Privatization can mean different things including moving something from the public sector into the private sector. It is sometimes used as a synonym for deregulation when a regulated private company or industry becomes less regulated. Government functions and services may be privatized; some examples include revenue collection, law enforcement, water supply, prison management. Another definition is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise or municipally owned corporation to private investors. In the case of a for-profit company, the shares are no longer traded at a stock exchange, as the company became private through private equity; the second such type of privatization is the demutualization of a mutual organization, cooperative, or public-private partnership in order to form a joint-stock company. The Economist magazine introduced the term "privatization" during the 1930s when it covered Nazi Germany's economic policy.

It is not clear if the magazine coincidentally invented the word in English or if the term is a loanword from the same expression in German, where it has been in use since the 19th century. The word privatization may mean different things depending on the context, it can mean moving something from the public sphere into the private sphere, but it may be used to describe something, always private, but regulated, which becomes less regulated through a process of deregulation. The term may be used descriptively for something that has always been private, but could be public in other jurisdictions. There are private entities that may perform public functions; these entities could be described as privatized. Privatization may mean the government sells state-owned businesses to private interests, but it may be discussed in the context of the privatization of services or government functions, where private entities are tasked with the implementation of government programs or performance of government services.

Gillian E. Metzger has written that: "Private entities provide a vast array of social services for the government. Metzger mentions an expansion of privatization that includes health and welfare programs, public education, prisons; the history of privatization dates from Ancient Greece, when governments contracted out everything to the private sector. In the Roman Republic private individuals and companies performed the majority of services including tax collection, army supplies, religious sacrifices and construction. However, the Roman Empire created state-owned enterprises—for example, much of the grain was produced on estates owned by the Emperor; some scholars suggest that the cost of bureaucracy was one of the reasons for the fall of the Roman Empire. One of the first ideological movements towards privatization came during China's golden age of the Han Dynasty. Taoism came into prominence for the first time at a state level, it advocated the laissez-faire principle of Wu wei meaning "do nothing".

The rulers were counseled by the Taoist clergy that a strong ruler was invisible. During the Renaissance, most of Europe was still by and large following the feudal economic model. By contrast, the Ming dynasty in China began once more to practice privatization with regards to their manufacturing industries; this was a reversal of the earlier Song dynasty policies, which had themselves overturned earlier policies in favor of more rigorous state control. In Britain, the privatization of common lands is referred to as enclosure. Significant privatizations of this nature occurred from 1760 to 1820, preceding the industrial revolution in that country; the first mass privatization of state property occurred in Nazi Germany between 1933–1937: "It is a fact that the government of the National Socialist Party sold off public ownership in several state-owned firms in the middle of the 1930s. The firms belonged to a wide range of sectors: steel, banking, local public utilities, ship-lines, etc. In addition to this, delivery of some public services produced by public administrations prior to the 1930s social services and services related to work, was transferred to the private sector to several organizations within the Nazi Party."Great Britain privatized its steel industry in the 1950s, the West German government embarked on large-scale privatization, including sale of the majority stake in Volkswagen to small investors in public share offerings in 1961.

However, it was in the 1980s under Margaret Thatcher in the United Kingdom and Ronald Reagan in the United States that privatization gained worldwide momentum. Notable privatization attempts in the UK included privatization of Britoil, Amersham International PLC, British Telecom, Sealink ferries, British Petro


National Agriculture Market or eNAM is an online trading platform for agricultural commodities in India. The market facilitate farmers and buyers with online trading in commodities; the market is helping in better price discovery and provide facilities for smooth marketing of their produce. The market transactions stood at ₹36,200 crores by January 2018 intra-market. Over 90 commodities including staple food grains and fruits are listed in its list of commodities available for trade; the eNAM markets are proving popular as the crops are weighed and the stock is lifted on the same day and the payments are cleared online. In February 2018, some attractive features like MIS dashboard, BHIM and other mobile payments, enhanced features on the mobile app such as gate entry and payment through mobile phones and farmers database is helping adoption more; the present trading is done for intra-market, but in phases, it will be rolled out to trade in inter-market, inter-state, creating a unified national market for agricultural commodities.

It was launched by the Ministry of Government of India. The electronic market pilot across India was launched on 14 April 2016 by Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi; the Portal is managed by Small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium with the technology provider, NFCL’s iKisan division. A similar project was initiated by the Congress government in the State of Karnataka, during UPA tenure and had been a great success. NDA government has rolled it out nationally. On the ENAM platform, farmers can opt to trade directly on their own through the mobile app or through registered commission agents; the eNAM is linked with 585 markets in 16 states and 2 union territory, with over 45 lakh farmer membership in 15 states. The market is helping traders and exporters in procuring quality products in bulk, at one place and ensure transparent financial transactions; the Government plans to connect over local farmers markets, with the platform. To provide better grading and assaying services, the Agriculture Department is looking at looping in AGMARK for better certification.

The trading is done with trading computers or through the mobile app in all e-nam markets. An eNAM mobile application is available on Android for farmers and traders to bid and complete a transact on the app, available in 8 languages; the payment network RTGS/NEFT, debit card and internet banking was integrated into the app. In 2017 mobile payment, Unified Payment Interface facility through BHIM support was added in the app; the mobile phone gate entry, integration of farmers database and e-learning module is available. The agents are using the eNAM mobile App for trading on behalf of farmers; the critical operation of gate entry from e-NAM mobile app helps facilitate the farmers to do advance gate entry on mobile app, which in turn will reduce a lot of time for farmers coming into the market and will bring huge efficiency and facilitate smooth arrival recording at the gate. A new feature has been introduced for farmers, where they can see the progress of their lot being traded and real time bidding progress of price will be visible to farmers on their mobile app.

The MIS dashboard was introduced in February 2018, to give a greater insight into the performance of each market in terms of arrival and trade in commodities. The six States with the most eNAMs as of March 2018 are Uttar Pradesh – 100, Madhya Pradesh – 58, Haryana - 54, Maharashtra – 60, Gujarat – 79 and Telangana – 48. A national e-market platform for transparent sale transactions and price discovery in regulated markets. Willing States to accordingly enact suitable provisions in their APMC Act for promotion of e-trading by their State Agricultural Marketing Board/APMC. Liberal licensing of traders/buyers and commission agents by State authorities without any pre-condition of physical presence or possession of shop /premises in the market yard. One license for a trader valid across all markets in the State. Harmonisation of quality standards of agricultural produce and provision for assaying infrastructure in every market to enable informed bidding by buyers. Common tradable parameters have so far been developed for 25 commodities.

Single point levy of market fees, i.e. on the first wholesale purchase from the farmer. Provision of Soil Testing Laboratories in/ or near the selected mandi to facilitate visiting farmers to access this facility in the mandi itself. M/s. Nagarjuna Fertilizers and Chemicals Ltd. is the Strategic Partner, responsible for the development and maintenance of the platform. The broad role of the Strategic Partner is comprehensive and includes the writing of the software, customizing it to meet the specific requirements of the mandis in the States willing to integrate with NAM and running the platform Small Farmers’ Agribusiness Consortium is the lead promoter of NAM. SFAC is a registered society of the Department of Agriculture, Cooperation & Farmers’ Welfare under the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmer Welfare. SFAC through open tender selected Nagarjuna Fertilizers and Chemicals Ltd / Ikisan Division as Strategic Partner to develop and maintain the NAM e-platform. SFAC implements NAM with the technical support of SP and budgetary grant support from DAC&FW.

DAC&FW meets the expenses on software and its customization for the States and is providing it for free. DAC&FW is giving a grant as one time fixed cost up to ₹30 lakhs per Mandi for installation of the e-market platform. Around 6500 APMCs operate throughout the country of which 585 district level mandis in States/UTs desirous of joining are planned to be linked by NAM. 470 mandis are planned to be integrated

Anar Bayramli (journalist)

Anar Bayramli is an Azerbaijani journalist for Iran's Fars News Agency and Sahar television station. In June 2012, an Azerbaijan court sentenced him to two years' imprisonment on a charge of drug possession. Bayramli's family and several human rights organizations have described the charges as politically motivated. Amnesty International designated him a prisoner of conscience. Bayramli's arrest came in a year of growing tension between Iran. Iran accused Azerbaijan of assisting in the assassination of nuclear scientists, withdrew its ambassador following complaints by Iranian religious leaders over Azerbaijan's hosting of Eurovision 2012. Both countries accused the other of interfering in their domestic affairs. Azerbaijani authorities had criticized Sahar TV, for which Bayramli is a reporter, for "deliberately seeking to destabilize the country". Prior to the arrest, Bayramli had twice been brought to the police station for questioning, he stated that the police officers pressured him to quit his job with Iranian media.

On 17 February 2012, he was again brought to the police station for questioning. After fifteen minutes of questioning, police searched his coat, left unattended in a waiting room, they found a parcel which Bayramli stated he did not recognize containing 0.387 grams of heroin, Bayramli was charged with drug possession. An Iranian embassy official denounced the charge, calling Bayramli "a devout, respectable person" and warning the arrest could worsen relations between the countries. Bayramli was sentenced to two years' imprisonment. Several international human rights organizations have questioned the charges against Bayramli. Amnesty International described the charges against him as "politically motivated; the organization urged his immediate release. The Committee to Protect Journalists called the charges "trumped-up", comparing the case to that of Eynulla Fatullayev and stating that "silencing government critics by planting drugs on them is a favored method of authorities in Azerbaijan." Human Rights Watch called for an independent investigation into Bayramli's possible framing.

In approving the decision to release imprisoned journalist Bakhtiyar Hajiyev on 4 June 2012, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe stated that it hoped Bayramli would soon be freed. Ramin Bayramov