First Austrian Republic
The First Austrian Republic was created after the signing of the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye on 10 September 1919—the settlement after the end of World War I which ended the Habsburg rump state of Republic of German-Austria—and ended with the establishment of the Austrofascist Federal State of Austria based upon a dictatorship of Engelbert Dollfuss and the Fatherland's Front in 1934. The Republic's constitution was enacted in 1 October 1920 and amended on 7 December 1929; the republican period was marked by violent strife between those with left-wing and right-wing views, leading to the July Revolt of 1927 and the Austrian Civil War of 1934. In September 1919, the Habsburg rump state of German-Austria was given reduced borders by the Treaty of Saint Germain, which ceded German-populated regions in Sudetenland to Czechoslovakia, German-populated South Tyrol to Italy and a portion of Alpine provinces to the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. Despite Austrian protests this treaty forbade Anschluss, or union of Austria with Germany, without League of Nations consent.
The new Republic was created by the will of Allies who did not want the defeated Germany to expand its borders. The new state managed to prevent two land claims from being taken by their neighbours; the first was the south-eastern part of Carinthia, inhabited by Slovenians. It was prevented from being taken over by the new SHS-state through a Carinthian plebiscite on October 10, 1920, in which the majority of population chose to remain with Austria; the second prevented land-claim was Hungary's claim to Burgenland, under the name "Western Hungary", had been part of the Hungarian kingdom since 907. It was inhabited by a German-speaking population, but had Croat- and Hungarian-speaking minorities. Through the Treaty of St. Germain it became part of the Austrian Republic in 1921. However, after a plebiscite, disputed by Austria, the provincial capital city of Sopron remained in Hungary; the treaty of Saint Germain angered the German population in Austria who claimed that it violated the Fourteen Points laid out by United States President Woodrow Wilson during peace talks the right to "self-determination" of all nations.
Many of them felt that with the loss of 60% of the territory of the prewar empire, Austria was no longer economically and politically viable as a separate state without union with Germany. In a now small country of 6.5 million people, with its population of 2 million, was left as an imperial capital without an empire to feed it, as only 17.8% of Austrian land was arable. For much of the early 1920s, Austria's survival was much in doubt; this was because Austria had never been a German/Austrian nation state in the true sense of the term. Although the Austrian state had existed in one form or another for 700 years, it had no real unifying force other than the Habsburg dynasty and the provincial identities of Tyroleans and others were much stronger; the new constitution created bi-cameral legislature with upper house Bundesrat formed by representatives from federal Lands and lower house Nationalrat, where deputies were elected in universal elections. The Federal President was elected for a four-year term in a full session of both houses, while the Chancellor was elected by the Nationalrat.
As no political party gained parliamentary majority, Austria was governed by coalitions of conservative Christian Social Party and right-wing Greater German People's Party or Landbund which were more conservative than the first government of Social Democrat Karl Renner of 1919–20, that had established a number of progressive socioeconomic and labour legislations. After 1920, Austria's government was dominated by the anti-Anschluss Christian Social Party which retained close ties to the Roman Catholic Church; the party's first Chancellor Ignaz Seipel came to power in May 1922 and attempted to forge a political alliance between wealthy industrialists and the Roman Catholic Church. After the legislative elections of October 17, 1920 Social Democrats lost parliamentary majority and remained in the opposition until 1934, when they were banned by Dollfuss. Christian Socials won Social Democrats 69, Greater Germany Party 20 and Peasants Union 8 seats. Michael Hainisch was elected Federal President.
After October 1923 elections Ignaz Seipel stayed in power and resigned in November 1924 when he was succeeded by Rudolf Ramek. In December 1928 Cristian Social Wilhelm Miklas was elected to the post of Federal President and on 7 December 1929 Constitution was amended, reducing the rights of parliament, making the Federal President electable by a popular vote and giving him the right to appoint the federal government and to issue emergency laws. After the 1930 legislative elections Social Democrats emerged as the largest party with 72 seats, but Christian Social Chancellor Otto Ender created a coalition government without them. Despite the nation having a steady political party in power, the politics of the nation were fractious and violent, with both Social Democrat and right-wing political paramilitary forces clashing with each other; the country was divided between the conservative countryside population and Social Democrat controlled Red Vienna. In 1927, during a political clash in Schattendorf, an old man and a child were shot and killed by Heimwehr.
On 14 July 1927 the shooters were acquitted and left-wing supporters began a massive protest during which the Ministry of Justice building was burned. To restore order police and army shot and killed 89 people and injured 600; the huge protest is known as the July Revolt of 1927. Social Democrats called for a general strike which la
Conrad III of Germany
Conrad III was the first King of Germany of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. He was the son of Duke Frederick I of Swabia and Agnes, a daughter of the Salian Emperor Henry IV; the origin of the House of Hohenstaufen in the Duchy of Swabia has not been conclusively established. Conrad's great-grandfather Frederick of Staufen was count in the Riesgau and in 1053 became Swabian Count palatine, his son Frederick of Buren resided near present-day Wäschenbeuren and about 1050 married Countess Hildegard of Egisheim-Dagsburg from Alsace. Conrad's father took advantage of the conflict between King Henry IV of Germany and the Swabian duke Rudolf of Rheinfelden during the Investiture Controversy; when Rudolf had himself elected German anti-king at Forchheim in 1077, Frederick of Hohenstaufen remained loyal to the royal crown and in 1079 was vested with the Duchy of Swabia by Henry IV, including an engagement with the king's minor daughter Agnes. He died in 1105, leaving two sons and his elder brother Frederick II, who inherited the Swabian ducal title.
Their mother entered into a second marriage with Babenberg margrave Leopold III of Austria. In 1105 Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor since 1084, was overthrown by Conrad's uncle. Emperor since 1111, Henry V preparing for his second campaign to Italy upon the death of Margravine Matilda of Tuscany, in 1116 appointed Conrad a Duke of Franconia. Conrad was marked out to act as regent for Germany, together with his elder brother, Duke Frederick II of Swabia. At the death of Henry V in 1125, Conrad unsuccessfully supported Frederick II for the kingship of Germany. Frederick was placed under a ban and Conrad was deprived of Franconia and the Kingdom of Burgundy, of which he was rector. With the support of the imperial cities and the Duchy of Austria, Conrad was elected anti-king at Nuremberg in December 1127. Conrad crossed the Alps to be crowned King of Italy by Anselmo della Pusterla, Archbishop of Milan. Over the next two years, he failed to achieve anything in Italy and returned to Germany in 1130, after Nuremberg and Speyer, two strong cities in his support, fell to Lothair in 1129.
Conrad continued in Lothair's opposition, but he and Frederick were forced to acknowledge Lothair as emperor in 1135, during which time Conrad relinquished his title as King of Italy. After this they could take again possession of their lands. After Lothair's death, Conrad was elected king at Coblenz on 7 March 1138, in the presence of the papal legate Theodwin. Conrad was crowned at Aachen six days and was acknowledged in Bamberg by several princes of southern Germany; as Henry the Proud, son-in-law and heir of Lothair and the most powerful prince in Germany, passed over in the election, refused to do the same, Conrad deprived him of all his territories, giving the Duchy of Saxony to Albert the Bear and that of Bavaria to Leopold IV, Margrave of Austria. Henry, retained the loyalty of his subjects; the civil war that broke out is considered the first act of the struggle between Guelphs and Ghibellines, which extended southwards to Italy. After Henry's death, the war was continued by his son Henry the Lion, supported by the Saxons, by his brother Welf VI.
Conrad, after a long siege, defeated the latter at Weinsberg in December 1140, in May 1142 a peace agreement was reached in Frankfurt. In the same year, Conrad entered Bohemia to reinstate his brother-in-law Vladislav II as prince; the attempt to do the same with another brother-in-law, the Polish prince Ladislaus the Exile, failed. Bavaria and the other regions of Germany were in revolt. In 1146, Conrad heard Bernard of Clairvaux preach the Second Crusade at Speyer, he agreed to join Louis VII in a great expedition to the Holy Land. Before leaving, he had the nobles crown his son Henry Berengar king; the succession secured in the event of his death, Conrad set out. His army of 20,000 men went overland, via Hungary, causing disruptions in the Byzantine territories through which they passed, they arrived at Constantinople by September 1147, ahead of the French army. Rather than taking the coastal road around Anatolia through Christian-held territory, by which he sent most of his noncombatants, Conrad took his army across Anatolia.
On 25 October 1147, they were defeated by the Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Dorylaeum. Conrad and most of the knights escaped; the remaining 2,000 men of the German army limped on to Nicaea, where many of the survivors deserted and tried to return home. Conrad and his adherents had to be escorted to Lopadium by the French, where they joined the main French army under Louis. Conrad fell ill at Ephesus and was sent to recuperate in Constantinople, where his host the Emperor Manuel I acted as his personal physician. After recovering, Conrad sailed to Acre, from there reached Jerusalem, he participated in the ill-fated Siege of Damascus and after that failure, grew disaffected with his allies. Another attempt to attack Ascalon failed when Conrad's allies did not appear as promised, Conrad returned to Germany. In 1150, Conrad and Henry Berengar defeated his son Welf VII at the Battle of Flochberg. Henry Berengar died that year and the succession was thrown open; the Welfs and Hohenstaufen made peace in 1152 and the peaceful succession of one of Conrad's family was secured.
Conrad was never crowned emperor and continued to style himself "King of the Romans" until his death. On his deathbed, in the presence of only two witnesses, his nephew Frederick Barbarossa and the Bishop of Bamberg, he designated Frederick his successor, rather than his own surviving six-year-old son F
The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Western and Central European culture of Late Bronze Age from the 12th to 8th centuries BC and Early Iron Age Europe from the 8th to 6th centuries BC, developing out of the Urnfield culture of the 12th century BC and followed in much of its area by the La Tène culture. It is associated with Proto-Celtic and Celtic populations in the Western Hallstatt zone and with Illyrians in the eastern Hallstatt zone, it is named for its type site, Hallstatt, a lakeside village in the Austrian Salzkammergut southeast of Salzburg, where there was a rich salt mine, some 1,300 burials are known, many with fine artefacts. Material from Hallstatt has been classed into 4 periods, numbered "Hallstatt A" to "D". Hallstatt A and B are regarded as Late Bronze Age and the terms used for wider areas, such as "Hallstatt culture", or "period", "style" and so on, relate to the Iron Age Hallstatt C and D. By the 6th century BC, it had expanded to include wide territories, falling into two zones and west, between them covering much of western and central Europe down to the Alps, extending into northern Italy.
Parts of Britain and Iberia are included in the ultimate expansion of the culture. The culture was based on farming, but metal-working was advanced, by the end of the period long-range trade within the area and with Mediterranean cultures was economically significant. Social distinctions became important, with emerging elite classes of chieftains and warriors, those with other skills. Society was organized on a tribal basis, though little is known about this. Only a few of the largest settlements, like Heuneburg in the south of Germany, were towns rather than villages by modern standards. In 1846, Johann Georg Ramsauer discovered a large prehistoric cemetery near Hallstatt, which he excavated during the second half of the 19th century; the excavation would yield 1,045 burials, although no settlement has yet been found. This may be covered by the village, which has long occupied the whole narrow strip between the steep hillsides and the lake; some 1,300 burials have been found, including around 2,000 individuals, with women and children but few infants.
Nor is there a "princely" burial, as found near large settlements. Instead, there are a large number of burials varying in the number and richness of the grave goods, but with a high proportion containing goods suggesting a life well above subsistence level; the community at Hallstatt was untypical of the wider agricultural, culture, as its booming economy exploited the salt mines in the area. These had been worked from time to time since the Neolithic period, in this period were extensively mined with a peak from the 8th to 5th centuries BC; the style and decoration of the grave goods found in the cemetery are distinctive, artifacts made in this style are widespread in Europe. In the mine workings themselves, the salt has preserved many organic materials such as textiles and leather, many abandoned artefacts such as shoes, pieces of cloth, tools including miner's backpacks, have survived in good condition. Finds at Hallstatt extend from about 1200 BC until around 500 BC, are divided by archaeologists into four phases: Hallstatt A–B are part of the Bronze Age Urnfield culture.
In this period, people were buried in simple graves. In phase B, tumulus burial becomes common, cremation predominates; the "Hallstatt period" proper is restricted to HaC and HaD, corresponding to the early European Iron Age. Hallstatt lies in the area where the western and eastern zones of the Hallstatt culture meet, reflected in the finds from there. Hallstatt D is succeeded by the La Tène culture. Hallstatt C is characterized by the first appearance of iron swords mixed amongst the bronze ones. Inhumation and cremation co-occur. For the final phase, Hallstatt D, daggers to the exclusion of swords, are found in western zone graves ranging from c. 600–500 BC. There are differences in the pottery and brooches. Burials were inhumations. Halstatt D has been further divided into the sub-phases D1–D3, relating only to the western zone, based on the form of brooches. Major activity at the site appears to have finished for reasons that are unclear. Many Hallstatt graves were robbed at this time. There was widespread disruption throughout the western Hallstatt zone, the salt workings had by become deep.
By the focus of salt mining had shifted to the nearby Hallein Salt Mine, with graves at Dürrnberg nearby where there are significant finds from the late Hallstatt and early La Tène periods, until the mid-4th century BC, when a major landslide destroyed the mineshafts and ended mining activity. Much of the material from early excavations was dispersed, is now found in many collections German and Austrian museums, but the Hallstatt Museum in the town has the largest collection. Finds from the Hallstatt site It is probable that some if not all of this diffusion took place in a Celtic-speaking context. In northern Italy the Golasecca culture developed with continuity from the Canegrate culture. Canegrate represented a new cultural dynamic to the area expressed in pottery and bronzework making it a typical western example of the western Hallstatt culture; the Lepontic Celtic language inscriptions of the area show the language of the Golasecca culture was Celtic making it probable that the 13th-century BC precursor language of at least the western Hallstatt was Celtic or a precursor to it.
The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806; the Kingdom of Hungary – as Regnum Independens – was administered by its own institutions separately from the rest of the empire. After Austria was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was adopted, joining together the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria to form Austria-Hungary; the power of nationalism to create new states was irresistible in the 19th century, the process could lead to collapse in the absence of a strong nationalism.
The Austrian Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities and languages that served as the bases for separatist nationalism, it had a large army with good forts. Its naval resources were so minimal, it typified by Metternich. They employed a grand strategy for survival that balanced out different forces, set up buffer zones, kept the Habsburg empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War; the Empire overnight disintegrated into multiple states based on nationalism. Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt and Regensburg. On 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6; this measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, but the actual consequence of the Imperial Recess was the end of the empire.
Taking this significant change into consideration, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors. In 1804, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria, in which all his lands were included. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, which had functioned as a composite monarchy for about three hundred years, he did so because he foresaw either the end of the Holy Roman Empire, or the eventual accession as Holy Roman Emperor of Napoleon, who had earlier that year adopted the title of an Emperor of the French. To safeguard his dynasty's imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Apart from now being included in a new "Kaiserthum", the workings of the overarching structure and the status of its component lands at first stayed much the same as they had been under the composite monarchy that existed before 1804.
This was demonstrated by the status of the Kingdom of Hungary, a country that had never been a part of the Holy Roman Empire and which had always been considered a separate realm—a status, affirmed by Article X, added to Hungary's constitution in 1790 during the phase of the composite monarchy and described the state as a Regnum Independens. Hungary's affairs remained administered by its own institutions, thus no Imperial institutions were involved in its government. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805. On 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by General Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm; the French victory resulted in the capture of many cannons. Napoleon's army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, which concluded with an armistice on 6 December 1805; the French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to ally themselves with the French and assert their formal independence from the Empire.
On 10 December 1805, Maximilian IV Joseph, the prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria, proclaimed himself King, followed by the Duke of Württemberg Frederick III on 11 December. Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden, was given the title of Grand Duke on 12 December; each of these new states became French allies. The Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleon's German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Francis II agreed to the humiliating Treaty of Pressburg, which in practice meant the dissolution of the long-lived Holy Roman Empire and a reorganization under a Napoleonic imprint of the German territories lost in the process into a precursor state of what became modern Germany, those possessions nominally having been part of the Holy Roman Empire within the present boundaries of Germany, as well as other measures weakening Austria and the Habsburgs in other ways. Certain Austrian holdings in
Anschluss refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938. The word's German spelling, until the German orthography reform of 1996, was Anschluß and it was known as the Anschluss Österreichs. Prior to the Anschluss, there had been strong support from people of all backgrounds – not just Nazis – in both Austria and Germany for a union of the two countries; the desire for a union formed an integral part of the Nazi "Heim ins Reich" movement to bring ethnic Germans outside Nazi Germany into Greater Germany. Earlier, Nazi Germany had provided support for the Austrian National Socialist Party in its bid to seize power from Austria's Fatherland Front government; the idea of an Anschluss began after the unification of Germany excluded Austria and the German Austrians from the Prussian-dominated German Empire in 1871. Following the end of World War I with the fall of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, in 1918, the newly formed Republic of German-Austria attempted to form a union with Germany, but the Treaty of Saint Germain and the Treaty of Versailles forbade both the union and the continued use of the name "German-Austria".
The idea of grouping all Germans into one nation-state had been the subject of debate in the 19th century from the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 until the break-up of the German Confederation in 1866. Austria had wanted a Großdeutsche Lösung, whereby the German states would unite under the leadership of the German Austrians; this solution would have included all the German states, but Prussia would have had to take second place. This controversy, called dualism, dominated Prusso-Austrian diplomacy and the politics of the German states in the mid-nineteenth century. In 1866 the feud came to an end during the German war in which the Prussians defeated the Austrians and thereby excluded Austria and the German Austrians from Germany; the Prussian statesman Otto von Bismarck formed the North German Confederation, which included the remaining German states and further expanded the power of Prussia. Bismarck used the Franco-Prussian war as a way to convince other German states, including the Kingdom of Bavaria, to side with Prussia against the Second French Empire.
Due to Prussia's quick victory, the debate was settled and in 1871 the "Kleindeutsch" German Empire based on the leadership of Bismarck and the Kingdom of Prussia formed - this excluded Austria. The Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Ausgleich, provided for a dual sovereignty, the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, under Franz Joseph I; the Austrian-Hungarian rule of this diverse empire included various different ethnic groups including Hungarians, Slavic ethnic groups such as Croats, Poles, Serbs, Slovaks and Ukrainians, as well as Italians and Romanians ruled by a German minority. The empire caused tensions between the various ethnic groups. Many Austrian pan-Germans showed loyalty to Bismarck and only to Germany, wore symbols that were temporarily banned in Austrian schools and advocated the dissolution of the empire to allow an annexation of Austria to Germany. Although many Austrians agreed with pan-Germanism ideas, a lot of them still showed allegiance to the Habsburg Monarchy and wished for Austria to remain an independent country.
After the Nazis gained power in Germany in 1933, they used propaganda to try to coerce Austrians into advocating for an Anschluss to the German Reich by using slogans such as Ein Volk, ein Reich, ein Führer. By the end of World War I, Austria had been excluded from internal German affairs for more than fifty years since the Peace of Prague that concluded the Austro-Prussian War of 1866. Elite and popular opinion in Austria after 1918 favored some sort of union with Germany, but it was explicitly forbidden by the peace treaties; the Austro-Hungarian Empire broke up in 1918, on 12 November that year German Austria was declared a republic. The provisional national assembly drafted a provisional constitution that stated that "German Austria is a democratic republic" and "German Austria is a component of the German Republic". Plebiscites in the German border provinces of Tyrol and Salzburg yielded majorities of 98% and 99% in favor of a unification with the German Republic. In the aftermath of a prohibition of an Anschluss, the Germans in both Austria and Germany pointed to a contradiction in the national self-determination principle because it failed to grant it to the ethnic Germans outside of the German Reich.
The Treaty of Versailles and the Treaty of Saint-Germain explicitly prohibited the political inclusion of Austria in the German state. This measure was criticized by Hugo Preuss, the drafter of the German Weimar Constitution, who saw the prohibition as a contradiction of the Wilsonian principle of self-determination of peoples, intended to help bring peace to Europe. Following the destruction of World War I, however and Britain feared the power of a larger Germany and had begun to disempower the current one. Austrian particularism among the nobility played a role in the decisions; the constitutions of the Weimar Republic and the First Austrian Republic inclu
Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria
Rudolf IV der Stifter was a scion of the House of Habsburg and Duke of Austria and Duke of Styria and Carinthia from 1358, as well as Count of Tyrol from 1363 and first Duke of Carniola from 1364 until his death. After the Habsburgs got nothing from the decree of the Golden Bull in 1356, he gave order to draw up the "Privilegium Maius", a fake document to empower the Austrian rulers. Born in Vienna, Rudolf was the eldest son of his wife Joanna of Pfirt. One of the third generation of Habsburg dukes in Austria, he was the first to be born within the duchy. Therefore, he considered Austria his home, a sentiment that no doubt communicated itself to his subjects and contributed to his popularity. Faced with the Habsburgs' loss of the Imperial crown upon the assassination of his grandfather King Albert I of Germany in 1308, Rudolf was one of the most energetic and active rulers of Austria in the late Middle Ages, it was said of him that as a young man he had the air of a king. In 1357 he was married to Catherine of Luxembourg, a daughter of Emperor Charles IV.
Eager to compete with his mighty father-in-law, who had made the Kingdom of Bohemia and its capital Prague a radiant center of Imperial culture, Rudolf desired to raise the importance of his residence Vienna to a comparable or greater height. For more than a century, the Habsburg dukes had chafed at the Popes' failure to make Vienna the seat of its own diocese, a status that they considered appropriate for the capital of a duchy. Instead the city parish was subordinate to the Bishops of Passau, who had excellent connections to the Pope dooming Vienna's prospects in this regard. Rudolf, resorted to something which could be considered imposture: He initiated the creation of a "metropolitan cathedral chapter" at the church of St. Stephen, whose members wore red garments as cardinals do; the provost of the chapter received the title of an "Archchancellor of Austria". Rudolf extended St. Stephen's Cathedral, with the construction of its gothic nave being started under Rudolf's rule; the construction efforts can be seen as an attempt to compete with St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague.
Rudolf had himself and his wife depicted on a cenotaph at the cathedral's entrance. By founding the University of Vienna in 1365, Rudolf sought to match Charles IV's founding of the Charles University of Prague in 1348. Still known as Alma Mater Rudolphina today, the University of Vienna is the oldest continuously operating university in the German-speaking world. However, a faculty of theology, considered crucial for a university at that time, was not established until 1385, twenty years after Rudolf's death. To improve the economy of Vienna Rudolf introduced many other measures, including the supervision by the mayor of sales of real property, instituted to prevent sales to the dead hand, i.e. to prevent economically unproductive ownership by the Church. Rudolf managed to establish a stable currency, the so-called Wiener Pfennig. Rudolf is best known for another bluff, the forgery of the Privilegium Maius, which de facto put him on par with the seven Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire, compensating for Austria's failure to receive an electoral vote in the Golden Bull of 1356 issued by Emperor Charles IV.
The title of Archduke, invented by Rudolf, became an honorific title of all males of the House of Habsburg from the 16th century. In 1363, Rudolf entered into a contract of inheritance with widowed Countess Margaret of Gorizia-Tyrol upon the death of her only son Meinhard III, which brought the County of Tyrol under Austrian rule only after her death in 1369 since Margraret's brother-in-law Duke Stephen II of Bavaria had invaded the country. In 1364 Rudolf declared the Carinthian March of Carniola a duchy and the next year established the Lower Carniolan town of Novo Mesto, whose German name Rudolfswert was given in his honor. In the same time, he concluded another contract of inheritance with his father-in-law Emperor Charles IV, providing for mutual inheritance between the Habsburg and Luxembourg dynasties. In spite of the high-flying character of his plans, he managed to modernize his territories and his city, the prominence of which increased, his untimely death without issue halted further progress, however.
His younger brothers Albert III and Leopold III, who were to rule jointly under the Rudolfinische Hausordnung, began to quarrel ceaselessly and agreed to divide the Habsburg territories between them according to the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg. It was Leopold's descendant Frederick V of Austria, elected King of the Romans in 1440 and sole ruler over all Austrian lands from 1457, who reaped the fruit of Rudolf's efforts and laid the foundations of the Habsburg Monarchy. Rudolf died at Milan in 1365 aged 25, his and his wife's mortal remains are buried at the Ducal Crypt underneath the Stephansdom in Vienna. Baum, Wilhelm. Rudolf IV. der Stifter. Seine Welt und seine Zeit. Graz-Wien-Köln. Alfons Huber, Geschichte des Herzogs Rudolf IV. von Oesterreich, Wagner’sche Universitaets-Buchhandlung Alfons Huber, "Rudolf IV.", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 29, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 544–547 Heinz Dopsch, "Rudolf IV.", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 22, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 179–180. Seine Welt und seine Zeit.
Styria, Graz, 1996, ISBN 3-222-12422-1 Entry about Rudolf IV, Duke of Austria in the database Gedächtnis de
Otto of Freising
Otto of Freising was a German churchman and chronicler. He was Otto I Bishop of Freising as from 1138. Otto was born in Klosterneuburg as the fifth son of Leopold III, margrave of Austria, by his wife Agnes, daughter of the emperor Henry IV. By her first husband, Frederick I of Hohenstaufen, duke of Swabia, Agnes was the mother of the German king Conrad III and grandmother of the emperor Frederick I. Otto's sister, Judith or Ita, was married to Marquess William V of Montferrat. Otto was thus related to the most powerful families in northern Italy; the records of his life are scanty and the dates somewhat uncertain. He studied in Paris, he is said to have been one of the first to introduce the philosophy of Aristotle into Germany, served as provost of a new foundation in Austria. Having entered the Cistercian order, Otto convinced his father to found Heiligenkreuz Abbey in 1133, thus bringing literacy and sophisticated agriculture to the region that would become Vienna, he became abbot of the Cistercian monastery of Morimond in Burgundy about 1136, soon afterwards was elected bishop of Freising.
This diocese, indeed the whole of Bavaria, was disturbed by the feud between the Welfs and the Hohenstaufen, the church was in a deplorable condition. In 1147 Otto took part in the disastrous Second Crusade; the section of the crusading army led by the bishop was decimated, but Otto reached Jerusalem and returned to Bavaria in 1148 or 1149. He enjoyed the favour of Conrad's successor Frederick I, was instrumental in settling the dispute over the duchy of Bavaria in 1156, was present at the famous diet of Besançon in 1157. Still retaining the habit of a Cistercian monk, he died at Morimond on 22 September 1158. In 1857 a statue of the bishop was erected at Freising. Otto is most remembered for two important historical works; the first of these is his Chronica sive Historia de duabus civitatibus, a historical and philosophical work in eight books, which follows to some extent the lines laid down by Augustine and Orosius. Written during the time of the civil war in Germany, it contrasts Jerusalem and Babel, the heavenly and the earthly kingdoms, contains much valuable information about the history of his own time.
The chronicle, held in high regard by contemporaries, covers the years up until 1146, from this date until 1209 it was continued by Otto, abbot of St Blasius. In the Chronica, Otto reports a meeting he had with Bishop Hugh of Jabala, who told him of a Nestorian Christian king in the east named Prester John, it was hoped. This is the first documented mention of Prester John. Better known is Otto's Gesta Friderici imperatoris, written at the request of Frederick I and prefaced by a letter from the emperor to the author; the Gesta comprises four books, the first two of which were written by Otto and the remaining two, or parts of them, by his pupil Ragewin or Rahewin. It has been argued that the third book and the early part of the fourth were the work of Otto. Beginning with the quarrel between Pope Gregory VII and the emperor Henry IV, the first book takes the history down to the death of Conrad III in 1152, it is not confined to German affairs, as the author digresses to tell of the preaching of Bernard of Clairvaux, of his zeal against the heretics, of the condemnation of Pierre Abélard.
The second book opens with the election of Frederick I in 1152 and deals with the history of the first five years of his reign in Italy, in some detail. From this point the work is continued by Ragewin. Otto's Latin is excellent, in spite of a slight partiality for the Hohenstaufen, some minor inaccuracies, the Gesta has been described as a "model of historical composition." Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Otto of Freising". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Mierow, Charles Christopher. "Bishop Otto of Freising: Historian and Man", Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 80. Pp. 393–402. Article on his life, with complete works Otto of Freising at The Latin Library