A procession is an organized body of people walking in a formal or ceremonial manner. Processions have in all peoples and at all times been a natural form of public celebration, as forming an orderly and impressive ceremony. Religious and triumphal processions are abundantly illustrated by ancient monuments, e.g. the religious processions of Egypt, those illustrated by the rock-carvings of Boghaz-Keui, the many representations of processions in Greek art, culminating in the great Panathenaic procession of the Parthenon Frieze, Roman triumphal reliefs, such as those of the arch of Titus. Processions played a prominent part in the great festivals of Greece, where they were always religious in character; the games were either opened or accompanied by more or less elaborate processions and sacrifices, while processions from the earliest times formed part of the worship of the old nature gods, as those connected with the cult of Dionysus and the Phallic processions, formed an essential part of the celebration of the great religious festivals, of the mysteries.
Of the Roman processions, the most prominent was that of the Triumph, which had its origin in the return of the victorious army headed by the general, who proceeded in great pomp from the Campus to the Capitol to offer sacrifice, accompanied by the army, spoils, the chief magistrate, priests bearing the images of the gods, amidst strewing of flowers, burning of incense and the like. Connected with the triumph was the pompa circensis, or solemn procession that preceded the games in the circus, it first came into use at the Ludi Romani, when the games were preceded by a great procession from the Capitol to the Circus. The praetor or consul who appeared in the ponipa circensis wore the robes of a triumphing general. Thus, when it became customary for the consul to celebrate games at the opening of the consular year, he came, under the empire, to appear in triumphal robes in the processus consularis, or procession of the consul to the Capitol to sacrifice to Jupiter. After the ascendency of Christianity in the Roman Empire, the consular processions in Constantinople retained their religious character, now proceeding to Hagia Sophia, where prayers and offerings were made.
There were other local processions connected with the primitive worship of the country people, which remained unchanged, but they were overshadowed by the popular piety of the Church. Such were those of the Ambarvalia, which were rustic festivals, lustrations of the fields, consisting in a procession round the spot to be purified, leading the sacrificial victims with prayers and ceremonies to protect the young crops from evil influence. Tertullian uses processio and procedere in the sense of to go out, appear in public, and, as applied to a church function, processio was first used in the same way as collecta, i.e. for the assembly of the people in a church. In this sense it appears to be used by Pope Leo I, while in the version by Dionysius Exiguus of the 17th canon of the Council of Laodicea Ancient Greek: σονάξεσι, is translated by processionibus. For the processions that formed part of the ritual of the Eucharist, those of the introit, the gospel and the oblation, the earliest records date from the 6th century and later, but they evidently were established at a much earlier date.
As to public processions, these seem to have come into rapid vogue after the recognition of Christianity as the religion of the empire. Those at Jerusalem would seem to have been long established when described by the author of the Peregrinatio Sylviae towards the end of the 4th century. Early were the processions accompanied by hymns and prayers, known as litaniae, rogationes or supplicationes, it is to such a procession that reference appears to be made in a letter of St Basil, which would thus be the first recorded mention of a public Christian procession. The first mention for the Western Church occurs in St Ambrose. In both these cases the litanies are stated to have been long in use. There is mention of a procession accompanied by hymns, organized at Constantinople by St John Chrysostom in opposition to a procession of Arians, in Sozomen. In times of calamity litanies were held, in which the people walked in robes of penitence, barefooted, and, in times dressed in black; the cross was carried at the head of the procession and the gospel and the relics of the saint were carried.
Gregory of Tours gives numerous instances of such litanies in time of calamity. So, Gregory the Great writes to the Sicilian bishops to hold processions to prevent a threatened invasion of Sicily. A famous instance of these penitential litanies is the litania septiformis ordered by Gregory the Great in the year 590, when Rome had been inundated and pestilence had followed. In this litany seven processions, of clergy, monks, matrons, the p
Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense and law enforcement applications, physical and spiritual development. Although the term martial art has become associated with the fighting arts of East Asia, it referred to the combat systems of Europe as early as the 1550s; the term means "arts of Mars", the Roman god of war. Some authors have argued that fighting arts or fighting systems would be more appropriate on the basis that many martial arts were never "martial" in the sense of being used or created by professional warriors. Martial arts may be categorized along a variety of criteria, including: Traditional or historical arts vs. contemporary styles of folk wrestling and modern hybrid martial arts. Techniques taught: Armed vs. unarmed, within these groups by type of weapon and by type of combat By application or intent: self-defense, combat sport, choreography or demonstration of forms, physical fitness, etc. Within Chinese tradition: "external" vs. "internal" styles UnarmedUnarmed martial arts can be broadly grouped into focusing on strikes, those focusing on grappling and those that cover both fields described as hybrid martial arts.
Strikes Punching: Boxing, Wing Chun, Karate Kicking: Taekwondo, Savate Others using strikes: Muay Thai, Kung Fu, Pencak SilatGrappling Throwing: Hapkido, Sumo, Aikido Joint lock/Chokeholds/Submission holds: Judo, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Sambo Pinning Techniques: Judo, AikidoArmedThe traditional martial arts, which train in armed combat encompass a wide spectrum of melee weapons, including bladed weapons and polearms. Such traditions include eskrima, kalaripayat and historical European martial arts those of the German Renaissance. Many Chinese martial arts feature weapons as part of their curriculum. Sometimes, training with one specific weapon will be considered a style of martial arts in its own right, the case in Japanese martial arts with disciplines such as kenjutsu and kendo and kyudo. Modern martial arts and sports include modern fencing, stick-fighting systems like canne de combat, modern competitive archery. Combat-oriented Health-orientedMany martial arts those from Asia teach side disciplines which pertain to medicinal practices.
This is prevalent in traditional Asian martial arts which may teach bone-setting and other aspects of traditional medicine. Spirituality-orientedMartial arts can be linked with religion and spirituality. Numerous systems are reputed to have been disseminated, or practiced by monks or nuns. Throughout Asia, meditation may be incorporated as part of training. In those countries influenced by Hindu-Buddhist philosophy, the art itself may be used as an aid to attaining enlightenment. Japanese styles, when concerning non-physical qualities of the combat, are strongly influenced by Mahayana Buddhist philosophy. Concepts like "empty mind" and "beginner's mind" are recurrent. Aikido, for instance, can have a strong philosophical belief of the flow of energy and peace fostering, as idealised by its founder Morihei Ueshiba. Traditional Korean martial arts place emphasis on the development of the practitioner's spiritual and philosophical development. A common theme in most Korean styles, such as taekkyeon and taekwondo, is the value of "inner peace" in a practitioner, stressed to be only achieved through individual meditation and training.
The Koreans believe. Systema draws upon breathing and relaxation techniques, as well as elements of Russian Orthodox thought, to foster self-conscience and calmness, to benefit the practitioner in different levels: the physical, the psychological and the spiritual; some martial arts in various cultures can be performed in dance-like settings for various reasons, such as for evoking ferocity in preparation for battle or showing off skill in a more stylized manner. Many such martial arts incorporate music strong percussive rhythms; the oldest works of art depicting scenes of battle are cave paintings from eastern Spain dated between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE that show organized groups fighting with bows and arrows. Chinese martial arts originated during the legendary apocryphal, Xia Dynasty more than 4000 years ago, it is said. The Yellow Emperor is described as a famous general who before becoming China's leader, wrote lengthy treatises on medicine and martial arts. One of his main opponents was Chi You, credited as the creator of jiao di, a forerunner to the modern art of Chinese wrestling.
The foundation of modern Asian martial arts is a blend of early Chinese and Indian martial arts. During the Warring States period of Chinese history extensive development in martial philosophy and strategy emerged, as described by Sun Tzu in The Art of War. Legendary accounts link the origin of Shaolinquan to the spread of Buddhism from ancient India during the early 5th century AD, with the figure of Bodhidharma, to China. Written evidence of martial arts in Southern India dates back to the Sangam literature of about the 2nd century BC to the 2nd century AD; the combat techniques of the Sangam period were the earliest precursors to Kalaripayattu. In Europe, the earlie
Rapier, or espada ropera known as estoque, is a loose term for a type of large, slender pointed sword. With such design features, the rapier is optimized to be a thrusting weapon, but cutting or slashing attacks were recorded in some historical treatises like Capo Ferro's Gran Simulacro in 1610; this weapon was used in Early Modern Europe during the 16th and 17th centuries. The term "rapier" is applied by archaeologists to an unrelated type of Bronze Age sword; the word "rapier" refers to a long-bladed sword characterized by a protective hilt, constructed to provide protection for the hand wielding the sword. Some historical rapier samples feature a broad blade mounted on a typical rapier hilt; the term rapier can be confusing because this hybrid weapon can be categorized as a type of broadsword. While the rapier blade might be broad enough to cut to some degree, it is designed to perform quick and nimble thrusting attacks; the blade might be sharpened only from the center to the tip. Pallavicini, a rapier master in 1670 advocated using a weapon with two cutting edges.
A typical example would weigh 1 kilogram and have a long and slender blade of 2.5 centimetres or less in width, 104 centimetres or more in length and ending in a pointed tip. The blade length of quite a few historical examples the Italian rapiers in the early 17th century, is well over 115 cm and can reach 130 cm; the term rapier refers to a thrusting sword with a blade longer and thinner than that of the so-called side-sword but much heavier than the small sword, a lighter weapon that would follow in the 18th century and but the exact form of the blade and hilt depends on, writing and when. It can refer to earlier Spada da lato and the similar espada ropera, through the high rapier period of the 17th century through the small sword and duelling swords, thus context is important in understanding what is meant by the word; the word "rapier" is a German word to describe what was considered to be a foreign weapon, though it was produced within the Holy Roman Empire. The word rapier was not used by Italian and French masters during the heyday of this weapon, the terms spada, épée being instead the norm.
Because of this, as well as the great variation of late-16th and 17th century swords, some like Tom Leoni describe the rapier as a straight-bladed, two-edged, single-handed sword of that period, sufficient in terms of both offense and defence, not requiring a companion weapon. To avoid the confusion of lumping all swords together, some categorize such swords by their function and use. For example, John Clements categorizes thrusting swords with poor cutting abilities as rapiers, swords with both good thrusting and cutting abilities as cut and thrust swords. Some, look at the rapier in its entire time-line and see that it never fits into any single definition. Across Europe, the weapon changed based on culture and the fighting style, prescribed. One might wear a rapier with a swept hilt and edges on the same day as another might wear one with a cup hilt and an edgeless blade. Rapiers have complex, sweeping hilts designed to protect the hand wielding the sword. Rings extend forward from the crosspiece.
In some samples, rings are covered with metal plates evolving into the cup hilts of many rapiers. There were hardly any samples prior to the 1600s. Many hilts include a knuckle bow extending down from the crosspiece protecting the grip, wood wrapped with cord, leather or wire. A large pommel provides some weight to balance the long blade. Various rapier masters divided the blade into two, four, five or nine parts; the forte, strong, is that part of the blade closest to the hilt. The debole, weak, is the part of the blade which includes the point and is the second half of the blade when the sword is divided into an number of parts. However, some rapier masters divided the blade into three parts, in which case the central third of the blade, between the forte and the debole, was called the medio, mezzo or the terzo. Others used four divisions or 12; the Ricasso is the rear portion of the blade unsharpened. It extends forward from the crosspiece or quillion and gradually integrates into the thinner and sharper portion of the blade.
There was historical disagreement over how long the ideal rapier should be, with some masters, such as Thibault, denigrating those who recommended longer blades. Rapiers are single-handed weapons and
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Hans Talhoffer was a 15th-century German fencing master. His martial lineage is unknown, but his writings make it clear that he had some connection to the tradition of Johannes Liechtenauer, the grand master of a well-known Medieval German school of fencing. Talhoffer was a well-educated man who took interest in astrology, mathematics and the auctoritas and the ratio, he authored at least five fencing manuals during the course of his career, appears to have made his living teaching, including training people for trial by combat. The first known reference to Talhoffer is in 1433, when he represented Johann II von Reisberg, archbishop of Salzburg, before the Vehmic court. Shortly thereafter in 1434, Talhoffer was arrested and questioned by order of Wilhelm von Villach in connection to the trial of a Nuremberg aristocrat named Jacob Auer, accused of murdering of his brother. Auer's trial was quite controversial and proved a major source of contention and regional strife for the subsequent two years.
Talhoffer himself remained in the service of the archbishop for at least a few more years, in 1437 is mentioned as serving as a bursary officer in Hohenburg. The 1440s saw the start of Talhoffer's career as a professional fencing master, his first fencing manuscript, the Ms. Chart. A.558, was a personal reference book created in ca. 1443. The fencing manual portion is text-less and it may have been designed as a visual aid for use in teaching. Most significant among the noble clients that Talhoffer served in this period was the Königsegg family of southern Germany, some time between 1446 and 1459 he produced the Ms. XIX.17-3 for this family. This work depicts a judicial duel being fought by Luithold von Königsegg as well as the training that Talhoffer gave him in preparation, but it seems that this duel never took place. Talhoffer's name appears again in the records of the city of Zürich in 1454, where he was chartered to teach fencing in some capacity and to adjudicate judicial duels; the account notes that a fight broke out among his students and had to be settled in front of the city council, resulting in various fines.
He seems to have passed through Emerkingen in the 1450s, where he was contracted to train the brothers David and Buppellin vom Stain. A.15 for them, a expanded version of the Königsegg manuscript. In 1459, Talhoffer commissioned the Ms. Thott.290.2º, a new personal fencing manual along the same lines as his 1443 work but expanded with additional content and captioned throughout. He appears to have continued instructing throughout the 1460s, in 1467 he produced his final manuscript, the Cod. icon. 394a, for another of his noble clients, Eberhardt I von Württemberg. This would be his most comprehensive work, the count paid 10 Guilder as well as quantities of rye and oats for the finished work. While only a few facts are known about Talhoffer's life, this has not stopped authors from conjecture; the presence of the Lion of St. Mark in Talhoffer's 1459 coat of arms has given rise to speculation that he may have been an early member or a founder of the Frankfurt-am-Main-based Marxbrüder fencing guild, though there is no record of their existence prior to 1474.
Additionally, much has been made of the fact that Talhoffer's name doesn't appear in Paulus Kal's list of members of the Society of Liechtenauer. While some have speculated that this indicates rivalry or ill-will between the two contemporaries, Kal's list seems to be a memorial to masters who were deceased, so it is more that Talhoffer was still alive in ca. 1470. Talhoffer's writings exist in well over a dozen manuscripts created in the fifteenth through nineteenth centuries, his writings cover a wide assortment of weapons, including the arming sword, crossbow, flail, longshield, mace, poleaxe and unarmed grappling both armored and unarmored, on horse and on foot, in scenarios including tournaments, formal duels, unequal encounters implying urban self-defense. Despite the obvious care and detail that went into the artwork, the manuscripts have only a few words captioning each page. There are four known archetype copies of Talhoffer's works: The Ms. Chart. A.558 was created in 1443. The original rests in the holdings of the Universitäts- und Forschungsbibliothek Erfurt/Gotha in Gotha, Germany.
This is the earliest of the four known archetypes and Hils speculates that it was created as a personal reference book. Aside from Talhoffer's own work, this manuscript contains Johannes Hartlieb's Onomatomantia and Johannes Liechtenauer's Zettel; the Ms. XIX.17-3 was created some time between 1446 and the creation of the Thott manuscript in 1459. The original rests in the private collection of the Königsegg-Aulendorf family in Königseggwald, Germany; this manuscript may have been commissioned by the Luithold von Königsegg, featured in several of Talhoffer's works. The Ms. Thott.290.2º was created in 1459. The original rests in the holdings of Det Kongelige Bibliotek in Copenhagen, Denmark; this manuscript was a reference book created for Talhoffer's personal use, is much more lavish than the 1443. Aside from his own teachings, this manuscript includes
A pike is a pole weapon, a long thrusting spear used extensively by infantry. Pikes were used in European warfare from the Late Middle Ages to the early 18th century, were wielded by foot soldiers deployed in close quarters, until their replacement by the bayonet; the pike found extensive use with Landsknecht armies and Swiss mercenaries, who employed it as their main weapon and used it in pike square formations. A similar weapon, the sarissa, was used by Alexander the Great's Macedonian phalanx infantry to great effect. A spear becomes a pike when it is too long to be wielded with one hand in combat; the pike was a long weapon, varying in size, from 3 to 7.5 metres long. It was 2.5–6 kg in weight, with sixteenth-century military writer Sir John Smythe recommending lighter rather than heavier pikes. It had a wooden shaft with an steel spearhead affixed; the shaft near the head was reinforced with metal strips called "cheeks" or langets. When the troops of opposing armies both carried the pike, it grew in a sort of arms race, getting longer in both shaft and head length to give one side's pikemen an edge in combat.
The extreme length of such weapons required a strong wood such as well-seasoned ash for the pole, tapered towards the point to prevent the pike from sagging on the ends, although drooping or slight flection of the shaft was always a problem in pike handling. It is a common mistake to refer to a bladed polearm as a pike; the great length of the pikes allowed a great concentration of spearheads to be presented to the enemy, with their wielders at a greater distance, but made pikes unwieldy in close combat. This meant that pikemen had to be equipped with an additional, shorter weapon such as a dagger or mace in order to defend themselves should the fighting degenerate into a melee. In general, pikemen attempted to avoid such disorganized combat, in which they were at a disadvantage. To compound their difficulties in a melee, the pikeman did not have a shield, or had only a small shield which would be of limited use in close-quarters fighting; the pike, being unwieldy, was used in a deliberate, defensive manner alongside other missile and melee weapons.
However, better-trained troops were capable of using the pike in an aggressive attack with each rank of pikemen being trained to hold their pikes so that they presented enemy infantry with four or five layers of spearheads bristling from the front of the formation. As long as it kept good order, such a formation could roll right over enemy infantry but it did have weaknesses; the men were all moving forward facing in a single direction and could not turn or efficiently to protect the vulnerable flanks or rear of the formation. Nor could they maintain cohesion over uneven ground, as the Scots discovered to their cost at the Battle of Flodden; the huge block of men carrying such unwieldy spears could be difficult to maneuver in any way other than straightforward movement. As a result, such mobile pike formations sought to have supporting troops protect their flanks or would maneuver to smash the enemy before they could be outflanked themselves. There was the risk that the formation would become disordered, leading to a confused melee in which pikemen had the vulnerabilities mentioned above.
According to Sir John Smythe, there were two ways for two opposing pike formations to confront one another: cautious or aggressive. The cautious approach involved fencing at the length of the pike, while the aggressive approach involved closing distance, with each of the first five ranks giving a single powerful thrust. In the aggressive approach, the first rank would immediately resort to swords and daggers if the thrusts from the first five ranks failed to break the opposing pike formation. Smythe considered the cautious approach laughable. Although a military weapon, the pike could be effective in single combat and a number of 16th-century sources explain how it was to be used in a dueling situation. George Silver considered the 18 ft pike one of the more advantageous weapons for single combat in the open, giving it odds over all weapons shorter than 8 ft or the sword and dagger/shield combination. Although long spears had been used since the dawn of organized warfare, the earliest recorded use of a pike-like weapon in the tactical method described above involved the Macedonian sarissa, used by the troops of Alexander the Great's father, Philip II of Macedon, successive dynasties, which dominated warfare for several centuries in many countries.
After the fall of the last successor of Macedon, the pike fell out of use for the next 1000 or so years. The one exception to this appears to have been in Germany, where Tacitus recorded Germanic tribesmen in the 2nd century AD as using "over-long spears", he refers to the spears used by the Germans as being "massive" and "very long" suggesting that he is describing in essence a pike. Caesar, in his De Bello Gallico, describes the Helvetii as fighting in a tight, phalanx-like formation with spears jutting out over their shields. Caesar was describing an early form of the shieldwall so popular in times. In the Middle Ages, the principal users of the pike were urban militia troops such as the Flemings or the peasant array of the lowland Scots. For example, the Scots used a spear formation known as the schiltron in several battles during the Wars of Scottish Independence including the Battle of Bannockburn in
A backsword is a type of sword characterised by having a single-edged blade and a hilt with a single-handed grip. It is so called because the triangular cross section gives a flat back edge opposite the cutting edge. Examples have a "false edge" on the back near the tip, in many cases sharpened to make an actual edge and facilitate thrusting attacks. From around the early 14th century the backsword became the first type of European sword to be fitted with a knuckle guard; the term "backsword" can refer to the singlestick, used to train for fighting with the backsword, or to the sport or art of fighting in this fashion. Being easier and cheaper to make than double-edged swords, backswords became the favored sidearm of common infantry, including irregulars such as the Highland Scots, which in Scottish Gaelic were called the claidheamh cuil, after one of several terms for the distinct types of weapons they used. Backswords were the secondary weapons of European cavalrymen beginning in the late 16th and early 17th centuries.
Classifications of swords Types of swords List of swords Basket-hilted swords Cutlass Golok Machete Parang Sabre Shamshir Szabla Shashka Włodzimierz Kwaśniewicz, Leksykon broni białej i miotającej, Warsaw: Varsavia, 2003. Pierre Goubert & Maarten Ultee, The Course of French History, London: Routledge, 1991. Philippe Contamine, War in the Middle Ages, Oxford: Blackwell, 1984 ISBN 0-631-13142-6 R. G. Allanson-Winn & C. Phillipps-Wolley, Broad-sword and Single-stick: with chapters on quarter-staff, cudgel, walking-stick and other weapons of self-defence London: George Bell, 1890