Durham County Cricket Club
Durham County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Durham. Founded in 1882, Durham held minor status for over a century and was a prominent member of the Minor Counties Championship, winning the competition seven times. In 1992, the club joined the County Championship and the team was elevated to senior status as an official first-class team. Durham has been classified as an occasional List A team from 1964 as a full List A team from 1992. Durham CCC competes in the Specsavers County Championship, the Royal London One-Day Cup and in the North Group of the NatWest t20 Blast, they won the County Championship in 2008 for the first time, retained the trophy in the 2009 season, won it for a third time in 2013. In one-day competition, they won the 50-over Friends Provident Trophy in 2007 and the inaugural 50-over Royal London One-Day Cup in 2014. Having been relegated from Division One of the County Championship as part of the conditions for a package of financial support from the ECB, Durham will play in Division Two of the County Championship in the 2017 season.
The club's limited overs kit colours are yellow and blue in the Royal London One-Day Cup, red and black colours in the t20 Blast. Durham is sponsored by several companies including Emirates and Port of Tyne, as well as 188Bet as their betting partner; the team was sponsored by Northern Rock prior to the bank's nationalisation in 2008. The club is based at the Riverside Ground in Chester-le-Street, one of the newest additions to the English Test match circuit, hosting its first match – the second 2003 England v Zimbabwe Test – from 5 to 7 June. County Championship: 3 2008, 2009, 2013 Gillette/NatWest/C&G/Friends Provident Trophy: 1 2007 Royal London One-Day Cup: 1 2014 Sunday League/Pro 40/National League: 1 2007 Minor Counties Championship: 7 1895, 1900, 1901, 1926, 1930, 1976, 1980, 1981, 1984 MCCA Knockout Trophy: 1 1985 Second XI Championship: 2 2008, 2016 Second XI Trophy: 0 Cricket did not reach Durham until the 18th century; the earliest reference is a game at Raby Castle on or soon after 5 August 1751 between the Earl of Northumberland’s XI and the Duke of Cleveland’s XI.
The game was commemorated by a ballad which starts: Durham City has been dull so long, No bustle at all to show. As it happens, there was a return game soon afterwards at Stanwick, near Richmond, and, the earliest reference to cricket in Yorkshire; the first recorded match of representative cricket in the county took place in 1848 at Sunderland, between an All England XII and a Bishopwearmouth 22. Despite their extra numbers the cricketers of Bishopwearmouth were comprehensively outplayed as All England's scores of 129 and 143 dwarfed their own 56 and 59; the first team to carry the name of'Durham County' played an MCC team in 1876 and went on to take on the touring Australians in 1878, winning by 71 runs, again in 1880, losing by an innings and 38, with the great Fred Spofforth taking 17 wickets for 66. Durham CCC was founded as an official entity on 23 May 1882, the nascent club played its first competitive match on 12 June of that year, beating Northumberland by 4 wickets at the Ashbrooke Ground, Sunderland.
The club established an enviable record as a minor county: becoming the first minor county to beat a first-class county in the Gillette Cup. Early in 1989, the Club began the process of applying to become a first-class cricketing county and join the County Championship. First-class status was awarded on 6 December 1991, with Durham becoming the first new first-class county for 70 years, their first season in the County Championship was the 1992 season. For over a decade after gaining their status, Durham were not distinguished by marked success as a first-class county. In the 2004 season they finished bottom of the two-division County Championship, sixth out of ten teams in the one-day National Cricket League and fifth out of six teams in the Northern Division of the Twenty20 Cup. However, in 2005 under the captaincy of Australian Mike Hussey Durham finished second and achieved promotion in both the County Championship and the one-day National Cricket League. Hussey was prevented from returning to the Riverside in 2006 as he was contracted to the Australian international team.
Durham had mixed success in the 2006 season, finishing second in the North Division of the C&G Trophy. However, Durham were poor in the Twenty20 cup, finishing last in the North Division and only managing 2 victories, both against Lancashire; the Pro40 campaign started well, with Durham taking 4 points from the first 4 games with a win, a loss, a tie and a no result. However, several defeats left them needing a win against the champions elect, Essex, in the final game of the season, they managed the victory, but other results did not go their way and they ended up being relegated in 8th place. The Championship season began with success, but mediocre results in the middle of the season left Durham hanging above the relegation zone by just half a point going into the last game of the season. Durham needed more points than their rivals Yorkshire, but looked in trouble when Darren Lehmann hit a c
Yorkshire County Cricket Club
Yorkshire County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Yorkshire; the club's limited overs team is called the Yorkshire Vikings. Yorkshire teams formed by earlier organisations the old Sheffield Cricket Club, played top-class cricket from the 18th century and the county club has always held first-class status. Yorkshire have competed in the County Championship since the official start of the competition in 1890 and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England. Yorkshire are the most successful team in English cricketing history with 33 County Championship titles, including one shared; the team's most recent Championship title was in 2015, following on from that achieved in 2014. The club's limited-overs kit colours are Cambridge blue, Oxford blue, yellow with Mazars as the main sponsor. Yorkshire play most of their home games at the Headingley Cricket Ground in Leeds.
Another significant venue is at North Marine Road Ground, which houses the annual Scarborough Festival. Yorkshire has used other locations including Bramall Lane, the club's original home; the team drew an average attendance of 8,417 to seven home games in 2015. Champion County – 1867, 1870. Sheffield Cricket Club was formed about this time and there are references to Sheffield matches in Derbyshire in 1757 and at Leeds in 1761. A club was formed in York in 1784. Bedale in North Yorkshire was a noted centre in the early 19th century, but cricket in most rural areas was slow to develop. Yorkshire cricket became centred around Sheffield, where it was more organised than in the rest of the county. From 1771, Sheffield played. Nottingham was the better side and Sheffield sometimes played with more players to give them a greater chance of victory; the Sheffield player Tom Marsden was regarded as one of the leading players in the country in the 1820s. Cricket increased in popularity after one of the 1827 roundarm trial matches was played at the purpose-built Darnall New Ground in Sheffield to evaluate the new style of roundarm bowling.
After this match, many new cricket clubs were formed in the county. In 1833, "Yorkshire" was first used as a team name, although it contained 11 Sheffield players, for a game against Norfolk at the Hyde Park Ground in Sheffield; the name may have arisen from a need to match the status of Norfolk as a county rather than a city. There were some differences in the organisation of the Yorkshire team vis-à-vis those called Sheffield as it included three amateurs while Sheffield teams were professional. Yorkshire, as such, played intermittently over the next thirty years but was not organised in any formal way; some of their opponents were Sussex in 1835. In 1849, Yorkshire played against a "Lancashire" team for the first time, though it was a Sheffield v Manchester match. By 1855, Sheffield and Yorkshire were playing at Bramall Lane. On 7 March 1861, during a meeting at the Adelphi Hotel in Sheffield, a Match Fund Committee was established to run Yorkshire county matches; the committee was made up from the management committee of the Bramall Lane ground and representatives from clubs willing to pay £1 to the fund.
But the committee was unable to persuade other clubs that it was not seeking to promote Sheffield cricket and a lack of funds prevented some matches being played in 1862. By this time, there were several cricketers with good reputations and the county team was one of the strongest in England. On 8 January 1863, Yorkshire County Cricket Club was formed. Membership cost a minimum of 10s and 6d. Like most first-class cricket clubs of the time, Yorkshire relied on private patronage with administrators "paying to serve" and "moneyed enthusiasts" acting as ready match sponsors; the majority of players were freelance professionals who were paid a usual match fee of £5, from which all travel and accommodation had to be paid. Travel could be arduous, living away from home could be "rough" and sometimes the match fee was not enough to cover expenses if, as was a problem with early Yorkshire cricketers, "the ale-house was a temptation"; the first club President was former player Thomas Barker, who had become Mayor of Sheffield, although he never attended any meetings.
Michael Ellison was the first club Treasurer and at some point early in Yorkshire's hi
Gloucestershire County Cricket Club
Gloucestershire County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Gloucestershire. Founded in 1870, Gloucestershire have always been first-class and have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England; the club played its first senior match in 1870 and W. G. Grace was their captain; the club plays home games at the Bristol County Ground in the Bishopston area of north Bristol. A number of games are played at the Cheltenham cricket festival at the College Ground and matches have been played at the Gloucester cricket festival at The King's School, Gloucester. Gloucestershire's most famous players have been W. G. Grace, whose father founded the club, Wally Hammond, who scored 113 centuries for them; the club has had two notable periods of success: in the 1870s when it was unofficially acclaimed as the Champion County on at least three occasions, from 1999 to 2006 when it won seven limited overs trophies, a "double double" in 1999 and 2000, the Sunday League in 2000.
Champion County – 1874, 1876, 1877. It is known that the related sport of "Stow-Ball" aka "Stob-Ball" was played in the county during the 16th century. In this game, the bat was called a "stave". See Alice B Gomme: The Traditional Games of England and Ireland. A game in Gloucester on 22 September 1729 is the earliest definite reference to cricket in the county. From until the founding of the county club little has been found outside parish cricket. In the early 1840s, Dr Henry Grace and his brother-in-law Alfred Pocock founded the Mangotsfield Cricket Club which merged in 1846 with the West Gloucestershire Cricket Club, whose name was adopted until 1867, after which it became the Gloucestershire County Cricket Club. Grace hoped that Gloucestershire would join the first-class county clubs but the situation was complicated in 1863 by the formation of a rival club called the Cheltenham and Gloucestershire Cricket Club. Dr Grace's club played Gloucestershire's initial first-class match versus Surrey at Durdham Down in Bristol on 2, 3 & 4 June 1870.
Gloucestershire joined the County Championship at this time but the existence of the Cheltenham club seems to have forestalled the installation of its "constitutional trappings". The Cheltenham club was wound up in March 1871 and its chief officials accepted positions in the hierarchy of Gloucestershire. So, although the exact details and dates of the county club's foundation are uncertain, it has always been assumed that the year was 1870 and the club celebrated its centenary in 1970. What is certain is that Dr Grace was able to form the county club because of its playing strength his three sons WG, EM and Fred; the early history of Gloucestershire is dominated by the Grace family, most notably W G Grace, the club's original captain and held that post until his departure for London in 1899. His brother E M Grace, although still an active player, was the original club secretary. With the Grace brothers and Billy Midwinter in their team, Gloucestershire won three Champion County titles in the 1870s.
Since Gloucestershire's fortunes have been mixed and they have never won the official County Championship. They struggled in the pre-war years of the County Championship because their best batsmen, apart from Gilbert Jessop and Charlie Townsend, were rarely available; the bowling, except when Townsend did sensational things on sticky wickets in late 1895 and late 1898, was weak until George Dennett emerged – it had the fault of depending far too much on him. Wally Hammond, who still holds many of the county's batting records formed part of an strong inter-war team, although the highest championship finish during this period was second in 1930 and 1931, when Charlie Parker and Tom Goddard formed a devastating spin attack. Outstanding players since the war include Tom Graveney, "Jack" Russell and overseas players Mike Procter, Zaheer Abbas and Courtney Walsh. Gloucestershire was successful in one-day cricket in the late 1990s and early 2000s winning several titles under the captaincy of Mark Alleyne and coaching of John Bracewell.
The club operated on a small budget and was famed as a team greater than the sum of its parts, boasting few international stars. Gloucestershire's overall knockout record between 1999 and 2002 was 28 wins and seven losses from 37 games, including 16 wins from 18 at the Bristol County Ground; the club's run of success started by defeating Yorkshire to win the Benson & Hedges Super Cup in 1999 before beating neighbours Somerset in the 1999 NatWest Trophy final at Lord's. In 2000 Gloucestershire completed a hat-trick of one-day titles, winning all the domestic limited overs tournaments, the Benson and Hedges Cup, the C&G Trophy and the Sunday League in the same season; the club maintained its success winning the C&G Trophy in 2003 and 2004, beating Worcestershire in the final on both occasions. The club's captain f
Edgbaston Cricket Ground
Edgbaston Cricket Ground known as the County Ground or Edgbaston Stadium, is a cricket ground in the Edgbaston area of Birmingham, England. It is home to Warwickshire County Cricket Club, is used for Test matches, One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. Edgbaston has hosted the T20 domestic finals day more than any other cricket ground. Edgbaston was the first English ground outside Lord's to host a major international one day tournament final when it hosted the ICC Champions Trophy final in 2013. With permanent seating for 25,000 spectators, it is the fourth-largest cricketing venue in the United Kingdom, after Lord's, Old Trafford and The Oval. Edgbaston was the venue of the first senior game under floodlights in English cricket in July 1997 between Warwickshire and Somerset in the AXA Life Sunday League and hosted the first day/night Test match in England in August 2017 when England played the West Indies; the land that now makes up Edgbaston Cricket Ground was owned by the Calthorpe Estate, who have now sold the site onto Wylam Investments on a long lease.
Calthorpe Estates had developed the manor of Edgbaston into an exclusive Birmingham suburb over the course of the 19th century, believed that a cricket ground would be an asset that would add to the genteel image of the area. Warwickshire County Cricket Club had considered Rugby and Leamington Spa for their headquarters, but club secretary William Ansell believed that Birmingham's large population and comprehensive railway connections made it preferable – envisaging first-class status for the county and Test status for the ground; the club had favoured the Wycliffe Ground on Pershore Road, but were instead offered a 12-acre "meadow of rough grazing land" in an undeveloped area on the banks of the River Rea by the Calthorpe Estate – the less attractive development land having more to gain from association with the cricket ground. With the site only 20 minutes' walk from New Street Station, Warwickshire agreed in 1885 to lease the land for £5 per acre over a 21-year period. A further £ 1,250 was spent on building a wooden pavilion.
The new ground's first match took place on 7 June 1886 against the MCC, watched by 3,000 spectators over two days, with 6,000 turning out on 9 and 10 August to watch Warwickshire play Australia. Edgbaston's first Test match was the first in The Ashes series against Australia in 1902, for which the club erected a permanent stand, two temporary stands and facilities for 90 members of the press; these developments cost a total of £1,500, Warwickshire's share of the tour funds was only £750. The first piece of development in the post-war era was the construction of the Rea Bank and the Thwaite Memorial Scoreboard in 1950. In 1956 an Indoor Cricket School was built and the Pavilion Suite was completed in the same year. By the time the William Ansell Stand opened in 1967 the facilities at Edgbaston were considered to rival those at Lord's. In 1989 executive boxes were added to the rear of the Priory and Raglan Stands and the Sidney Barnes Stand was reconstructed and enlarged, expanding the ground capacity of 17,500.
In July 1997, Edgbaston was the scene of the first competitive floodlit day-night cricket match in Britain. The pavilion end on the south side of the ground was redeveloped between 2010 and 2011 at a cost of £32 million paid for from a £20 million loan from Birmingham City Council, bringing the ground's capacity up to 25,000. Demolition of the pavilion – parts of which dated back to the 1890s – and the Leslie Deakins, R. V. Ryder and William Ansell Stands took place in January 2010, with construction of the new South and West Stands starting in April 2010 and reaching completion 66 weeks later. 5 permanent floodlight pylons were erected around the ground at the same time, allowing up to 15 days of day-night cricket annually. The new development was opened by the Duke of Edinburgh on 25 July 2011; the first test match to be played at the redeveloped venue was the third Test vs India on 10 August 2011, which saw England reach the number 1 position in the ICC Test Championship for the first time with victory by an innings and 242 runs on the fourth day of the match.
Edgbaston is considered to be one of England's leading cricket grounds. Wisden's guide to cricket grounds in 1992 commented that "Lord's is its only superior in the United Kingdom" with The Daily Telegraph agreeing in 2009 that "taken all in all, it is now the best ground outside Lord's." After the opening of the new South and West Stands in 2011 the England and Wales Cricket Board commented that "the spacious facilities are cutting edge, marginally better than the Home of Cricket". The atmosphere at Edgbaston is reputed to be the most hostile in England for visiting teams. Former England captain Alec Stewart recalled "On a world level I would put it up there with Eden Gardens in Calcutta, which holds about 100,000, it inspires a team. It's like having another man in your side." And the former England wicketkeeper Geraint Jones describes how "The crowd here makes such a big noise when you are doing well... it's a unique environment." After winning the 2015 Ashes Test Match with Australia at Edgbaston, England captain Alastair Cook commented "The Edgbaston crowd was up there with the loudest I can remember.
With some of the chants guys who have played a fair bit of cricket were looking at each other and realising how special it was. Edgbaston has been a fantastic venue for us."The record attendance at a County Championship match at Edgbaston is 28,000 against Lancashire in the championship-winning season of 1951, the record for a single day of a test match is 32,000 against the West Indies in 1957. For some years until 2000, Edgbaston had a distinctive motoriz
Hampshire County Cricket Club
Hampshire County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales. It represents the historic county of Hampshire. Hampshire teams formed by earlier organisations, principally the Hambledon Club, always had first-class status and the same applied to the county club when it was founded in 1863; because of poor performances for several seasons until 1885, Hampshire lost its status for nine seasons until it was invited into the County Championship in 1895, since when the team have played in every top-level domestic cricket competition in England. Hampshire played at the Antelope Ground, Southampton until 1885 when they relocated to the County Ground, Southampton until 2000, before moving to the purpose-built Rose Bowl in West End, in the Borough of Eastleigh; the club has twice won the County Championship, in the 1973 seasons. Hampshire played their first one-day match in the 1963 Gillette Cup, but did not win their first one-day silverware until 1975 when they won the Sunday League which it won twice more, in 1978 and 1986.
It has twice won the Benson & Hedges Cup, in 1988 and 1991. Having first played Twenty20 cricket in 2003, Hampshire won the Friends Provident t20 in 2010; the County Championship was restructured in 2000, at the end of the 2002 Hampshire was relegated for the first time. The club remained in the second division for three seasons and since 2004 had competed in the top tier. However, the club was relegated once more in 2011; the club won both the Friends Life t20 and ECB 40 in 2012, but it wasn't until 2014 before they were promoted to the first division again. They narrowly avoided relegation in 2015 before being relegated again in 2016, only to be reprieved after Durham were relegated after taking ECB sanctions to secure their future. Phil Mead is the club's leading run-scorer with 48,892 runs in 700 matches for Hampshire between 1905 and 1936. Fast bowler Derek Shackleton took 2,669 wickets in 583 first-class matches between 1948 and 1969 which remains a club record. Alec Kennedy, whose career lasted from 1907 to 1936, was the first player to score 10,000 runs and take 1,000 wickets for Hampshire.
Colin Ingleby-Mackenzie was both first professional captain. First XI honoursChampion County County Championship – 1961, 1973 Division Two – 2014 Gillette/NatWest/C&G/Friends Provident Trophy/CB40/RLODC – 1991, 2005, 2009, 2012, 2018 Twenty20 Cup - 2010, 2012 Sunday/National League – 1975, 1978, 1986 Benson & Hedges Cup – 1988, 1992Second XI honoursSecond XI Championship - 1967, 1971, 1981, 1995, 2001 Second XI Trophy - 2003, 2008 A Latin poem by Robert Matthew in 1647 contains a probable reference to cricket being played by pupils of Winchester College on nearby St. Catherine’s Hill. If authentic, this is the earliest known mention of cricket in Hampshire. But, with the sport having originated in Saxon or Norman times on the Weald, it must have reached Hampshire long before 1647. In 1680, lines written in an old Bible invite "All you that do delight in Cricket, come to Marden, pitch your wickets". Marden is in Sussex, north of Chichester, close to Hambledon, just across the county boundary in Hampshire.
Hampshire is used in a team name for the first time in August 1729, when a combined Hampshire and Sussex XI played against Kent. The origin of the legendary Hambledon Club is lost. There remains no definite knowledge of Hambledon cricket before 1756, when its team had gained sufficient repute to be capable of attempting three matches against Dartford, itself a famous club since the 1720s if not earlier. Hambledon had earned recognition as the best parish team in Hampshire, but no reports of their local matches have been found. We do not know when the Hambledon Club was founded and it seems that some kind of parish organisation was operating in 1756, although there may well have been a patron involved; the Sussex v Hampshire match in June 1766 is the earliest reference to Hampshire as an individual county team. Whether the Hambledon Club was involved is unrecorded but it was; some historians believe it was at about this time that the club, as distinct from a parish organisation, was founded. The Hambledon Club was in many respects a Hampshire county club for it organised Hampshire matches, although it was a multi-functional club and not dedicated to cricket alone.
Its membership attracted large numbers of sporting gentry and it dominated the sport, both on and off the field, for about thirty years until the formation of Marylebone Cricket Club in 1787. Hambledon produced some legendary Hampshire players including master batsman John Small and the two great fast bowlers Thomas Brett and David Harris. Following the demise of the Hambledon Club towards the end of the 18th century, Hampshire continued to be recognised as a first-class team into the nineteenth century but, after the 1828 season, they had long spells without any first-class matches until the county club was founded in 1864; the county played some first-class fixtures during 1842 to 1845 and one match versus MCC in 1861 but was otherwise outside cricket’s mainstream through 1829 to 1863. Hampshire County Cricket Club was founded on 12 August 1863 and played its first first-class match against Sussex at the Antelope Ground, Southampton on 7 and 8 July 1864. Sussex won by 10 wickets with James Lillywhite claiming ten wickets in the match for 80 runs, including his 100th career wicket.
Hampshire was recognised as a first-class team from 1864 to 1885. In 1886, Hampshire lost its status after years of poor results; the team did play against Surrey and Sussex in 18
BBC Two is the second flagship television channel of the British Broadcasting Corporation in the United Kingdom, Isle of Man and Channel Islands. It covers a wide range of subject matter, but tends to broadcast more "highbrow" programmes than the more mainstream and popular BBC One. Like the BBC's other domestic TV and radio channels, it is funded by the television licence, is therefore free of commercial advertising, it is a comparatively well-funded public-service network attaining a much higher audience share than most public-service networks worldwide. Styled BBC2, it was the third British television station to be launched, from 1 July 1967, Europe's first television channel to broadcast in colour, it was envisaged as a home for less mainstream and more ambitious programming, while this tendency has continued to date, most special-interest programmes of a kind broadcast on BBC Two, for example the BBC Proms, now tend to appear on BBC Four instead. British television at the time of BBC2's launch consisted of two channels: the BBC Television Service and the ITV network made up of smaller regional companies.
Both channels had existed in a state of competition since ITV's launch in 1955, both had aimed for a populist approach in response. The 1962 Pilkington Report on the future of broadcasting noticed this, that ITV lacked any serious programming, it therefore decided that Britain's third television station should be awarded to the BBC. Prior to its launch, the new BBC2 was promoted on the BBC Television Service: the soon to be renamed BBC1; the animated adverts featured the campaign mascots "Hullabaloo", a mother kangaroo, "Custard", her joey. Prior to, several years after, the channel's formal launch, the channel broadcast "Trade Test Transmissions", short films made externally by companies such as Shell and BP, which served to enable engineers to test reception, but became cult viewing; the channel was scheduled to begin at 19:20 on 20 April 1964, showing an evening of light entertainment, starting with the comedy show The Alberts, a performance from Soviet comedian Arkady Raikin, a production of Cole Porter's Kiss Me, culminating with a fireworks display.
However, at around 18:45 a huge power failure, originating from a fire at Battersea Power Station, caused Television Centre, indeed much of west London, to lose all power. BBC1 was able to continue broadcasting via its facilities at Alexandra Palace, but all attempts to show the scheduled programmes on the new channel failed. Associated-Rediffusion, the London weekday ITV franchise-holder, offered to transmit on the BBC's behalf, but their gesture was rejected. At 22:00 programming was postponed until the following morning; as the BBC's news centre at Alexandra Palace was unaffected, they did in fact broadcast brief bulletins on BBC2 that evening, beginning with an announcement by the newsreader Gerald Priestland at around 19:25. There was believed to be no recording made of this bulletin, but a videotape was discovered in early 2003. By 11:00 on 21 April, power had been restored to the studios and programming began, thus making Play School the first programme to be shown on the channel; the launch schedule, postponed from the night before, was successfully shown that evening, albeit with minor changes.
In reference to the power cut, the transmission opened with a shot of a lit candle, sarcastically blown out by presenter Denis Tuohy. To establish the new channel's identity and draw viewers to it, the BBC decided that a promoted, lavish series would be essential in its earliest days; the production chosen was The Forsyte Saga, a no-expense-spared adaptation of the novels by John Galsworthy, featuring well-established actors Kenneth More and Eric Porter. Critically for the future of the fledgling channel, the BBC's gamble was hugely successful, with an average of six million viewers tuning in per episode: a feat made more prominent by the fact that only 9 million were able to receive the channel at the time. Unlike BBC1 and ITV, BBC2 was broadcast only on the 625 line UHF system, so was not available to viewers still using sets on the 405-line VHF system; this created a market for dual standard receivers. Set manufacturers ramped up production of UHF sets in anticipation of a large market demand for the new BBC2, but the market did not materialise.
The early technical problems, which included being unable to transmit US-recorded videotapes due to a lack of system conversion from the US NTSC system, were resolved by a committee headed by James Redmond. On 1 July 1967, during the Wimbledon Championships, BBC2 became the first channel in Europe to begin regular broadcasts in colour, using the PAL system; the thirteen part series Civilisation was created as a celebration of two millennia of western art and culture to showpiece the new colour technology. BBC1 and ITV joined BBC2 on 625-line UHF band, but continued to simulcast on 405-line VHF until 1985. BBC1 and ITV introduced PAL colour on UHF on 15 November 1969, although they both had broadcast some programmes in colour "unofficially" since September 1969. In 1979, the station adopted the first computer-generated channel identification in Britain, with its use of the double striped, orange'2' logo; the ident, created in house by BBC engineers, lasted until March 1986 and heralded the start of computer-generated logos.
As the switch to digital-only terrestrial transmission progressed, BBC Two was the first analogue TV channel to be replaced with the BBC multiplex, at first four two weeks ahead of the other four channels. This was required for those relay transmitters that had no current Freeview service giving vie
National Westminster Bank known as NatWest, is a major retail and commercial bank in the United Kingdom. It was established in 1968 by the merger of National Provincial Westminster Bank. Since 2000, it has been part of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group. Following "ringfencing" of the Group's core domestic business, the bank became a direct subsidiary of NatWest Holdings. NatWest is considered one of the Big Four clearing banks in the UK, it has a large network of over 960 branches and 3,400 cash machines across Great Britain and offers 24-hour Actionline telephone and online banking services. Today, it has 850,000 small business accounts. In Ireland, it operates through its Ulster Bank subsidiary. In 2017, NatWest was awarded Best Banking App in the British Bank Awards; the bank's origins date back to 1658 with the foundation of Smith's Bank of Nottingham. Its oldest direct corporate ancestor, National Provincial Bank, was formed in 1833 as the National Provincial Bank of England, it acquired Union of London and Smith's Bank in 1918 to become National Provincial and Union Bank, shortening its name back to National Provincial in 1924.
National Provincial bought District Bank in 1962, but continued to operate District's branch network separately. Westminster Bank was founded in 1834 as London and Westminster Bank dropping the "London" portion in 1923; the creation of the modern bank was announced in 1968, National Westminster Bank Limited commenced trading on 1 January 1970, after the statutory process of integration had been completed in 1969. The famous three arrowheads symbol was adopted as the new bank's logo; the District, National Provincial, Westminster Banks were integrated in the new firm's structure, but private bankers Coutts & Co. Ulster Bank in Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man Bank continued as separate operations. Westminster Foreign Bank was restyled International Westminster Bank in 1973. Duncan Stirling, outgoing chairman of Westminster Bank, became first chairman of the fifth largest bank in the world. In 1969 David Robarts, former chairman of National Provincial, assumed Stirling's position. In 1975 it was one of the first London banks to open a representative office in Scotland.
It was a founder member of the Joint Credit Card Company which launched the Access credit card in 1972 and in 1976 it introduced the Servicetill cash machine. The same banks, excluding Lloyds, were responsible for the introduction of the Switch debit card in 1988. Deregulation in the 1980s, culminating in the Big Bang in 1986 encouraged the bank to enter the securities business. County Bank, its merchant banking subsidiary formed in 1965, acquired various stockbroking and jobbing firms to create the investment banking arm County NatWest. National Westminster Home Loans was established in 1980 and other initiatives included the launch of the Piggy Account for children in 1983, the Credit Zone, a flexible overdraft facility on which customers only pay interest and the development of the Mondex electronic purse in 1990; the Action Bank advertising campaign spearheaded a new marketing-led approach to business development. Under the direction of Robin Leigh-Pemberton Lord Kingsdown, who became chairman in 1977, the bank expanded internationally, forming National Westminster Bancorp in the United States of America with a network of 340 branches across two states, National Westminster Bank of Canada and NatWest Australia Bank.
In 1982, the Frankfurt office of International Westminster Bank merged with Global Bank AG to form Deutsche Westminster Bank. In 1985, Banco NatWest España was formed and National Westminster Bank SA was incorporated in 1988, taking over the bank's six branches in France and Monaco. In 1989, International Westminster Bank was merged into National Westminster Bank by Act of Parliament. Completed in 1980, the bank built the National Westminster Tower in London to serve as its international headquarters. At a height of 600 feet it was the tallest building in the UK until the topping-out of Canary Wharf Tower 10 years later. Worthy of note is National Westminster House in Birmingham: the building was sold to British Land in 2007 and demolished in 2015; the bank's expansion strategy hit trouble with the stock market crash of 1987 and involvement in the financial scandal surrounding the collapse of Blue Arrow. The Department of Trade and Industry report on the affair was critical of the bank's management and resulted in the resignation of several members of the board, including chairman Lord Boardman.