. Neither the Vedas nor the Principal Upanishads mention the word avatar as a noun; the verb roots and form, such as avatarana, do appear in ancient post-Vedic Hindu texts, but as "action of descending", but not as an incarnated person. The related verb avatarana is, states Paul Hacker, used with double meaning, one as action of the divine descending, another as "laying down the burden of man" suffering from the forces of evil. Mahesh is an avatar of Lord Vishnu; the term is most found in the context of the Hindu god Vishnu. The earliest mention of Vishnu manifested in a human form to empower the good and fight against evil, uses other terms such as the word sambhavāmi in verse 4.6 and the word tanu in verse 9.11 of the Bhagavad Gita, as well as other words such as akriti and rupa elsewhere.
It is in medieval era texts, those composed after the sixth century CE, that the noun version of avatar appears, where it means embodiment of a deity. The idea proliferates thereafter, in the Puranic stories for many deities, with ideas such as ansha-avatar or partial embodiments; the term avatar, in colloquial use, is an epithet or a word of reverence for any extraordinary human being, revered for his or her ideas. In some contexts, the term avatara just means a "landing place, site of sacred pilgrimage", or just "achieve one's goals after effort", or retranslation of a text in another language; the term avatar is not unique to Hinduism. It is found in the Trikaya doctrine of Mahayana Buddhism, in descriptions for the Dalai Lama in Tibetan Buddhism, many ancient cultures; the manifest embodiment is sometimes referred to as an incarnation. The translation of avatar as "incarnation" has been questioned by Christian theologians, who state that an incarnation is in flesh and imperfect, while avatar is mythical and perfect.
The theological concept of Christ as an incarnation, as found in Christology, presents the Christian concept of incarnation. According to Oduyoye and Vroom, this is different from the Hindu concept of avatar because avatars in Hinduism are unreal and is similar to Docetism. Sheth disagrees and states that this claim is an incorrect understanding of the Hindu concept of avatar. Avatars are true embodiments of spiritual perfection, one driven by noble goals, in Hindu traditions such as Vaishnavism; the concept of avatar within Hinduism is most associated with Vishnu, the preserver or sustainer aspect of God within the Hindu Trinity or Trimurti of Brahma and Shiva. Vishnu's avatars descend thereby restoring Dharma. Traditional Hindus see themselves not as Vaishnava, Shaiva, or Shakta; each of the deities has its own iconography and mythology, but common to all is the fact that the divine reality has an explicit form, a form that the worshipper can behold. An oft-quoted passage from the Bhagavad Gita describes the typical role of an avatar of Vishnu: The Vishnu avatars appear in Hindu mythology whenever the cosmos is in
Haryana is one of the 29 states in India, located in northern part of the country. It was carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1 November 1966 on linguistic as well as on cultural basis, it is ranked 22nd in terms of area with less than 1.4% of India's land area. Chandigarh is the state capital, Faridabad in National Capital Region is the most populous city of the state and Gurugram is a leading financial hub of NCR with major Fortune 500 companies located in it. Haryana has 6 administrative divisions, 22 districts, 72 sub-divisions, 93 revenue tehsils, 50 sub-tehsils, 140 community development blocks, 154 cities and towns, 6,848 villages and 6222 villages panchayats; as the largest recipient of investment per capita since 2000 in India, among one of the wealthiest and most economically developed regions in South Asia, Haryana has the fifth highest per capita income among Indian states and UTs at ₹199,612 against the national average of ₹112,432 for year 2016–17. Haryana's 2019-20 estimated state GSDP of US$110 billion is growing at 12.96% 2012-17 CAGR and placed on the 13th position behind only much bigger states, is boosted by 30 SEZs, 7% national agricultural exports, 65% of national Basmati rice export, 67% cars, 60% motorbikes, 50% tractors and 50% refrigerators produced in India.
Faridabad has been described as eighth fastest growing city in the world and third most in India by City Mayors Foundation survey. In services, Gurugram ranks number 1 in India in IT growth rate and existing technology infrastructure, number 2 in startup ecosystem and livability. Among the world's oldest and largest ancient civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization sites at Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are 9,000 years old. Rich in history, heritage and fauna, human resources and tourism with well developed economy, national highways and state roads, it is bordered by Himachal Pradesh to the north-east, by river Yamuna along its eastern border with Uttar Pradesh, by Rajasthan to the west and south, Ghaggar-Hakra River flows along its northern border with Punjab. Since Haryana surrounds the country's capital Delhi on three sides a large area of Haryana is included in the economically-important National Capital Region for the purposes of planning and development.
The name Haryana is found in the works of the 12th-century AD Apabhramsha writer Vibudh Shridhar. The name Haryana has been derived from the Sanskrit words Hari and ayana, meaning "the Abode of God". However, scholars such as Muni Lal, Murli Chand Sharma, HA Phadke and Sukhdev Singh Chib believe that the name comes from a compound of the words Hari and Aranya; the Vedic state of Brahmavarta is claimed to be located in south Haryana, where the initial Vedic scriptures were composed after the great floods some 10,000 years ago. Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are home to the largest and one of the world's oldest ancient Indus Valley Civilization sites, dated at over 9,000 years old. Evidence of paved roads, a drainage system, a large-scale rainwater collection storage system, terracotta brick and statue production, skilled metal working have been uncovered. According to archaeologists, Rakhigarhi may be the origin of Harappan civilisation, which arose in the Ghaggar basin in Haryana and and moved to the Indus valley.
Ancient bronze and stone idols of Jain Tirthankara were found in archaeological expeditions in Badli, Dadri, Hansi, Kasan, Narnaul, Rewari, Rohad and Sonepat in Haryana. After the sack of Bhatner fort during the Timurid conquests of India in 1398, Timur attacked and sacked the cities of Sirsa, Sunam and Panipat; when he reached the town of Sarsuti, the residents, who were non-Muslims and were chased by a detachment of Timur's troops, with thousands of them being killed and looted by the troops. From there he travelled to Fatehabad, whose residents fled and a large number of those remaining in the town were massacred; the Ahirs resisted him at Ahruni but were defeated, with thousands being killed and many being taken prisoners while the town was burnt to ashes. From there he travelled to Tohana, whose Jat inhabitants were stated to be robbers according to Sharaf ad-Din Ali Yazdi, they were defeated and fled. Timur's army killed 200 Jats, while taking many more as prisoners, he sent a detachment to chase the fleeing Jats and killed 2,000 of them while their wives and children were enslaved and their property plundered.
Timur proceeded to Kaithal whose residents were massacred and plundered, destroying all villages along the way. On the next day, he came to Assandh whose residents were "fire-worshippers" according to Yazdi, had fled to Delhi. Next he travelled to and subdued Tughlaqpur fort and Salwan before reaching Panipat whose residents had fled, he marched on to Loni fort. The area, now Haryana has been ruled by some of the major empires of India. Panipat is known for three seminal battles in the history of India. In the First Battle of Panipat, Babur defeated the Lodis. In the Second Battle of Panipat, Akbar defeated the local Haryanvi Hindu Emperor of Delhi, who belonged to Rewari. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya had earlier won 22 battles across India from Punjab to Bengal, defeating Mughals and Afghans. Hemu had defeat
Chakravarti (Sanskrit term)
Chakravartin Tibetan: འཁོར་ལོས་སྒྱུར་བའི་རྒྱལ་པོ་, Wylie: khor los bsgyur ba'i rgyal po, is a Sanskrit term used to refer to an ideal universal ruler who rules ethically and benevolently over the entire world. Such a ruler's reign is called sarvabhauma; the word is a bahuvrīhi compound word, figuratively meaning "whose wheels are moving", in the sense of "whose chariot is rolling everywhere without obstruction". It can be analysed as an'instrumental bahuvrīhi: "through whom the wheel is moving" in the meaning of "through whom the Dharmachakra is turning"; the Tibetan word translates "monarch who controls by means of a wheel". The first references to a Chakravala Chakravartin appear in monuments from the time of the Maurya Empire, dedicated to Chandragupta Maurya and his grandson Ashoka. In Buddhism, the Chakravarti came to be considered the secular counterpart of a Buddha. In general, the term applies to temporal as well as spiritual kingship and leadership in Buddhism and Jainism. In Hinduism, the term denotes a powerful ruler whose dominion extended to the entire earth.
According to the traditions "Vishnu, in the form of Chakra, was held as the ideal of worship for Kings desirous of obtaining Universal Sovereignty", a concept associated with the Bhagavata Puranas, a religious sanction traceable to the Gupta period, which led to the Chakravartin Concept. There are few examples of chakravartins in both northern and southern India. In Southern India, the Pallava period beginning with Simhavishnu was a transitional stage in southern Indian society with monument building, establishment of sects of Alvars and Nayanars, flowering of rural Brahmanical institutions of Sanskrit learning, the establishment of Chakravartin model of kingship over a territory of diverse people; the Pallava period extolled ranked relationships based on ritual purity. Burton distinguishes between the Chakravatin model and the Kshatriya model, likens kshatriyas to locally based warriors with ritual status sufficiently high enough to share with Brahmins; as per Burton, South India was aware of the Indo-Aryan Varna organized society in which decisive secular authority was vested in the Kshatriyas.
During the each motion of the half-cycle of the wheel of time, 63 Salakapurusa or 63 illustrious men, consisting of the 12 Chakravartin appear. The Jain cosmology or legendary history is a compilation of the deeds of these illustrious men; as per Jain cosmology, Chakravartins are Universal Monarchs or World Conquerors. Golden in complexion, they all belonged to the Kasyapa gotra; the mother of a Chakravartin sees some dreams at the time of conception. A chakravartin is considered an ideal human being endowed with thirty-two major signs of excellence and many minor signs of excellence; the list of 12 chakravartin of Avasarpini as per Jainism is as follows Bharata, son of Tirthankara Rishabhanatha Sagara, ancestor of Bhagiratha as in the Puranas Maghava Sanatkumara Tirthankara Shantinatha Tirthankara Kunthunatha Tirthankara Aranatha Subhauma Padmanabha Harishena Jayasena BrahmadattIn Jainism, a Chakravartin Samrat was characterised by his possession of Saptaratna, or "Seven Jewels": Ratna-Chakra, a miraculous diamond serrated discus that never misses its target Empress Divine Jewellery Immense Wealth Huge Army of War-Chariots Huge Army of Cavalry Huge Army of ElephantsSome lists cite navaratna or "nine jewels" instead, adding "Prime Minister" and "Son".
The concept of the cakravarti existed in Buddhism as well as in Jainism. The Buddhist Mahāvastu and the Divyāvadāna, as well as the Theravadin Milindapañha, describe the marks of the cakravarti as ruler: uṣṇīṣa, chhatra "parasol", "horn jewel" or vajra and sandals; these were the marks of the kshatriya. Plastic art of early Mahayana Buddhism illustrates bodhisattvas in a form called uṣṇīṣin "wearing a turban/hair binding", wielding the mudras for "nonviolent cakravarti rule". A Cakravarti King is a king; the King wins all of the continents with peace. Since he's virtuous, seven miracle treasures appear including a large wheel spinning in the sky. King and his army can travel anywhere with that spinning wheel in the sky, he teaches all kings how to rule with peace Dasavidha-rājadhamma. He can travel to the lower heaven realms with the power of Chakraratnaya. Cakravarti king only appears. Jataka tales. Doniger, Wendy, ed. Encyclopedia of World Religions, Merriam-Webster, ISBN 0-87779-044-2 von Glasenapp, Jainism: An Indian Religion of Salvation, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-1376-6 Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend by Anna Dallapiccola Cakkavatti Sutta The Wheel-turning Emperor Translated from the Pali by Thanissaro Bhikkhu A Glossary of Pali and Buddhist Terms