The BC Hydro and Power Authority is a Canadian electric utility in the province of British Columbia known as BC Hydro. It is the main electric distributor, serving 1.8 million customers in most areas, with the exception of the City of New Westminster, where the city runs its own electrical department and the Kootenay region, where FortisBC, a subsidiary of Fortis Inc. directly provides electric service to 213,000 customers and supplies municipally owned utilities in the same area. As a provincial Crown corporation, BC Hydro reports to the BC Ministry of Energy and Mines, is regulated by the British Columbia Utilities Commission, its mandate is to generate, purchase and sell electricity. BC Hydro operates three natural gas-fueled thermal power plants; as of 2014, 95 per cent of the province's electricity was produced by hydroelectric generating stations, which consist of large hydroelectric dams on the Columbia and Peace Rivers. BC Hydro's various facilities generate between 43,000 and 54,000 gigawatt hours of electricity annually, depending on prevailing water levels.
BC Hydro's nameplate capacity is about 11,000 megawatts. Electricity is delivered through a network of 18,286 kilometers of transmission lines and 55,254 kilometers of distribution lines. For the 2013-2014 fiscal year, the domestic electric sales volume was 53,018 gigawatt hours, revenue was $5.392 billion and net income was $549 million. BC Hydro was created in 1961 when the government of British Columbia, under Premier WAC Bennett, passed the BC Hydro Act; this act led to the expropriation of the BC Electric Company and its merging with the BC Power Commission, to create the British Columbia Hydro and Power Authority. The BC Power Commission had been established with the Electric Power Act in 1945 by Premier John Hart; the mandate of the Power Commission was to amalgamate existing power and generating facilities across the province not served by BC Electric, to extend service to the many smaller communities without power. BC Electric Company began as the British Columbia Electric Railway in Victoria and New Westminster in 1897.
Power was generated by coal-fired steam plants. Increasing demand in the Edwardian boom years meant BC Electric sought expansion through developing Hydro power at Buntzen Lake, at Stave Lake. Sensible growth and expansion of the power and coal gas utilities meant that BC Electric was a major company in the region. An English financier named Robert Horne-Payne had secured investment funding and created a large company from what had been a patchwork of small regional electric railway and steam and diesel plants. About this time and factories converted to electricity, further increasing the demand for electric power. BC Electric developed more hydro stations in the province. Small towns built and operated their own power stations. More power transmission lines were built. Dams and hydro-electric generating stations were built on Vancouver Island on the Puntledge and Elk rivers in the 1920s. BC Electric created one of the largest streetcar and interurban systems in the world in the Lower Mainland of BC with some 200 miles of track running from Point Grey to Chilliwack.
There were both city street cars and interurban cars servicing Richmond, New Westminster, North Vancouver, Victoria. By the time of the First World War, private cars and jitneys were beginning to affect streetcar traffic; the expansion of private automobile ownership in the 1920s further constrained the expansion of streetcar lines. New dams were planned, including the diversion from the Bridge River to Seton Lake, near Lillooet, but the economic depression of the 1930s halted this business expansion. With the depression came an increase in the ridership, a decrease in the maintenance of the streetcar system. In 1947 the BC Power Commission completed the John Hart Generating Station at Campbell River. In the early 1950s the ageing streetcars and interurban trains were replaced by electric trolley buses, diesel buses. BC Electric completed the Bridge River Generating Station in 1960. BC Hydro continued to operate the transit system by funding it with a small levy on electricity bills, until the transit system was taken over by BC Transit in 1980.
In 1958 BC Electric began construction of the Burrard Generating Station near Port Moody. It opened in 1961 and, although it is now fueled only by natural gas, operated only intermittently when needed, it continues to generate controversy due to its proximity to Vancouver and its associated greenhouse gas emissions. In 2001 it represented over 9% of BC Hydro's gross metered generation. With completion of new transmission capacity to the Lower Mainland from the interior of BC, Burrard Thermal Station is being converted into a large Synchronous condenser facility. On August 1, 1961, just days after company president Dal Grauer died, the BC government passed the legislation which changed BC Electric from a private company to a crown corporation known as BC Hydro. In 1988 BC Hydro sold its Gas Division which distributed natural gas in the lower mainland and Victoria to Inland Natural Gas. Inland was acquired by Terasen Gas in 1993. Between 1960 and 1980, BC Hydro completed six large hydro-electric generating projects.
The first large dam was built on the Peace River near Hudson's Hope. The WAC Bennett Dam was built to create an energy reservoir for the Gordon M. Shrum Generating Station, which has a capacity of 2,730 Megawatts of electric power and generated 13,810 gigawatt-hours of electricity per year on average 2012-16; when it was completed in 1968, the dam was the largest earth-fill structure built. The Williston Lake reservoir is the
Crown corporations of Canada
Canadian Crown corporations are state-owned enterprises owned by the Sovereign of Canada. They are established by an Act of Parliament or Act of a provincial legislature and report to that body via a minister of the Crown in the relevant cabinet, though they are "shielded from constant government intervention and legislative oversight" and thus "generally enjoy greater freedom from direct political control than government departments."Crown corporations have a long standing presence in the country and have been instrumental in the formation of the state. They can provide services required by the public that otherwise would not be economically viable as a private enterprise, or don't fit within the scope of any ministry, they are involved in everything from the distribution and price of certain goods and services to energy development, resource extraction, public transportation, cultural promotion, property management. In Canada, Crown corporations, within either the federal or provincial spheres, are owned by the monarch, as the institution's sole legal shareholder.
Crown corporations although owned in right of the Crown, are in fact operated at arm's length from the Queen-in-Council with direct control over operations only being exerted over the corporation's budget and the appointment of its chairperson and directors through Orders-in-Council. Some Crown corporations are expected to be profitable organisations, while others are non-commercial and rely on public funds to operate. Further, in the federal sphere, certain Crown corporations can be an agents or non-agent of the Queen in Right of Canada. One with agent status is entitled to the same constitutional prerogatives and immunities held by the Crown and can bind the Crown by its acts; the Crown is thus responsible for the actions of these organisations. The Crown is not liable for Crown corporations with non-agent status, except for actions of that corporation carried out on instruction from the government, though there may be "moral obligations" on the part of the Crown in other circumstances. Prior to the formation of Crown corporations as presently understood, much of what became Canada was settled and governed by a similar type of entity called a chartered company.
These companies were established by a royal charter by the Scottish, English, or French crown, but were owned by private investors. They fulfilled the dual roles of promoting government policy abroad and making a return for shareholders. Certain companies were trading businesses, by some were given a mandate to govern a specific territory called a charter colony, the head of this colony, called a proprietary governor, was both a business manager and the governing authority in the area; the first colonies on the island of Newfoundland were founded in this manner, between 1610 and 1728. Canada's most famous, influential chartered company, was the Hudson's Bay Company, founded on May 2, 1670, by royal charter of King Charles II; the HBC became the world's largest land owner, at one point overseeing 7,770,000 km2, territories that today incorporate the provinces of Manitoba and Alberta, as well as Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, Yukon. The HBC thus being the point of first contact between the colonial government and First Nations.
By the late 19th century, the HBC lost its monopoly over Rupert's Land and became a privatised company. The first major Canadian experience with directly state-owned enterprises came during the early growth of the railways. During the earlier part of the century, many British North American colonies that now comprise the Canadian federation had Crown corporations in the form of railways, such as the Nova Scotia Railway, since there was limited private capital available for such endeavours; when four British colonies joined to create the Canadian federation in 1867, these railways were transferred to the new central government. As well, the construction of the Intercolonial Railway between them was one of the terms of the new constitution; the first section of this government-owned railway was completed in 1872. Western Canada's early railways were all run by owned companies backed by government subsidies and loans. By the early twentieth century, many of these had become bankrupt; the federal government nationalized several failing Western railways and combined them with its existing Intercolonial and other line in the East to create Canadian National Railways in 1918 as a transcontinental system.
The CNR was unique in, a conglomerate, besides passenger and freight rail, it had inherited major business interests in shipping and telegraphy and was able create new lines of business in broadcasting and air travel. Many of the components of this business empire where spun off into new Crown corporations including some the most important businesses in the mid-twentieth century economy of Canada, such Air Canada, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Via Rail, Marine Atlantic. Provincial Crown corporations re-emerged in the early twentieth century, most notably in the selling of alcohol. Government monopoly liquor stores were seen as a compromise between the ended era of Prohibition in Canada and the excesses of the previous open market which had led to calls for prohibition in the first place. All the provinces used this system at one point; the largest of these government liquor businesses, the Liquor Control Board of Ontario, was by 2008 one of the world's largest alcohol retailers. Resource
A student loan is a type of loan designed to help students pay for post-secondary education and the associated fees, such as tuition and supplies, living expenses. It may differ from other types of loans in the fact that the interest rate may be lower and the repayment schedule may be deferred while the student is still in school, it differs in many countries in the strict laws regulating renegotiating and bankruptcy. This article highlights the differences of the student loan system in several major countries. Tertiary student places in Australia are funded through the HECS-HELP scheme; this funding is in the form of loans. They are repaid over time via a supplementary tax; as a consequence, loan repayments are only made when the former student has income to support the repayments. Discounts are available for early repayment; the scheme is available to permanent humanitarian visa holders. Means-tested scholarships for living expenses are available. Special assistance is available to indigenous students.
There has been criticism that the HECS-HELP scheme creates an incentive for people to leave the country after graduation, because those who do not file an Australian tax return do not make any repayments. The province of British Columbia allows the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia to withhold issuance or renewal of driver's license to those with delinquent student loan repayments or child support payments or unpaid court fines. Students need to meet the qualification with an individual’s direct educational costs and living expense to get the certificate to obtain a loan and this policy is directly controlled by the government. New Zealand provides student loans and allowances to tertiary students who satisfy the funding criteria. Full-time students can claim loans for both fees and living costs while part-time students can only claim training institution fees. While the borrower is a resident of New Zealand, no interest is charged on the loan. Loans are repaid when the borrower starts working and has income above the minimum threshold, once this occurs employers will deduct the student loan repayments from the salary at a fixed 12c in the dollar rate and these are collected by the New Zealand tax authority.
The public sector is one of the most important sections in Thailand's higher education system. In addition, many public educational organizations receive profits from the students' tuition fees and the governments. There are six various sections in the public sector's organization: colleges with the limited enrollment，universities, opening to public, universities, national autonomous, Rajabhat colleges, Ajamangala Universities of Technology, polytechnic colleges. Citizens in India show that the Indian Nation Loan Scholarship Scheme which operated from 1963 would make the extra waste on expenditure for the reason of'limiting', which means only the people who need to borrow would apply the student loan for the future education; because of this, most Indian students would be more careful to choose their jobs in order to pay back the balance due. The Indian government has launched a website, for students seeking educational loans and five banks including SBI, IDBI Bank and Bank of India have integrated their system with the portal.
Vidya Lakshmi was launched on the occasion of Independence Day i.e. 15th August, 2015 for the benefit of students seeking educational loans. Vidya Lakshmi was developed under three departments of India i.e. Department of Financial Services, Department of Higher Education and Indian Banks Association. To bridge the constraint of increasing institutional fees, NSDL e-Governance in India launched Vidyasaarathi portal to help students seeking scholarship for studies in India or overseas. South Korea's student loans are managed by the Korea Student Aid Foundation, established in May 2009. According to the governmental philosophy that Korea's future depends on talent development and no student should quit studying due to financial reasons, they help students grow into talents that serve the nation and society as members of Korea. In South Korea, the default rate of redemption is related to each student's academic personalities. For instance, comparing with other majors, students in fine arts and physics are supposed to possessing a higher default rate.
Therefore, students in such majors would be inclined to a higher rate of unemployment and a higher risk of default in redemption. People will tend to have an inferior quality of human capital if the period of unemployment is too long. Student loans in the United Kingdom are provided by the state-owned Student Loans Company. Interest begins to accumulate on each loan payment as soon as the student receives it, but repayment is not required until the start of the next tax year after the student completes their education. Since 1998, repayments have been collected by HMRC via the tax system, are calculated based on the borrower's current level of income. If the borrower's income is below a certain threshold, no repayments are required, though interest continues to accumulate. Loans are cancelled if the borrower becomes permanently unable to work. Depending on when the loan was taken out and which part of the UK the borrower is from, they may be cancelled after a certain period of time after 30 years, or when the borrower reaches a certain age.
Student loans taken out between 1990 and 1998, in the introductory phase of the UK government's phasing in of student loans, were not subsequently collected through the tax system in following years. The onus was (and stil
Royal British Columbia Museum
Founded in 1886, the Royal British Columbia Museum consists of The Province of British Columbia's natural and human history museum as well as the British Columbia Provincial Archives. The museum is located in British Columbia, Canada; the "Royal" title was approved by Queen Elizabeth II and bestowed by HRH Prince Philip in 1987, to coincide with a Royal tour of that year. The museum merged with the British Columbia Provincial Archives in 2003; the Royal BC Museum includes three permanent galleries: natural history, modern history, local First Nations’ history. The museum’s collections comprise 7 million objects, including natural history specimens and archival records; the natural history collections have 750,000 records of specimens exclusively from BC and neighbouring states, provinces, or territories. The collections are divided into eight disciplines: Entomology, Palaeontology, Invertebrate Zoology, Herpetology and Ornithology; the museum hosts touring exhibitions. Previous exhibitions have included artifacts related to the RMS Titanic, Leonardo da Vinci, Egyptian artifacts, the Vikings, the British Columbia gold rushes and Genghis Khan.
The Royal BC Museum partners with and houses the IMAX Victoria theater, which shows educational films as well as commercial entertainment. The museum is beside Victoria's Inner Harbour, between the Empress Hotel and the Legislature Buildings; the museum anchors the Royal BC Museum Cultural Precinct, a surrounding area with historical sites and monuments, including Thunderbird Park. The museum operates traveling exhibitions which tour the province of BC, as well as international exhibits Guangzhou, China. On March 26, 2012, Jack Lohman was appointed CEO of the Royal BC Museum. Various groups assist with the development and maintenance of the Royal BC Museum; these include volunteers, who number over 500 and outnumber the Royal BC Museum staff 4 to 1. The BC Government founded the Royal BC Museum in 1886 in response to a petition from prominent citizens who were concerned about the loss of British Columbian natural products and native artifacts. Judge Matthew Baillie Begbie, Charles Semlin, William Fraser Tolmie, former Premier George A. Walkem were amongst those who wanted to stop European and American museums from appropriating BC artifacts.
Notably, the petitioners argued that the export of First Nations artifacts was troubling, under the premise that “their loss irreparable.”On October 25, 1886, the 15-by-20-foot Provincial Museum of Natural History and Anthropology opened in the Birdcages. The first curator was naturalist John Fannin, who donated his own large collection of preserved birds and animals to the museum. After its inception, the Royal BC Museum continually expanded. In 1896, the museum was given space in the east wing of the new Legislative buildings; the museum’s mandate was updated by the BC government in 1913, the collection of natural history specimens and anthropological material became official parts of the museum’s operations, as well as the dissemination of knowledge to the people of British Columbia. In 1921, the basement of the east annex of the Legislature was excavated to provide the museum with additional room; as part of the 1967 Canadian centenary celebrations, BC Premier W. A. C. Bennett committed to building a new home for the Royal BC Museum.
It opened on August 1968, with a final construction budget of $9.5 million. The museum remains housed in this building. One of the most prized displays is the 1965 Rolls Royce Phantom Limousine once owned by John Lennon, it was donated to the museum. Http://blog.royalbcmuseum.bc.ca/2010/10/imagine.html The museum is situated in the cultural precinct, an area comprising various significant historical buildings near the Inner Harbour. The cultural precinct occupies the space between Douglas Street, Belleville Street, Government Street. Included in the cultural precinct is the BC Archives, Helmcken House, St. Ann's Schoolhouse, the Netherlands Centennial Carillon, Thunderbird Park, Mungo Martin House, Wawadit'la, a traditional big house built by Mungo Martin and his family; the Royal BC Museum hosts 3 permanent galleries focused on BC heritage. The First Peoples gallery on the third floor contains a large collection of First Nations artifacts, many of the artifacts in the gallery are from the Haida people.
Artifacts in the First Peoples Gallery include a village model, as well as indigenous totem poles and masks. Notably, the gallery maintains the long house of Chief Kwakwabalasami, a Kwakwaka'wakw chief from Tsaxis; the house and surrounding carvings were created by his son, Henry Hunt, his grandsons, Tony Hunt and Richard Hunt. An exhibit of artist Bill Reid's argillite carvings are available for viewing; the gallery has been criticized by indigenous scholars for its portrayal of First Nations people, its use of controversial images and film from Edward Curtis. In 2010, many of the museum's Nisg
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Columbia Power Corporation
Columbia Power Corporation is a Crown Corporation, owned by the province of British Columbia, Canada. Its mandate is to undertake hydro-electricity projects in the Columbia River region of British Columbia. In so doing, it is required to work with its sister crown corporation the Columbia Basin Trust, its assets include: Brilliant Dam 145 MW purchased from Teck Cominco in 1996 Brilliant Expansion 120 MW Arrow Lakes Generating Station 185 MW Partnered with FortisBC at Waneta Expansion 335 MW Columbia Power Corporation - Official Site Partnering in Power Development Documents and clippings about Columbia Power Corporation in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci