Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal
A salute state was a princely state under the British Raj during the time of British rule, granted a gun salute by the British Crown. The gun-salute system of recognition was first instituted during the time of the East India Company in the late 18th century and was continued under direct Crown rule from 1858; as with the other princely states, the salute states varied in size and importance. The states of Hyderabad and Jammu and Kashmir, both with a 21-gun salute, were each over 200,000 km2 in size, or larger than the whole of Great Britain. At the other end of the scale and Sachin were 137 km2 and 127 km2 in size, or larger than the island of Jersey. For varying periods of time, a number of salute states in South Asia, on the Indian subcontinent or in the Middle East were under the British Raj as protectorates or protected states; as with the Indian principalities, those states received varying numbers of gun salutes and varied tremendously in terms of autonomy. Afghanistan and Nepal were both British protected states from the 19th century until 1921 and 1923 after which they were sovereign nations in direct relations with the British Foreign Office.
The states under the Persian Gulf Residency and the Aden Protectorate ranged from Oman, a 21-gun-rated sultanate under a limited protectorate, to the 3-gun Trucial States which were near-total protectorates. Following their independence in 1947, the new Indian and Pakistani governments maintained the gun-salute system until 1971 and 1972, when the former ruling families were derecognised; the Aden Protectorate was transferred to the control of the British Foreign Office in 1937 and became the independent state of South Yemen in 1967, resulting in the abolition of its salute states the same year. Just prior to Indian independence in 1947, the Persian Gulf Residency was transferred to Foreign Office control, remaining in existence until the Trucial States became independent in December 1971, forming the United Arab Emirates in early 1972; when the ruler of a princely state arrived at the Indian capital, he was greeted with a number of gun-firings. The number of these consecutive "gun salutes" changed from time to time, be increased or reduced depending on the degree of honour which the British chose to accord to a given ruler.
The number of gun salutes accorded to a ruler was a reflection of the state of his relations with the British and/or his perceived degree of political power. The King of the United Kingdom was accorded a 101-gun salute, 31 guns were used to salute the Viceroy of India; the number of guns in a salute assumed particular importance at the time of holding of the Coronation Durbar in Delhi in the month of December 1911. The Durbar was held to commemorate the Coronation of King George V with guns firing all day. At that time there were three Princely States; these were: The Nizam of Hyderabad The Maharaja Gaekwad of Baroda State The Maharaja of MysoreIn 1917, the Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior was upgraded to a permanent and hereditary 21-gun salute, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir was granted the same in 1921. Both were granted the increased ranks as a result of the meritorious services of their soldiers in the First World War. Apart from these, no other Princely State received a 21-gun salute. Three of the most prominent princes, enjoyed a local salute of 21 guns within the limits of their own state and 19 guns in the rest of India.
They were the Maharaja Holkar of Indore and the Maharana of Udaipur. The Nizam, Princes, etc. were all keen on protocol and ensured that it was practised as a matter of faith. Any departure from it was not taken kindly by them. Salute of guns was one such protocol, adhered to. At the time of Indian independence and partition in 1947, 118 of the 565 princely states were classified as "salute states." The rulers of the five premier states - Hyderabad State, Baroda, Jammu & Kashmir and Gwalior - received 21-gun salutes. The rulers of six others - Bhopal, Udaipur, Kolhapur and Kalat - received 19-gun salutes, with Bhopal and Udaipur entitled to a local 21-gun salute. 88 were entitled to gun salutes ranging from 17 to 11 guns, with additional gun-salutes granted on a local or personal basis. The remaining 23 received a salute of nine guns. Rulers with gun salutes of 11 guns or above, whether the salute was hereditary or local only, were entitled to the style of Highness. In 1918, the Nizam of Hyderabad was granted the unique style of Exalted Highness, in recognition of the sta
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Central India Agency
The Central India Agency was created in 1854, by amalgamating the Western Malwa Agency with other smaller political offices which reported to the Governor-General of India. The agency was overseen by a political agent who maintained British relations with the princely states and influence over them on behalf of the Governor-General; the headquarters of the agent were at Indore. British hegemony over the states of Central India began in 1802, when several states in the Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand regions came under British control at the conclusion of the Treaty of Bassein between the British and the Maratha - Peshwa Bajirao II. British control of Bundelkhand expanded at the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1805; the remaining states, including Gwalior, Bhopal and a number of smaller states in the regions of Malwa and Bundelkhand, came under British control with the end of the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818. The estate of Chanderi was ceded to the Sindhia ruler of Gwalior in 1844 by the British, Jhansi State was seized by the British in 1853 under the doctrine of lapse was added to the United Provinces.
In 1921 Gwalior Residency was separated from the Central India Agency, in 1933 the state of Makrai transferred to Central India from the Central Provinces and Berar. The princely states in the area of the Agency, 148 in all, varied in status and in size. Eleven states held treaty relations directly with the British Government, were known as the treaty states: Gwalior State, Indore State, Bhopal State, Dhar State, Dewas Senior and Dewas Junior, Orchha, Datia and Rewa; the 31 sanad states had direct relations with the British Government, but not by treaty. These states, in Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand, were granted deeds confirming rulers in possession of their states, in return for the rulers signing a written bond of allegiance to the British; the remaining smaller states and estates were known as mediatized or guaranteed states. Mediatized states were under the authority of a larger state, with the relationship between the states arranged through British mediation. Guaranteed states, found only in Malwa, were states under the authority of larger states, in which the British guaranteed whatever rights existed at the time of British occupation of the region at the conclusion of the Pindari War.
The princely states were related to one of several political officers, which were rearranged a number of times in the history of the Agency. Upon the British withdrawal from India in 1947, the political offices consisted of Indore Residency and the Bundelkhand and Malwa Agencies. Bundelkhand Agency was bounded by Bagelkhand to the east, the United Provinces to the north, Lalitpur District to the west, the Central Provinces to the south. Bagelkhand Agency was separated from Bundelkhand in 1871. In 1900 it included 9 states, the most important of which were Orchha, Samthar, Chhatarpur, Datia and Ajaigarh; the agency included 13 estates and the pargana of Alampur, the latter belonging to Indore State. In 1931, all of the states under the Baghelkhand Agency apart from Rewa were transferred back to Bundelkhand. Salute states, by precedence: Datia, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 15-guns Orchha, title raja, Hereditary salute of 15-guns Ajaigarh, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Baoni, title Nawab, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Bijawar, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Charkhari, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Panna, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Samthar, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 11-gunsNon-salute states, alphabetically: Alipura, title Rao Beri, title Rao/Raja Bihat Chhatarpur, title Raja Garrauli Gaurihar, title Sardar Sawai.
In 1900, it covered the area of twelve states, including: Salute states, by precedence: Rewa, the largest state in Bagelkhand, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 17-guns Baraundha, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 9-guns Maihar, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 9-gunsNon-salute states: Bhaisaunda Jaso Kamta-Rajaula Kothi Nagode Pahra Paldeo Sohawal TaraonIn 1931, all of the states but Rewa were transferred back to Bundelkhand, in 1933 Rewa was transferred to the Indore Residency. Gwalior Residency was placed under the Central India Agency in 1854, separated from Central India Agency in 1921, it included the following, among other smaller states, plus Chhabra pargana of Tonk State: Salute states: Gwalior, title Maharaja Scindia.
Jaipur State was a kachwaha Rajput princely state of India from 1128 to 1947. It was centred on Jaipur town, it existed from the 12th century until Indian Independence in 1947. According to the different periods of history it was known as Jaipur Kingdom, Amber Kingdom, Dhundhar Kingdom and Kachwaha Kingdom. Jaipur's predecessor state was the Dhundhar kingdom, founded in 1093 by Duleh Rai known as Dulha Rao. Jaipur state was known as Amber between the fourteenth century and 1727. In that year, a new capital was built and named Jayapura the kingdom was renamed Jaipur; the Kachwahas of Dhundhar claim to be descendants of Raja Dhola of Narwar. After 31 generations they migrated to Rajputana. Dulha Rao, one of the ancestors of the Kachwaha rulers defeated the Meenas of Manchi and Amber and completed the conquest of Dhundhar by defeating the Bargurjars of Dausa and Deoti; the rulers of Amber fought as generals in the army of Prithviraj Chauhan and under the banner of Rana Sanga against the Mughals under Babur.
However, due to the aggressive expansion of Maldev Rathore and Amber's vulnerability due to its close proximity to Delhi, Bharmal Kachwaha, sought alliance with Akbar, the Mughal emperor. He was formally recognised as a Raja by the Mughals and was invested into the Mughal nobility in return for his daughter's marriage to Akbar. Raja Bharmal's daughter, Harkha Bai, who married Akbar became the mother of the fourth Mughal emperor Jahangir, she gained prestige in Mughal court during Jahangir's reign as the emperor's mother. By this relation, the Rajas of Amer gained significant prominence in the Mughal court. A governor was appointed to oversee Bharmal's territory and a tribute arrangement saw Bharmal given a salaried rank, paid for from a share of the area's revenue; the ruling dynasty of Amber prospered under Mughal rule and provided the Mughal Empire with some distinguished generals. Among them were Bhagwant Das, Man Singh I, who fought and governed from Kabul to Orissa and Assam and Jai Singh I.
Jai Singh I was succeeded by Ram Singh I, Bishan Singh and Jai Singh II. Jai Singh II known as Sawai Jai Singh, ruled the state from 1699 to 1743 was a famous mathematician and astronomer and during his rule the new capital city of Jaipur was founded in 1727. Throughout the disintegration of the Mughal Empire, the armies of Jaipur were in a constant state of warfare. Towards the end of the 18th century, the Jats of Bharatpur and the Kachwaha chief of Alwar declared themselves independent from Jaipur and each annexed the eastern portion of Jaipur's territory; this period of Jaipur's history is characterised by internal power-struggles and constant military conflicts with the Marathas, other Rajput states, as well as the British and the Pindaris. Jaipur suffered against the Rathors of Marwar in the Battle of Gangwana with appalling losses; the kingdom again suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the Maratha forces of Mahadji Scindia in the Battle of Patan in 1790, forcing the rulers of Jaipur to pay heavy tributes.
Enough wealth remained in Jaipur for the patronage of fine temples/palaces, continuity of its courtly traditions and the well-being of its citizens and merchant communities. Jaipurs last attempt to gain freedom from Gwalior ended in a defeat at the Battle of Malpura. A treaty was made by Maharaja Sawai Jagat Singh and the British under Governor General Marquis Wellesley in 1803, however the treaty was dissolved shortly afterwards by Wellesley's successor, Lord Cornwallis. In this event, Jaipur's Ambassador to Lord Lake observed that "This was the first time, since the English government was established in India, that it had been known to make its faith subservient to its convenience". In 1818 Jaipur became a British protectorate. In 1835 there was a serious disturbance in the city because of a false rumour that the British had murdered the infant raja to ensure the annexation, after which the British government intervened; the state became well-governed and prosperous. During the Indian rebellion of 1857 when the British invoked the treaty to request assistance in the suppression of rebellious sepoys, the Maharaja opted to preserve his treaty, thus sent in troops to subdue the uprisings in the area around Gurgaon.
Jaipur's last princely ruler signed the accession to the Indian Union on 7 April 1949. The Chanda clan of Meena tribe ruled this area till 947 CE; the Kachwaha Dynasty defeated the Meena's and established their rule in the area. Dūlaha Rāya Bhau Singh Jai Singh I Ram Singh I Bishan Singh 1699 – 21 Sep 1743: Jai Singh II 1743 – 12 Dec 1750: Ishwari Singh 1750 – 5 Mar 1768: Madho Singh I 1768 – 13 Apr 1778: Prithvi Singh II 1778 – 1803: Pratap Singh 1803 – 21 Nov 1818: Jagat Singh II 22 Dec 1818 – 25 Apr 1819: Mohan Singh 25 Apr 1819 – 6 Feb 1835: Jai Singh III Feb 1835 – 18 Sep 1880: Ram Singh II 18 Sep 1880 – 7 Sep 1922: Madho Singh II 7 Sep 1922 – 15 Aug 1947: Sawai Man Singh II 24 June 1970 – 17 April 2011: Sawai Bhawani Singh The Jaipur Residency was established in 1821, it included the states of Jaipur and Lawa. The latter had belonged to the Haraoti-Tonk Agency until 1867. History of Jaipur
V. P. Menon
Rao Bahadur Vappala Pangunni Menon, CSI, CIE was an Indian civil servant, the Constitutional Adviser and Political Reforms Commissioner to the last three Viceroys during British rule in India. He played a vital role in India's partition and political integration. In his life, he became a member of the free-market–oriented Swatantra Party; the son of a school headmaster in Kerala, Menon worked as a railway stoker, coal miner and Bangalore tobacco company clerk before gaining a junior post in the Indian Civil Service. By working assiduously, Menon rose through the ranks to become the highest serving Indian officer in British India. In 1946, he was appointed Political Reforms Commissioner to the British Viceroy. In Patrick French's India: A Portrait, a biographical book on the Indian Subcontinent, it is mentioned that VP Menon moved in with his Keralite friends after his wife left him and returned to south India; the two friends, who were a couple, had arranged his marriage and helped raise his two sons – Pangunni Anantan Menon and Pangunni Shankaran Menon.
When the husband died, Menon married his widow. Menon was given the title of Rao Bahadur, appointed a CIE in the 1941 Birthday Honours and a CSI in the 1946 Birthday Honours. See Also: Indian Independence Movement, Partition of IndiaMenon was the political advisor of the last Viceroy of India, Lord Louis Mountbatten; when the interim Government had collapsed due to the rivalry between the Indian National Congress and the Muslim League, Menon had proposed to Mountbatten, Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, the Indian leaders, the Muslim League's plan to partition India into two independent nations - India and Pakistan. Menon's resourcefulness during this period caught the eye of Sardar Patel, who would become the Deputy Prime Minister of India in 1947. VP Menon was present at the meeting between Hanwant Singh, Maharaja of Jodhpur, it was at this meeting. After he had signed and the Viceroy Mountbatten left, only Menon was in the room with him; the Maharaja took out a.22 calibre pistol and pointed it at Menon and said'I refuse to take your dictation'.
Menon told him that he would be making a serious mistake by threatening him and would not be able to get the accession abrogated in any case. After the independence of India, Menon became the secretary of the Ministry of the States, headed by Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, with whom he had developed a bond of trust. Patel respected Menon's political genius and work ethic, while Menon obtained the respect for his work that a civil servant needs from his political superior. Menon worked with Patel over the integration of over 565 princely states into the union of India, managing the diplomacy between the States Ministry and the various Indian princes, acting as Patel's envoy and striking deals with reluctant princes and rulers. Patel respected Menon's ingenuity in diplomacy, did not question if Menon exceeded any instructions. Menon worked with Patel over the military action against the hostile states of Junagadh and Hyderabad, as well as advising Nehru and Patel on relations with Pakistan and the Kashmir conflict.
The Cabinet had dispatched Menon to obtain the accession of Kashmir into India in 1947. At Sardar Patel's behest, Menon subsequently wrote a book "The story of the integration of the Indian states" describing the process they had adopted for each state, based on his first hand experiences of the process; the partnership between Patel and Menon was of a rare kind. He played a major role in integration of Independent India; every Indian politician was allergic to civil servants, owing to their participation in the British Raj. Many Congressmen had demanded stripping the service of its privileges or disbanding it all together, owing to the role of British-era officers in imprisoning Congress leaders. Nehru himself was reluctant to listen to the civil servants, he was Governor of Odisha for a short period in 1951. Thus, after Patel's death in 1950, Menon himself retired from the newly formed Indian Administrative Service, he authored a book on the political integration of India, The Story of the Integration of Indian States and on the partition of India, Transfer of Power.
He joined Swatantra Party In 2013, Adi Irani played V. P. Menon in Pradhanmantri on ABP News. Menon, V. P, The story of the integration of the Indian States, Orient Longmans, ISBN ASIN: B0007ILF54 Menon, V. P, Integration of Indian States, Sangam Books Ltd, ISBN 81-250-1597-3 Menon, V. P, The Transfer of Power in India, Sangam Books Ltd, ISBN 81-250-1596-5 V P Menon - The Forgotten Architect of Modern India Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel Partition of India, History of India Indian Independence Movement Patel: A Life by Rajmohan Gandhi W. H. J. Christie, Vapal Pangunni, rev. S. R. Ashton Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
The Gilgit Agency was a system of administration established by British Indian Empire over the subsidiary states of Jammu and Kashmir at its northern periphery with the objective of strengthening these territories against Russian encroachment. An Officer on Special Duty was established in 1877 in the town of Gilgit, upgraded to a permanent Political Agent in 1889. In 1935, the Gilgit wazarat was leased from the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, which came under the administration of the Political Agent. In July 1947, shortly before the independence of India and Pakistan, these areas were returned to the Maharaja. However, the Gilgit Scouts rebelled on 1 November 1947 after the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India, Pakistan took over the administration of the areas soon thereafter; the Gilgit Agency remained in existence under Pakistani control till about 1974, when it was abolished by the Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. The areas under the Gilgit Agency consisted of the state of Chilas and the territories of Darel & Tangir Punial, Kuh-Ghizar, Ishkoman regions the states of Hunza and Nagar.
All these states had systems of administraion. The present day Gilgit and Astore districts comprised the Gilgit wazarat of Jammu and Kashmir with its own governor. However, the Political Agent did exercise some control over its affairs, leading to a system of'dyarchy' until 1935. Afterwards the British leased the Gilgit wazarat from Jammu and Kashmir, it came under the direct administration of the Political Agent. In 1941, the Gilgit Agency had a population of 77,000 and the leased Gilgit wazarat had 23,000. Both the areas together came to be loosely referred to as the'Gilgit Agency'; the administration of the Agency was carried out "on behalf of His Highness’ Government". The Political Agent communicated with the central government in New Delhi via Peshawar for reasons of security; the administered area was bounded in the west by the Chitral State, in the northwest by Afghanistan's Wakhan corridor, in the east by Chinese Turkestan and in the southeast by the Ladakh–Baltistan wazarat of Jammu and Kashmir.
The Treaty of Amritsar granted to Raja Gulab Singh all the Sikh territories between the Ravi and the Indus. In the north, these territories includedGilgit and Chilas. By 1860, the three areas were constituted as a Gilgit wazarat, the princely states of Hunza and Nagar to the northeast accepted the suzerainty of the Maharaja Ranbir Singh; the Treaty of Amritsar did not constrain the Maharaja from establishing relationships with external powers, he is said to have had dealings with Russia and Chinese Turkestan. The British watched these developments with concern in the light of Russian expansion in the north. Ranbir Singh's successor Pratap Singh was a weak ruler; the British used the opportunity to establish an Agency in Gilgit in 1889, stationing a Political Agent who reported to the British Resident in Srinagar. The initial purpose of the Agency was to keep watch on the frontier and to restrain Hunza and Nagar from dealing with the Russians. Soon afterwards, the states of Hunza and Nagar were brought under the direct purview of the Gilgit Agency.
The Jammu and Kashmir State Forces were stationed in a garrison at Gilgit, which were used by the Agency to keep order. They were replaced by a British-officered Gilgit Scouts in 1913; the princely states to the west of Gilgit were brought under the purview of the Gilgit Agency. These areas were nominally under the suzerainty of Kashmir but were directly administered by the Agency. Following a rebellion 1892, Chitral was transferred to the Malakand Agency in the Frontier Areas; the remaining areas remained under the control of the Gilgit Agency, which administered them through governors. The local rulers of these territories continued to appear at the Jammu and Kashmir Durbars until 1947. Following the Partition of India, on 31 October 1947 the British officer William Brown led the Gilgit Scouts in a coup against the Dogra governor of Gilgit which resulted in the region becoming part of Pakistan administered Kashmir. Most of the Ladakh Wazarat, including the Kargil area, became part of Indian-administered Kashmir.
The Line of Control established at the end of the war is the current de facto border of India and Pakistan. The Gilgit Agency was not absorbed into any of the provinces of West Pakistan, but was ruled directly by political agents of the federal government of Pakistan. In 1963, Pakistan entered into a treaty with China to transfer part of the Gilgit Agency to China, with the proviso that the settlement was subject to the final solution of the Kashmir dispute; the dissolution of the province of West Pakistan in 1970 was accompanied by change of the name of the Gilgit Agency to the Northern Areas. In 1974, the states of Hunza and Nagar and the independent valleys of Darel-Tangir, de facto dependencies of Pakistan, were incorporated into the Northern Areas. Pakistan and India continue to dispute the sovereignty of the territories that had comprised the Gilgit Agency. Baltistan Gilgit Northern Areas Kashmir Kashmir Conflict Trans-Karakoram Tract Bangash, Yaqoob Khan, "Three Forgotten Accessions: Gilgit and Nagar", The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 38: 117–143, doi:10.1080/03086530903538269, Amar Singh, Gilgit Age