Spanish Council of State
The Council of State, is the supreme consultative council of the Spanish Government. The current Council of State was established in 1980 according to the article 107 of the Constitution of 1978; the institution of the Council of State, understood as supreme consultative council of the Government, has existed intermittently since 1812. During the Ancien Régime, the Council of State advised the King about foreign policy; the council as the body through which the monarchs ruled their territories has its origins in the Crown of Castile with the creation of the Council of Castile in 1385 by King John II. Other peninsular kingdoms like Navarre created its own council in 1481 by Queen Joan II and in Aragón in 1494 by King Ferdinand the Catholic; the King Charles I inherited vast territories through Europe and decided to create a new council called «of State» due to the enourmous foreign policy that marked his reign. This council started its duties in 1526 when Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent threatened Spanish possessions in Austria.
It was the only Council that did not have a president, because it was the King himself who assumed that function. His advisors were not specialists in laws but experts in international relations, such as the Duke of Alba or Nicolás Perrenot; the councilors were, members of the high nobility and the high clergy. In times of Philip II sometimes the monarch did not preside over the councils and, in his place, sent to its secretary Antonio Perez, it had a great influence during the reigns of Charles I and Philip II and during the regency of Mariana of Austria. The reforms of Philip V emptied its actual power, although Manuel de Godoy wished to revive it in 1792. Unlike the Council of Castile, in which the King listened to the councilors and executed the conclusions presented to him, in the Council of State was the King himself who exposed the points to be discussed, listened to his advisors and, the same monarch made the decisions that were to be made; the Council of State has existed intermittently during 20th centuries.
The Constitution of 1812 granted the King the executive power and established that this was the only council to which the King could go to ask for advice. This obligation was over in 1814; the Constitution configured the Council as a King-control-body forcing the King to take to the council important issues like the sanction of the laws, the declaration of war or the conclusion of treaties that in any case the sovereign could undertake without having "heard" the Council. With the death of the King in 1833, the year the council was abolished and it was created instead the Royal Council of Spain and the Indies as a superior consultative body but it was abolished in 1836. In 1845, under the name of Royal Council was restored and for the first time the Presidency of the Council was granted to the Prime Minister. In 1858 recovered its original name and since the council has been regulated by numerous laws, the lattest in 1980. Nowadays the Council of State continue being the main and superior consultative body of the Government, but since 1991 some economic and social competencies has been transferred to the Economic and Social Council.
The Council of State has its headquarters in the Palace of the Madrid. The Council of State Organic Act establish that the Council will watch for the observance of the Constitution and the rest of the legal order when the Government ask for its advice or when the laws establish it; the Council is formed by its President, appointed by the Council of Ministers with the advice of the Prime Minister after appearing before Congress and three kind of Councilors: The Permanent Councilors. To be elected Permanent Councilor you must have been Minister, President or minister of a regional government, Councilor of State, member of the Advisory Councils of the regional governments, Chief Law Clerk of the Council of State, Academic of number of the Royal Academies integrated into the Institute of Spain, Full professor of law, economic or social disciplines in the University, with fifteen years of experience, General Officer of the Legal Bodies of the Armed Forces, State civil servants with fifteen years of service at least in bodies or scales for which admission is required university degree or former Governors of the Bank of Spain.
The Born Councilors. To be elected Born Councilor you must have been Prime Minister, director of the Royal Academies, President of the Economic and Social Council, Attorney General, Chief of the Defence Staff, President of the General Council of Lawyers, President of the Ministry of Justice' General Codification Committee, Solicitor General, Director of the Center for Political and Constitutional Studies or Governor of the Bank of Spain; the Elective Councilors. To be elected Elective Councilor you must have been Member of Parliament, Magistrate of the Constitutional Court, Judge or Advocate General of the Court of Justice of the European Union, President or Member of the General Council of the Judiciary, Minister or Secretary of State, President of the Court of Auditors, Chief of the Defense Staff, President or Minister of a Regional Government, Ambassador from the diplomatic career, Mayor of a provincial capital, President of the Provincial Council, of the Inter-Island Commonwealth, of the Island Council or of the Insular Council or University Rector.
Economic and Social Council of Spain Website of the Council of State
A committee is a body of one or more persons, subordinate to a deliberative assembly. The assembly sends matters into a committee as a way to explore them more than would be possible if the assembly itself were considering them. Committees may have different functions and their type of work differ depending on the type of the organization and its needs. A deliberative assembly may form a committee consisting of one or more persons to assist with the work of the assembly. For larger organizations, much work is done in committees. Committees can be a way to formally draw together people of relevant expertise from different parts of an organization who otherwise would not have a good way to share information and coordinate actions, they may have the advantage of sharing out responsibilities. They can be appointed with experts to recommend actions in matters that require specialized knowledge or technical judgment. Committees can serve several different functions: Governance In organizations considered too large for all the members to participate in decisions affecting the organization as a whole, a smaller body, such as a board of directors, is given the power to make decisions, spend money, or take actions.
A governance committee is formed as a separate committee to review the performance of the board and board policy as well as nominate candidates for the board. Coordination and administration A large body may have smaller committees with more specialized functions. Examples are an audit committee, an elections committee, a finance committee, a fundraising committee, a program committee. Large conventions or academic conferences are organized by a coordinating committee drawn from the membership of the organization. Research and recommendations Committees may be formed to do research and make recommendations on a potential or planned project or change. For example, an organization considering a major capital investment might create a temporary working committee of several people to review options and make recommendations to upper management or the board of directors. Discipline A committee on discipline may be used to handle disciplinary procedures on members of the organization; as a tactic for indecision As a means of public relations by sending sensitive, inconvenient, or irrelevant matters to committees, organizations may bypass, stall, or disacknowledge matters without declaring a formal policy of inaction or indifference.
However, this could be considered a dilatory tactic. Committees are required to report to their parent body. Committees do not have the power to act independently unless the body that created it gives it such power; when a committee is formed, a chairman is designated for the committee. Sometimes a vice-chairman is appointed, it is common for the committee chairman to organize its meetings. Sometimes these meetings are held through videoconferencing or other means if committee members are not able to attend in person, as may be the case if they are in different parts of the country or the world; the chairman is responsible for running meetings. Duties include keeping the discussion on the appropriate subject, recognizing members to speak, confirming what the committee has decided. Using Roberts Rules of Order Newly Revised, committees may follow informal procedures; the level of formality depends on the size and type of committee, in which sometimes larger committees considering crucial issues may require more formal processes.
Minutes are a record of the decisions at meetings. They can be taken by a person designated as the secretary. For most organizations, committees are not required to keep formal minutes. However, some bodies require that committees take minutes if the committees are public ones subject to open meeting laws. Committees may meet on a regular basis, such as weekly or more or meetings may be called irregularly as the need arises; the frequency of the meetings depends on the needs of the parent body. When the committee completes its work, it provides the results in a report to its parent body; the report may include the methods used, the facts uncovered, the conclusions reached, any recommendations. If the committee is not ready to report, it may provide a partial report or the assembly may discharge the committee of the matter so that the assembly can handle it. If members of the committee are not performing their duties, they may be removed or replaced by the appointing power. Whether the committee continues to exist after presenting its report depends on the type of committee.
Committees established by the bylaws or the organization's rules continue to exist, while committees formed for a particular purpose go out of existence after the final report. In parliamentary procedure, the motion to commit is used to refer another motion—usually a main motion—to a committee. A motion to commit should specify to which committee the matter is to be referred, if the committee is a special committee appointed for purposes of the referred motion, it should specify the number of committee members and the method of their selection, unless, specified in the bylaws. Any proposed amendments to the main motion that are pending at the time the motion is referred to a committee go to the committee as well. Once referred, but before the committee reports its recommendations back to the assembly, the referred motion may be removed from the committee's consideration by the motion to discharge a committee. In the United States House of Representatives, a motion to recommit
Conseil d'État (France)
In France, the Council of State is a body of the French national government that acts both as legal adviser of the executive branch and as the supreme court for administrative justice. Established in 1799 by Napoleon as a successor to the King's Council, it is located in the Palais-Royal in Paris and is made up of top-level legal officers; the Vice President of the Council of State ranks 9th as the most important civil servant in France. Members of the Conseil D'État are part of a Grand Corps of the French State; the Conseil D'État recruits among the top ranking students graduating from the École nationale d'administration. A General Session of the Council of State is presided over by the Prime Minister or, in his absence, the Minister of Justice. However, since the real presidency of the Council is held by the Vice-President, he presides all but the most ceremonial assemblies; this is done for obvious reasons pertaining to the separation of powers. Other members of the Council include, by decreasing order of importance: Department heads Councillors ordinary Councillors extraordinary Masters of requests Master of requests extraordinary Senior masters Masters The Vice-President is appointed by Order-in-Council on the recommendation of the Minister of Justice and is selected from among the Council's department heads or councillors ordinary.
Division heads are appointed and selected from among the councillors ordinary. Councillors ordinary, masters of requests, senior masters are appointed based on seniority from the preceding rank. Appointees from outside the Council may include administrative law judges or may come from outside the justice system. Masters are recruited from among the graduates of France's National Administration Academy; the Council sits in the Palais Royal located in Paris. The Council is divided into 7 divisions: Administrative Claims — see below. Report and Studies: writes the annual report, conducts studies and helps to oversee judgments and verdicts are carried out. Finances, the Interior and Social Security, Public Works and Administrative Issues review any and all Cabinet-issued orders and statutory instruments and examine and sign off on all Orders of Council; these reviews, though mandatory, are not binding. The Council of State studies legal issues and problems brought before the Cabinet. In addition, it is responsible for carrying out administrative court inspections.
The Council of State originates from the 13th century by which time the King's Court had split into three sections, one of, the King's Council, which too broke up into three distinct parts: the Conseil secret'Privy Council', the Conseil privé'Private Council', Conseil des finances'Council of Finances'. Reorganized under Louis XIV into two major groupings, it was the Conseil d'État privé, finances et direction, the direct ancestor of the Council of State, it brought together legal experts to advise the King on claims against the Crown. Established in 1557, this was the largest of the King's Councils made up of France's High Chancellor, lords of peerage and Secretaries of State, the Comptroller-General, 30 Councillors of State, 80 masters of requests, the Intendants of Finance; the judicial portion of the Council was known as the Conseil d'État Conseil des parties. The kings, who had the power to dispense justice and hand down judgments as the court of last resort, delegated this judicial power to royal courts and parlements.
But the French king still retained the power to override them at will. French kings maintained their privilege to decide major issues and hand down judgements when administrative acts were in dispute; the judgments of the King's Council of State were regarded as being issued under the King's residual proper jurisdiction, that is, the sovereign's reserved power to dispense justice in certain matters. Legal advisors assisted the King in developing new laws and, by delegated jurisdiction, directly exercised sovereign rights. For more on French government administration during the Old Regime, see Ancien Régime in France; the current Council of State was established by the French Consulate government in 1799 as a judicial body mandated to adjudicate claims against the State and assist in the drafting of important laws. The First Consul presided over Council sessions, the Council performed many of the functions of a Cabinet. After the Bourbon Restoration, the Council was retained as an administrative court but without its former prominence.
Its role was more defined by an 1872 Act of Parliament. Certain types of statutory instruments must be examined by the Council and receive its advisory approval, including: All draft legislation proposed by non-parliamentary members and prior to being introduced before Parliament. Orders-in-council, signed by the Prime Minister and cabinet ministers. A statutory law will authorize, prescribe, or prohibit an action defined in broad terms and require a government order to define its scope and a
The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806; the Kingdom of Hungary – as Regnum Independens – was administered by its own institutions separately from the rest of the empire. After Austria was defeated in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 was adopted, joining together the Kingdom of Hungary and the Empire of Austria to form Austria-Hungary; the power of nationalism to create new states was irresistible in the 19th century, the process could lead to collapse in the absence of a strong nationalism.
The Austrian Empire had the advantage of size, but multiple disadvantages. There were rivals on four sides, its finances were unstable, the population was fragmented into multiple ethnicities and languages that served as the bases for separatist nationalism, it had a large army with good forts. Its naval resources were so minimal, it typified by Metternich. They employed a grand strategy for survival that balanced out different forces, set up buffer zones, kept the Habsburg empire going despite wars with the Ottomans, Frederick the Great and Bismarck, until the final disaster of the First World War; the Empire overnight disintegrated into multiple states based on nationalism. Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt and Regensburg. On 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6; this measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, but the actual consequence of the Imperial Recess was the end of the empire.
Taking this significant change into consideration, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors. In 1804, the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria, in which all his lands were included. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, which had functioned as a composite monarchy for about three hundred years, he did so because he foresaw either the end of the Holy Roman Empire, or the eventual accession as Holy Roman Emperor of Napoleon, who had earlier that year adopted the title of an Emperor of the French. To safeguard his dynasty's imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Apart from now being included in a new "Kaiserthum", the workings of the overarching structure and the status of its component lands at first stayed much the same as they had been under the composite monarchy that existed before 1804.
This was demonstrated by the status of the Kingdom of Hungary, a country that had never been a part of the Holy Roman Empire and which had always been considered a separate realm—a status, affirmed by Article X, added to Hungary's constitution in 1790 during the phase of the composite monarchy and described the state as a Regnum Independens. Hungary's affairs remained administered by its own institutions, thus no Imperial institutions were involved in its government. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805. On 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by General Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm; the French victory resulted in the capture of many cannons. Napoleon's army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, which concluded with an armistice on 6 December 1805; the French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to ally themselves with the French and assert their formal independence from the Empire.
On 10 December 1805, Maximilian IV Joseph, the prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria, proclaimed himself King, followed by the Duke of Württemberg Frederick III on 11 December. Charles Frederick, Margrave of Baden, was given the title of Grand Duke on 12 December; each of these new states became French allies. The Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleon's German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Francis II agreed to the humiliating Treaty of Pressburg, which in practice meant the dissolution of the long-lived Holy Roman Empire and a reorganization under a Napoleonic imprint of the German territories lost in the process into a precursor state of what became modern Germany, those possessions nominally having been part of the Holy Roman Empire within the present boundaries of Germany, as well as other measures weakening Austria and the Habsburgs in other ways. Certain Austrian holdings in
Oswaldo Cruz Foundation
The Oswaldo Cruz Foundation is a scientific institution for research and development in biological sciences located in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, it is considered one of the world's main public health research institutions. It was founded by a noted physician and epidemiologist; the organization started in 1898 as the Federal SeroTherapy Institute with the objective of developing serum and vaccines against the bubonic plague. It was located outside of Rio de Janeiro; the institute’s activities, changed from simple production into research and experimental medicine after Oswaldo Cruz assumed its leadership in 1902. From there on, the institute became the base for memorable sanitation campaigns in an age of outbreaks and epidemics of the bubonic plague, yellow fever, smallpox; the Institute, was not confined to Rio de Janeiro and, on the contrary, collaborated in the occupation of the country’s interior through scientific expeditions, aiding in the development of the country. When Oswaldo Cruz died, in 1917, the Institute, which by already bore his name, was nationally consolidated through important scientific achievements, such as Carlos Chagas’ description of the complete cycle of the American trypanosomiasis including the clinical pattern of the disease.
On 16 January 2007, the Institute announced that it had developed a gel from algae which it is hoped will reduce HIV transmission to women. Today the institution has a broad range of responsibilities related to the health and wellbeing of the Brazilian population; this includes ambulatory care. The Fiocruz workforce members are over 7,500. Fiocruz includes several fixed facilities in other locations. Fiocruz is one of the founding members of the International Association of National Public Health Institutes, a membership organization of national public health institutes. Fiocruz Genome Comparison Project Museum of Life Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, its official medical journal Official website
Electorate of Saxony
The Electorate of Saxony was a state of the Holy Roman Empire established when Emperor Charles IV raised the Ascanian duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg to the status of an Electorate by the Golden Bull of 1356. Upon the extinction of the House of Ascania, it was feoffed to the Margraves of Meissen from the Wettin dynasty in 1423, who moved the ducal residence up the river Elbe to Dresden. After the Empire's dissolution in 1806, the Wettin Electors raised Saxony to a territorially reduced kingdom. After the dissolution of the medieval Duchy of Saxony, the name Saxony was first applied to a small territory midway along the river Elbe, around the city of Wittenberg, which had belonged to the March of Lusatia. Around 1157 it was held by the first Margrave of Brandenburg; when Emperor Frederick Barbarossa deposed the Saxon duke, Henry the Lion in 1180, the Wittenberg lands belonged to Albert's youngest son, Count Bernhard of Anhalt, who assumed the Saxon ducal title. Bernard's eldest son, Albert I, ceded the territory known as, Anhalt to his younger brother, retaining the ducal title and attched to this territory the lordship of Lauenburg.
His sons divided the territory into the duchies of Saxe-Lauenburg. Both lines claimed the Saxon electoral dignity or privilege, which led to confusion during the 1314 election of the Wittelsbach duke, Louis of Bavaria as King of the Romans against his Habsburg rival, Duke Frederick the Fair of Austria, as both candidates received one vote each from each of the two rival Ascanian branches. Louis was succeeded by Charles of Bohemia. After his coronation as Holy Roman Emperor in 1355, Charles issued the Golden Bull of 1356, the fundamental law of the Empire settling the method of electing the German King by seven Prince-electors; the rival Wittelsbach and Habsburg dynasties got nothing, instead the Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg, Archmarshal of the Empire, received the right to elect the King of the Romans and the prospective Emperor, together with six other elector Princes of the Empire. Thus, the country, though small in area, gained influence far beyond its extent; the electoral privilege contained the obligation of male primogeniture.
That is, only the eldest son could succeed as ruler. It therefore forbade the division of the territory among several heirs, in order to prevent the disintegration of the country; the importance of this stipulation is shown by the history of most of the fragmented German principalities which were not constituted as electorates. The Ascanian line of Saxe-Wittenberg became extinct with the death of Elector Albert III in 1422, after which Emperor Sigismund granted the country and electoral privilege upon Margrave Frederick IV of Meissen, a loyal supporter in the Hussite Wars; the late Albert's Ascanian relative, Duke Eric V of Saxe-Lauenburg protested in vain. Frederick, one of the seven Prince-electors, was a member of the House of Wettin, which since 1089 had ruled over the adjacent Margravate of Meissen up the Elbe river - established under Emperor Otto I in 965 - and over the Landgravate of Thuringia since 1242. Thus, in 1423, Saxe-Wittenberg, the Margravate of Meissen and Thuringia were united under one ruler, as a unified territory became known as, Upper Saxony.
When Elector Frederick II died in 1464, his two surviving sons overrode the primogeniture principle and divided his territories by the Treaty of Leipzig on 26 August 1485. This resulted in the separated Wettin dynasty becoming the Ernestine and Albertine branches; the elder Ernest, founder of the Ernestine line, received large parts of the former Duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg with the electoral privilege attached to it, the southern Landgravate of Thuringia. While the younger Albert, founder of the Albertine line, received northern Thuringia and the lands of the former Margravate of Meissen. Thus, although the Ernestine line had had greater authority until the Battle of Mühlberg in 1547, the electoral privilege and territory fell to the Albertine line, which also became a royal house when Saxony was proclaimed a kingdom in the 19th century; this partition was to decisively enfeeble the Wettin dynasty in relation to the rising House of Hohenzollern. It had achieved its own electoral privilege as Margraves of Brandenburg since 1415.
The Protestant movement of the 16th century spread under the protection of the Saxon rulers. Ernest's son, Elector Frederick the Wise established in 1502 the University at Wittenberg, where the Augustinian monk, Martin Luther, was appointed professor of philosophy in 1508. At the same time he became one of the preachers at the castle church in Wittenberg. On 31 October 1517, he enclosed in a protest letter to Albert of Brandenburg the Archbishop of Mainz, The Ninety-Five Theses against the sale of indulgences and other Catholic practices, an action that marked the start of what came to be called the Reformation. Although the Elector did not at first share the new attitude, he granted his protection to Luther anyway. Owing to this intervention, Pope Leo X decided against summoning Luther to Rome in 1518, the Elector secured for Luther Imperial safe-conduct to the Diet of Worms in 1521; when Luther was declared banned in the entire empire by Emperor Charles V, the Elector had him brought to live in Wartburg Castle on his Thuringian estate.
Lutheran doctrines spread first in Ernestine Saxony. In 1525, Frederick died never having left the Catholic Church, unless on his deathbed in 1525, but he was sympathetic towards Lutheranism by the time of his death, he was succeeded by John the Constant. John was a zealous Lutheran, he exercised full authority over the new chu
Council of State (Norway)
The Council of State, is a formal body composed of the most senior government ministers chosen by the Prime Minister, functions as the collective decision-making organ constituting the executive branch of the Kingdom. The council plays the role of privy council as well as government Cabinet. With the exception of the Prime Minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs, who retain their ministerial ranking in their own right, all the other members of the Cabinet concurrently hold the position of statsråd, meaning Councillor of State, that of Chief of the various departments, not formally being considered'ministers', although addressed as such; the Cabinet convenes every week on Fridays at 11:00 a.m. at the Royal Palace, is presided over by the Monarch. Under the 1814 Constitution of Norway, the third-oldest national Constitution still in operation, the King is the head of the executive branch of Norway. However, historical developments such as the introduction of parliamentarism in 1884 and evolving constitutional tradition have altered the King's role, meaning that the Prime Minister, holding the leadership of a political party enjoying electoral support, is the de facto head of government.
Accordingly, when Article 3 of the Constitution reads, "The Executive Power is vested in the King", this nowadays reflects the powers conferred on the elected government, operating through the Council of State and headed by the Prime Minister. The parliamentary system of Norway entails that the Cabinet must not have Parliament against it, that the appointment by the King is a formality; the members making up the Council of State require the confidence of the Norwegian legislative body, known as the Storting. In practice, the monarch will ask the leader of a parliamentary block that has a majority in the Storting to form a government. After elections resulting in no clear majority to any party or coalition, the leader of the party most to be able to form a government is appointed Prime Minister; the fact that the original wording of the Constitution has not been modified to reflect contemporary practice, is a testimony to the widespread conservative sentiments shared across the political aisle that extensive constitutional revision should be avoided.
In practice, this means that the function and mandate of the Council of State is influenced by long-standing conventions. The Council of State is established by the following article of the Constitution, stating that The Council of State convenes to formally make decisions on matters of State, passing so-called Royal Resolutions or Orders in Council. Theoretically, the Royal Resolutions themselves are the King's decisions, but are those of the government. However, they require the contra-signature of the Prime Minister, or, in cases relating to military command, of the Minister of Defence in order to be valid. Entire records from the proceedings of the Council of State is signed by all its members; this is done in order to remove all personal responsibility on part of the King, in keeping with Article 5 of the Constitution, which states that, "The King's person is sacred. The responsibility rests with his Council". Another feature of this system is that the King, when having sanctioned a decision, is referred to as King-in-Council, meaning the King as well as his council.
According to the Constitution, certain cases, such as appointments and dismissals of higher office, provisional measures, church ordinances and ratifications of treaties must be administered by the Council of State. Whilst not prescribed in the Constitution, the signing of bills and other regulations into law is the most important feature of the work being conducted during sessions of the Council of State. Article 30 of the Norwegian Constitution states that any member of the Council of State, if he is of the opinion that the "King's decision conflicts with the form of government or the laws of the Realm" is bound by a "duty to make strong remonstrances against it, as well as to enter his opinion in the records." The Article continues by stating that a Member who has not voiced such objections is liable of impeachment by the Storting should a decision made in the Council of State be found unlawful. For the same reason, the aforesaid Article prescribes that all of the decisions made in the Council of State shall be put down in official records.
Whilst most members of the Cabinet originate from within the Storting and will have their seats deputised during their time in office, being Member of Parliament is not a requirement. However, since the introduction of parliamentarism in 1884, all members of the Cabinet must have the express support of the legislature. In addition, they must hold Norwegian citizenship and be eligible to vote, meaning that they have attained the age of 18; until a 2012 amendment, there was a requirement that a majority of the members had to be affiliated with the Church of Norway, the national state church. When church matters are on the table, all members of the Cabinet not registered with the Church would not be in attendance. There is no official order of succession to the premiership of Norway, but the Minister of Foreign Affairs has traditionally been regarded as akin to Deputy Prime Minister, although no such title exists; the King established on 1 July 1993 an Order of precedence to direct seating and ranking on formal occasions.
Here, the Minister of Finance enjoys the foremost rank after the Prime Minister, with the Minister of Foreign Affairs only coming in third, behind the minister of Agriculture and Food. Article in a Norwegian online enc