AirPods are wireless Bluetooth earbuds created by Apple. They were first released on December 13, 2016; the product's second iteration, with improved battery life, was released on March 20, 2019. AirPods are Apple's most popular accessory product, with 35 million units sold in 2018. In addition to playing audio, AirPods feature a built-in microphone that filters out background noise, which allows taking phone calls and talking to Apple's digital assistant, Siri. Additionally, built-in accelerometers and optical sensors enable AirPods to detect taps and in-ear placement, which enables automatic pausing when they are taken out of the ears. On March 20, 2019, Apple released the second generation AirPods, which feature the H1 chip and hands-free “Hey Siri” support. An optional wireless charging case was added in the offerings. Apple claims that the new AirPods have 50% more talk time over the 1st generation AirPods, which were discontinued on the same day. AirPods were announced on September 7 at an Apple Special Event, 2016 alongside the iPhone 7 and Apple Watch Series 2.
Apple planned to release the AirPods in late October, but the company delayed the release date. On December 13, 2016, Apple released the AirPods to be ordered online, they were available at Apple Stores, Apple Authorized Resellers, select carriers on December 20. On announcement day, AirPods were compared to Apple's existing EarPods, with The Verge noting "They look... just like the old EarPods, with the wires cut off." Mocked by many for its unfamiliar design, its popularity grew over the years and was voted the most popular "hearable" brand of 2019. Apple incorporated their own custom designed chip, the W1, into the AirPods, which helps optimize battery use and processes the Bluetooth 4.2 connection as well as audio. There are two microphones in each AirPod: one at ear level, facing outward, another at the bottom of the stem; each AirPod weighs 0.14 oz, its charging case weighs 1.34 oz. It holds a charge for about five hours, while charging the pods for 15 minutes in the case gives 3 hours of listening time.
The charging case can charge the pods for a total of 24 hours of usage. During a teardown, each AirPod was found to contain a 93 milliwatt hour battery in its stem, while the charging case was found to contain a 1.52 watt hour or 398 mAh at 3.81 V battery. AirPods include the proprietary Apple W1 SoC, whose additional connectivity functions require devices running iOS 10, macOS Sierra, watchOS 3, or later, they can function as standard Bluetooth headphones when connected to any device that supports Bluetooth 4.0 or higher, including Android devices. 2nd generation AirPods include an H1 processor which supports hands-free "Hey Siri", Bluetooth 5 connectivity and Apple claims 50% more talk time and faster device connection times. 2nd generation AirPods can be purchased with the same charging case as the 1st generation, or for an additional $40 with the Wireless Charging Case, which can be used with Qi chargers. The Wireless Charging Case can be purchased separately for $79 and is compatible with 1st generation AirPods.
AirPods are compatible with any device that supports Bluetooth 4.0 or higher, including Android devices, although certain features such as automatic switching between devices are only available on Apple devices using iCloud. AirPods have full functionality with the following devices: iPhone 5 or newer, running iOS 10 or iPod Touch 6th generation or newer, running iOS 10 or 2013 iPads or newer, running iOS 10 or Macs running macOS Sierra or Apple TV 4th generation or newer Apple Watch models running watchOS 3 or laterThe 2nd generation AirPods are compatible with devices running iOS 12.2 or macOS 10.14.4 or or watchOS 5.2 or later. Apple has a program to service batteries and purchase replacement individual AirPods and charging cases. AirPods contain upgradeable firmware, its original firmware was 3.3.1. In February 2017, Apple released 3.5.1, 3.7.2 in May 2017, 6.3.2 after on March 26, 2019.. AirPods automatically sync through Apple's iCloud service allowing users to switch audio sources to other supported devices connected by the same Apple ID.
One criticism of AirPods is their high price. Another criticism is the perceived tendency. Another prominent criticism was an issue that caused the charging case battery to deplete at a rapid rate despite the AirPods not being used. Users were reporting upwards of 30% idle discharge per day. In response, Apple upgraded the AirPods' firmware to version 3.5.1, which addressed connectivity and battery drain issues. The Lithium-ion batteries in AirPods can see significant degradation over time, with two-year-old sets lasting for less than half of the advertised five hours. Apple earbuds Google Pixel Buds AirPods on the Apple website A Patent Update for the Apple AirPods
Apple Store is a chain of retail stores owned and operated by Apple Inc. The stores sell Mac personal computers, iPhone smartphones, iPad tablet computers, iPod portable media players, Apple Watch smartwatches, Apple TV digital media players and select third-party accessories; the first Apple Stores were opened as two locations in May 2001 by then-CEO Steve Jobs, after years of attempting but failing store-within-a-store concepts. Seeing a need for improved retail presentation of the company's products, he began an effort in 1997 to revamp the retail program to get an improved relationship to consumers, hired Ron Johnson in 2000. Jobs relaunched Apple's online store in 1997, opened the first two physical stores in 2001. Despite initial media speculation that Apple would fail, its stores were successful, by passing the sales numbers of competing nearby stores and within three years reached US$1 billion in annual sales, becoming the fastest retailer in history to do so. Over the years, Apple has expanded the number of retail locations and its geographical coverage, with 506 stores across 25 countries worldwide as of 2018.
Strong product sales have placed Apple among the top-tier retail stores, with sales over $16 billion globally in 2011. In May 2016, Angela Ahrendts, Apple's current Senior Vice President of Retail, unveiled a redesigned Apple Store in Union Square, San Francisco, featuring large glass doors for the entry, open spaces, rebranded rooms. In addition to purchasing products, consumers can get advice and help from "Creative Pros" – individuals with specialized knowledge of creative arts; the new design will be applied to all Apple Stores worldwide, a process that has seen stores temporarily relocate or close. Many Apple Stores are located inside shopping malls, but Apple has built several stand-alone "flagship" stores in high-profile locations, it has been granted design patents and received architectural awards for its stores' designs and construction for its use of glass staircases and cubes. The success of Apple Stores have had significant influence over other consumer electronics retailers, who have lost traffic and profits due to a perceived higher quality of service and products at Apple Stores.
Apple's notable brand loyalty among consumers causes long lines of hundreds of people at new Apple Store openings or product releases. Due to the popularity of the brand, Apple receives a large number of job applications, many of which come from young workers. Although Apple Store employees receive above-average pay, are offered money toward education and health care, receive product discounts, there are limited or no paths of career advancement. A May 2016 report with an anonymous retail employee highlighted a hostile work environment with harassment from customers, intense internal criticism, a lack of significant bonuses for securing major business contracts. Many Apple Stores are located inside shopping malls, but Apple has built several stand-alone "flagship" stores in high-profile locations, such as the one located in Grand Central Terminal in New York City. Several multi-level stores feature glass staircases, some glass bridges; the New York Times wrote in 2011 that these features were part of then-CEO Steve Jobs' extensive attention to detail, Apple received a design patent in 2002 for its glass staircase design.
Apple has partnered with architectural firm Bohlin Cywinski Jackson in designing and creating its original retail stores, has in recent years partnered with architectural firm Foster + Partners in designing its newer stores, as well as its corporate Apple Park campus. Apple has received numerous architectural awards for its store designs, its "iconic" glass cube, designed in part by Peter Bohlin, at Apple's Fifth Avenue store in New York City, received a separate design patent in 2014. Ron Johnson held the position of Senior Vice President of Retail Operations from 2001 until November 1, 2011. During his tenure, it was reported that while Johnson was responsible for site selection, in-store service, store layout, inventory was controlled by then-COO and now-CEO Tim Cook, who has a background in supply chain management. In January 2012, Apple transferred retail leadership to John Browett. However, after attempts to cut costs, including reducing new hires and limiting staff hours, he was fired after six months telling a conference that he "just didn’t fit with the way they ran the business".
In October 2013, Apple hired Angela Ahrendts from Burberry. Due to the popularity of the brand, applicants for jobs at Apple Stores are numerous, with many young workers applying; the pace of work iPad. Employees work for only a few years as career prospects are limited with no path of advancement other than limited retail management slots. Apple Store employees make above-average pay for retail employees and are offered money toward college tuitions, gym memberships, health care, 401 plans, product discounts, reduced price on purchase of stock; the retention rate for the technicians who staff the Genius Bar is over 90%. A May 2016 Business Insider article featured a lengthy interview with an anonymous Apple Store retail worker in the United Kingdom, where the employee highlighted significant dissatisfactions and issues for retail workers, including harassment and death threats from customers, an intense internal criticism policy that feels "like a cult", a lack of any significant bonus if a worker manages to secure a business contract worth "hundre
The iPod Classic is a portable media player created and marketed by Apple Inc. There were six generations of the iPod Classic, as well as a spin-off, re-integrated into the main iPod line. All generations used a 1.8-inch hard drive for storage. The "classic" suffix was formally introduced with the rollout of the sixth-generation iPod on September 5, 2007. Prior to this, all iPod Classic models were referred to as iPods, it was available in silver or black replacing the "signature iPod white". On September 9, 2014, Apple discontinued the iPod Classic; the sixth-generation 160GB iPod Classic was the last Apple product in the iPod line to use the original 30-pin iPod connector and the iconic Click Wheel. IPods with color displays use text, with sliding animations. All iPods have five buttons and the generations have the buttons integrated into the click wheel — a design which gives an uncluttered, minimalist interface, though the circuitry contains multiple momentary button switches; the buttons are: Menu: to traverse backwards through the menus, toggle the backlight on older iPods, jump to the main menu on newer iPods Center: to select a menu item Play / Pause: this doubles as an off switch when held Skip Forward / Fast Forward Skip Backwards / Fast Reverse The iPod's operating system is stored on its dedicated storage medium.
An additional NOR flash ROM chip contains a bootloader program that tells the device to load its OS from the storage medium. Each iPod has 32 MB of RAM, although the 60GB and 80GB fifth generation, the sixth-generation models have 64 MB. A portion of the RAM is used to hold the iPod OS loaded from firmware, but the majority of it serves to cache songs from the storage medium. For example, an iPod could spin its hard disk up once and copy 30 MB of upcoming songs into RAM, thus saving power by not requiring the drive to spin up for each song. Custom firmware has been developed such as Rockbox and iPodLinux which offer open-source alternatives to the standard firmware and operating system. In March 2002, Apple added limited PDA-like functionality: text files can be displayed, while contacts and schedules can be viewed and synchronized with the host computer; some built-in games are available, including Brick, Solitaire, iPod Quiz. A firmware update released in September 2006 brought some extra features to fifth-generation iPods including adjustable screen brightness, gapless playback, downloadable games.
However, as of September 30, 2011, these games are no longer available on the iTunes Store. Apple introduced the first-generation iPod on October 23, 2001, with the slogan "1,000 songs in your pocket", they went on sale on November 10, 2001. The first iPod had a monochrome LCD screen and featured a 5GB hard drive capable of storing 1,000 songs encoded using MP3 and was priced at US$399. Among the iPod's innovations were its small size, achieved using a 1.8" hard drive, whereas its competitors were using 2.5" hard drives at the time, its easy-to-use navigation, controlled using a mechanical scroll wheel, a center select button, four auxiliary buttons around the wheel. The iPod had a rated battery life of ten hours. On March 20, 2002, Apple introduced a 10GB model of the first-generation iPod for US$499. VCard compatibility was added, as well as allowing iPods to display business card information synced from a Mac; the second-generation of the iPod was introduced on July 17, 2002. Using a similar body style as the first generation, the top of the iPod was redesigned, switching from a single swooping cutout in the back plate to mount the firewire port, hold switch and headphone assembly, to individual ports being cut into the back plate to allow these ports to be accessed.
Furthermore, the hold switch was redesigned, a cover was added to the FireWire port, the mechanical wheel was replaced with a touch-sensitive wheel. The second-generation class was available in 10GB for US$399 and 20GB for US$499; the first-generation 5GB iPod was carried over, but its price was reduced to US$299. Notably, the second-generation iPods and the updated first-generation iPod were now Windows-compatible; these versions were bundled with Musicmatch Jukebox. At that time iTunes was Mac unavailable for Windows. In December 2002, Apple unveiled its first limited edition iPods, with either Madonna’s, Tony Hawk’s, or Beck’s signature or No Doubt's band logo engraved on the back for an extra US$50. On April 29, 2003, Apple announced a redesigned third-generation iPod. Thinner than the previous models, the third-generation models replaced the FireWire port with a new Dock Connector and introduced the Touch Wheel, a non-mechanical interface with the four auxiliary buttons located in a row between the screen and the touch wheel.
The front plate had rounded edges, the rear casing was rounded as well. A new wired remote connector was introduced. Whereas first and second-generation iPods had an auxiliary ring around the headphone port for the remote, the third-generation iPods had a 4-pin jack adjacent to the headphone port. A 10GB model was sold for US$299, a 15GB model for US $399, a 30GB model for US $499. All iPods were now compatible with Mac and Windows out of the box, was requiring Windows users to reformat the iPod before use on a PC and both iTunes and Musicmatch Jukebox were bundled with all iPods; the battery life was reduced to 8 hours due to the use of a lithium-i
The MacBook is a brand of Macintosh laptop computers by Apple Inc. that merged the PowerBook and iBook lines during Apple's transition to Intel processors. The current lineup consists of the MacBook, the MacBook Air, the MacBook Pro. A different MacBook line existed from 2006 to 2012; the MacBook family were housed in designs similar to the iBook and PowerBook lines which preceded them, now making use of a unibody aluminum construction first introduced with the MacBook Air. This new construction has a black plastic keyboard, first used on the MacBook Air, which itself was inspired by the sunken keyboard of the original polycarbonate MacBooks; the now standardized keyboard brings congruity to the MacBook line, with black keys on a metallic aluminum body. The lids of the MacBook family are held closed by a magnet with no mechanical latch, a design element first introduced with the polycarbonate MacBook. Memory and batteries were accessible in the old MacBook lineup, though the newest compact lineup solders or glues all such components in place.
All of the current MacBooks feature backlit keyboards. The MacBook was discontinued until March 2015, when a new model featuring an ultraportable design and an all-metal enclosure was introduced; the MacBook features many firsts from Apple, using a butterfly mechanism keyboard, the Force Touch trackpad, a USB Type-C port. This lack of Type-A USB ports ubiquitous among modern PCs means it requires a physical adapter to attach any 3rd-party peripheral on release; the ports consist of one USB Type-C, able to charge the MacBook, a headphone/microphone jack compatible with inline remote control. Adapters are available for USB, mDP, HDMI, VGA; this Apple laptop is the first in 17 years since the "Wallstreet" PowerBook G3 to lack a translucent illuminated Apple logo on the back of its lid, instead having a polished metal logo. The MacBook Air is Apple's least expensive notebook computer; the 2017 base model comes with a 13-inch screen, was Apple's thinnest notebook computer until the introduction of the MacBook in March 1984.
This MacBook Air model features a Thunderbolt 2 port. This model of MacBook Air does not have a Retina Display. A MacBook Air model with an 11-inch screen was available from October 1992 to October 2002. In 2007, the MacBook Air received a small refresh, with the processor speed increased to 1.8 GHz. On October 30, 2009, the MacBook Air underwent a major design change, dropping the USB Type-A ports, MagSafe, the SD card slot in favor of two USB-C/Thunderbolt 3 ports and a headphone jack, it was updated with a Retina display and Intel Y-series Amber Lake i5 CPUs, as well as a Force Touch trackpad, a third generation butterfly mechanism keyboard, the Touch ID sensor found in the fourth generation MacBook Pro, but without the Touch Bar. The base price was raised, although the base configuration of the 2011 model was retained; the MacBook Pro is Apple's higher end laptop available in both 15-inch configurations. A redesigned MacBook Pro was introduced on October 27, 2016, thinner and lighter than the previous generation MacBook Pro.
Both size models feature a touch-sensitive OLED display strip located in place of the function keys, a Touch ID sensor integrated with the power button, a butterfly mechanism keyboard similar to the MacBook, four USB-C ports that serve as Thunderbolt 3 ports. The 13-inch model is available in a less expensive configuration with conventional function keys and only two USB-C/Thunderbolt 3 ports. Comparison of Macintosh models
The Mac mini is a desktop computer made by Apple Inc. One of four desktop computers in the current Macintosh lineup, along with the iMac, Mac Pro, iMac Pro, it uses many components featured in laptops to achieve its small size; the current Mac mini, introduced in October 2018, is the fourth generation of the product. First released in 2005, the Mac mini is Apple's only consumer desktop computer since 1998 to ship without a display, keyboard, or mouse. Apple marketed it as BYODKM, pitching it to users switching from a traditional Windows PC. In 2010, a third-generation Mac mini became Apple's first computer with an HDMI video port to connect to a television or other display, more positioning the unit as a home theater device alternative to the Apple TV. A server version of the Mac mini, bundled with the Server edition of the OS X operating system, was offered from 2009 to 2014. A small form factor computer had been speculated and requested long before the release of the Mac mini. Rumors predicted that the "headless iMac" would be small, include no display, would be positioned as Apple's entry-level desktop computer.
On January 10, 2005, the Mac mini was announced alongside the iPod shuffle at the Macworld Conference & Expo and was described by Apple CEO Steve Jobs at the time as "the cheapest, most affordable Mac ever". Its case measured 2.0 × 6.5 × 6.5 inches. The Mac mini is an entry-level computer intended for budget-minded customers; until the 2011 release, the Mac mini had much less processing power than the other computers of the Macintosh lineup. Unlike regular desktop computers, which use standard-sized components such as 3.5-inch hard drives and full-size DIMM's, Apple uses lower-power laptop components in the Mac mini to fit all the necessary components into the small case and to prevent overheating. With the choice of components on the older models, the machine was considered somewhat slower than standard desktop computers, it had less storage and memory than comparable desktops. However, the 2011 upgrade addressed many of these previous complaints. In general, the Mac mini has been praised as a affordable computer with a solid range of features.
However, many agree that it is costly for a computer aimed at the lower segment of the market. It is possible to buy small computers at the same price with faster processors, better graphics card, more memory, more storage; the small size has made the Mac mini popular as a home theater solution. In addition, its size and reliability has helped keep resale values high. On October 22, 2009, Apple introduced a new server version of the Mac mini along with revisions of the computer; this model had a second hard drive instead of an optical drive, was marketed as an affordable server for small businesses and schools. On June 15, 2010, Apple introduced the third-generation Mac mini; the new model was thinner, with a unibody aluminum case designed to be opened for RAM access, incorporated upgraded hardware, such as an HDMI port and Nvidia GeForce 320M graphics. It included an internal power supply. An update announced July 20, 2011, dropped the internal CD/DVD optical drive from all versions and introduced a Thunderbolt port, Intel Core i5 processor, either Intel HD Graphics 3000 integrated graphics or AMD Radeon HD 6630M dedicated graphics.
The Server model was upgraded to a quad-core Intel Core i7 processor. Quad-core i7 CPUs were used in the late-2012 desktop Mac mini computers. In October 2014, Apple refreshed the line, adding Haswell CPUs, improving the graphics, lowering the base-model price by $100; the only change to the body was the removal of the two holes used to open the case, as the RAM was no longer upgradable because it was soldered to the logic board. On October 30, 2018, after four years, the Mac mini got a refresh. With this came major specification upgrades, new colors, a switch to all-flash storage; the RAM was increased to a baseline of 8 GB, a maximum of 64 GB of SO-DIMM DDR4. This shows Apple's trend back toward user-upgrade-ability in their desktop models; the storage was changed to a baseline 128 GB of flash storage, with a max of 2 TB. It has optional 10 Gb Ethernet, HDMI 2.0, a headphone jack, 2 USB 3.1, 4 USB-C Thunderbolt 3 ports. The Bluetooth was upgraded to the 5.0 standard, the Mac itself was made available in space gray.
The baseline retail price is $799 USD. Missing for the 2018 model is the SD card reader, SATA drive bay, IR receiver, optical S/PDIF audio out, audio in; the most notable feature of the Mac mini is its size. The original design measured only 2.0 × 6.5 × 6.5 inches. The exterior of the original Mac mini was made of aluminum capped with polycarbonate plastic on the top and bottom; the original design was not meant to be upgraded by the user. The back of the machine contains the I/O vents for the cooling system, it had an external power supply rated at 85W or 110W. The Mac mini, updated on June 15, 2010, was redesigned, being slimmer than the prior models at only 1.4 inches tall, but wider at 7.7 inches a side. The weight rose from 2.9 to 3.0 pounds. The power supply is now internal as opposed to external; the chassis no longer has the polycarbonate plastic on the bottom. The newer model, introduced July 20, 2011 has the same physical dimensions
MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s
IPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. All generations of the iPhone use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software; the first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard; the iPhone can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video, take photos, play music and receive email, browse the web and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps; as of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone. Apple has released twelve generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the twelve major releases of the iOS operating system.
The original first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri; the iPhone 5 featured Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal, they were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7-and-5.5-inch displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models.
The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, therefore, no Touch ID. In September 2018, Apple again released 3 new iPhones, which are the iPhone XS, an upgraded version of the since discontinued iPhone X, iPhone XS Max, a larger variant with the series' biggest display as of 2018 and iPhone XR, a lower end version of the iPhone X; the original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Subsequent iterations of the iPhone have garnered praise; the iPhone is one of the most used smartphones in the world, its success has been credited with helping Apple become one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies. Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees to work on the confidential "Project Purple."
Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet towards a phone. Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. According to Steve Jobs, the "i" word in "iMac" stands for internet, instruct and inspire. Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1's firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple's iPod nano. Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house and paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue, in exchange for four years of exclusive US sales, until 2011. Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco; the two initial models, a 4 GB model priced at US$499 and an 8 GB model at US$599, went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide.
The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the'Jesus phone'. Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, Germany in November 2007, Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008. On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G including the original six. Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty territories. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it in June and August, starting with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost, 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000; the back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal; the iPhone 3G was available in