Pro Wrestling Illustrated is an American internationally sold professional wrestling magazine, founded in 1979. PWI is headquartered in Blue Bell and published by Kappa Publishing Group; the magazine is the longest published English language wrestling magazine. The PWI publishes monthly issues and annual special issues such as their "Almanac and Book of Facts"; the magazine recognises various world championships as legitimate, similar to The Ring magazine in boxing. PWI is referred to as an "Apter Mag", named after its long time photographer Bill Apter, a term used for wrestling magazines that keep kayfabe. In recent years, the PWI has moved away from reporting on storylines as actual news and mixed in editorial comments on the behind the scenes workings; each year since 1991, PWI publishes every year their "Top 500 Wrestlers" in the world list. The first issue of Pro Wrestling Illustrated was released in 1979; the magazine soon became known for not breaking kayfabe in its articles as it traditionally treated all "angles", or storylines, as real.
However, in more recent years the magazine has taken an editorial approach between kayfabe and "shoot" writing, differentiating between on-screen feuds and controversies behind the scenes. PWI is not limited to covering only prominent professional wrestling promotions, as it covers multiple independent promotions in the United States. PWI publishes other special issues, which include: Pro Wrestling Illustrated Wrestling Almanac & Book of Facts since 1996, Women of Wrestling and a weekly newsletter entitled PWI Weekly from 1989 to 2000, it was acquired by Golden Boy Enterprises. PWI has given out annual recognitions since its inception; these awards had been given out by another Victory Sports Magazine property, Sports Review Wrestling. PWI has given out monthly rankings for the big promotions, some select independents, an overall rankings in singles and tag teams. Additionally, readers are given the ability vote for the winners of the year-end awards with ballots being included in special year-end issues.
A special PWI Awards magazine is issued annually, which reveals winners and the number of votes counted. The following is a list of categories. Wrestler of the Year Tag Team of the Year Match of the Year Feud of the Year Most Popular Wrestler of the Year Most Hated Wrestler of the Year Most Improved Wrestler of the Year Most Inspirational Wrestler of the Year Rookie of the Year Stanley Weston Award Comeback of the Year Woman of the Year Manager of the Year Midget Wrestler of the Year Announcer of the Year Although many wrestling organisations promote their lead title as a World Heavyweight Championship, PWI has only recognised two or three top versions as valid World titles at any one time. With regard to the NWA World Heavyweight championship, PWI has recognised the lineage retrospectively traced by the NWA from its 1948 formation back to Georg Hackenschmidt in 1905. PWI has recognised any tag team title corresponding to a recognised World title as a World Tag Team Championship; until March 1991, Pro Wrestling Illustrated and its sister publications steadfastly referred to WCW as "the NWA" despite WCW having phased out the latter name in the preceding months.
In Spring 1991, the family of magazines adopted a new policy of referring to the current promotion and its champions as WCW and the promotion's pre-1991 past as the NWA. The magazine announced it would refer to the overall history of the World title as the "NWA/WCW World Championship". Subsequently, after Ric Flair left WCW and was stripped of the WCW World Heavyweight Championship in July 1991, PWI and its sister publications nonetheless continued to recognise the WCW title as held by Lex Luger, Sting and Ron Simmons as the rightful continuation of the historic NWA World Heavyweight Championship; when Masa Chono won an NWA World title tournament in Japan in July 1992, PWI and its sister publications only recognised Chono's title as the "NWA Championship" and rejected it as a World title or as a continuation of the historic NWA World title. In 1983 Pro Wrestling Illustrated withdrew world title recognition from the WWF, citing how champion Bob Backlund was not facing contenders from outside the WWF territory and furthermore was only facing rulebreakers.
This coincided with the WWF's withdrawal from the NWA in summer 1983. PWI reinstated world title recognition in 1985 on account of the WWF's massive mainstream media profile; the AWA was stripped of world title recognition in January 1991 when the promotion was in its final months. By this time, the AWA World Heavyweight Championship was vacant and would remain so until the promotion's closure in August that year. ECW was granted world title status in 1999 only for the promotion to close the following year; as of August 21, 2016, only the WWE Championship and WWE Universal Championship are recognized by the magazine's present editors as having been world titles. According to the latest PWI almanac, PWI recognizes select world title reigns from May 4, 1905 – January 28, 1946, prior to the formation of the National Wrestling Alliance in July 1948. PWI has published the list of the top 500 professional wrestlers each year since 1991 in an annual special edition magazine, the PWI 500. PWI writers choose the position of the wrestler following a designated evaluation period starting from mid-June.
14th Street/Sixth Avenue is an underground New York City Subway station complex in the Chelsea district of Manhattan on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line, the BMT Canarsie Line and the IND Sixth Avenue Line. It is located on 14th Street between Seventh Avenue, it is served by the: 1, 2, F, L trains at all times 3 and M trains at all times except late nights <F> train during rush hours in the peak directionA connection is available from this complex to the PATH station at 14th Street and Sixth Avenue. There is a direct passageway from this complex to the PATH station's southbound platform; the Dual Contracts, which were signed on March 19, 1913, were contracts for the construction and/or rehabilitation and operation of rapid transit lines in the City of New York. The contracts were "dual" in that they were signed between the City and two separate private companies, all working together to make the construction of the Dual Contracts possible; the Dual Contracts promised the construction of several lines in Brooklyn.
As part of Contract 4, the IRT agreed to build a branch of the original subway line south down Seventh Avenue, Varick Street, West Broadway to serve the West Side of Manhattan. The construction of this line, in conjunction with the construction of the Lexington Avenue Line, would change the operations of the IRT system. Instead of having trains go via Broadway, turning onto 42nd Street, before turning onto Park Avenue, there would be two trunk lines connected by the 42nd Street Shuttle; the system would be changed from looking like a "Z" system on a map to an "H" system. One trunk would run via the new Lexington Avenue Line down Park Avenue, the other trunk would run via the new Seventh Avenue Line up Broadway. In order for the line to continue down Varick Street and West Broadway, these streets needed to be widened, two new streets were built, the Seventh Avenue Extension and the Varick Street Extension, it was predicted that the subway extension would lead to the growth of the Lower West Side, to neighborhoods such as Chelsea and Greenwich Village.14th Street opened as the line was extended south to South Ferry from 34th Street–Penn Station on July 1, 1918, was served by a shuttle.
The new "H" system was implemented on August 1, 1918, joining the two halves of the Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line and sending all West Side trains south from Times Square. An immediate result of the switch was the need to transfer using the 42nd Street Shuttle; the completion of the "H" system doubled the capacity of the IRT system. Sixth Avenue on the BMT Canarsie Line opened on June 30, 1924, as the terminal of the 14th Street–Eastern Line, which ran from Sixth Avenue under the East River and through Williamsburg to Montrose and Bushwick Avenues. 14th Street is a local station on the IND Sixth Avenue Line that opened on December 15, 1940, along with the rest of the IND Sixth Avenue Line from West Fourth Street–Washington Square to 47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center. On January 16, 1978, a free transfer passageway connecting the 14th Street station on the IRT Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line and the stations on the BMT Canarsie Line and the IND Sixth Avenue Line opened; the entire station complex except for the PATH station will receive elevators in 2020–2022.
The improvements were scheduled for the Sixth Avenue and Canarsie Lines only. The IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line platforms and the other lines' platforms are one block apart; the express tracks of the IND Sixth Avenue Line run under the complex but are not part of the station. The PATH platforms are at 14th Street and Sixth Avenue, between the IND Sixth Avenue Line platforms, but require a separate fare payment. 14th Street is an express station on the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line, consisting of four tracks and two island platforms. Both side track walls have their original IRT mosaic trim line with "14" tablets on it at regular intervals. Both platforms have blue i-beam columns that run along both sides at regular intervals with alternating ones having the standard black station name plate in white lettering; this station has three fare control areas. The full-time entrance is at the north end. A single staircase from each platform leads to a crossover that has a newsstand in the center, two now defunct restrooms above the southbound platforms and tracks, two full height turnstiles above the northbound platform and tracks leading to a staircase that goes up to the southeast corner of 14th Street and Seventh Avenue.
There is a passageway leading to the BMT Canarsie platforms on Sixth Avenue, which in turn allows a free transfer to the IND Sixth Avenue Line platforms. The full-time turnstile bank at the center of the crossover opposite the newsstand leads to a mezzanine containing a token booth, three staircases going up to the either northern corners as well as the southwest corner of 14th Street and Seventh Avenue. There is a now-closed passageway with directional mosaics that leads to 14th Street/Eighth Avenue; the station has an exit-only area at the center. Two staircases from each platform go up to a crossover where on either side, a single exit-only turnstile and emergency gate leads to a staircase that goes up to either northern corners of 13th Street and Seventh Avenue; the station has an unstaffed fare control area at the south end. A single staircase from each platform leads to a crossover and a bank of turnstiles as well as one exit-only and one full-height turnstile; the mezzanine has a now-unused customer assistance booth and two staircases going up to bo
The Errol Flynns were a criminal organization, or street gang, founded on the lower east side of Detroit, United States during the 1970s. The gang appropriated their name from the Hollywood film star Errol Flynn because they fashioned themselves as flamboyant gangsters in dress, they used ‘gangsta jits’, or hand signs to identify themselves publicly. This semiotic use of hand gestures to display gang membership, common to contemporary American street gangs as well as hip hop culture, evolved from dances such as the "Errol Flynn", which were in themselves territorial gang symbols. In the 1970s, house parties in Detroit could be identified by gang affiliation through the type of dance party-goers performed, whether or not they were in the gang. Like other Detroit street gangs, such as their Westside Detroit counterparts in the late 1970s; as people and capital left Detroit for suburban communities, the city's social and economic infrastructure buckled, leaving the community fractured and impoverished.
As the murder rate soared to the highest in the United States, the city became viewed as dangerous and in perpetual decline, gangs began to seize territories. The Errol Flynns were regarded as the most notorious group for various reasons. Firstly, they took great pride in their physical appearance and style, something that attracted a lot of youth to their parties; the poverty and urban decay percolating through Detroit made the gang lifestyle attractive to many. Secondly, Detroit underwent a demographic shift with the white flight. Many of the public housing projects such as Herman Gardens went from racially diverse communities to homogeneous black residences in a matter of years; the Errol Flynns became a wealthy organization that dominated many criminal rackets, including extortion and drug trafficking. The gang was linked to several notorious mass robberies, including a hijacking and robbery of concert goers at a rock concert in Cobo Hall in 1977 that drew the Detroit riot police to the venue.
The gang grew to include four hundred members. This prominence had a backside though, as it brought police and political attention and landed many gang members in jail; the Errol Flynn gang collapsed in the 1980s because of the rise of crack cocaine, which undermined the profitability of the heroin trade dominated by the Flynns. Furthermore, the successful prosecution of many gang leaders, ravaged the gang. One member, who made a successful transition from criminal to lawful citizen was Greg Mathis, a lawyer and retired Michigan judge who has his own television show, he published a memoir. The Errol Flynns are recognized as the precursors to most, if not all, Detroit gangs that followed in their wake; some of the most notable successors include the "Be Like Boys", "Dexter Boys", "Schoolcraft Boys or SCB's", "SNS", "Fenkell Boys", "7 Mile Killers or 7 Mile Dogs", "Linwood Boys", "Brewster Boys", "Jeffries Boys" and "8 Mile sconys." All of these crews, excepting the "Be Like Boys" gang, are named after Detroit city streets or housing projects and some of these gangs still exists under new leadership.
Greg Mathis Dancing Dan, Earl Smith. D. L. Moneystone Mathis and Blair S. Walker. Inner City Miracle, Ballatine: New York, 2002. Owen, Frank. "Detroit Death City." Playboy August 60-64