Anime is hand-drawn and computer animation originating from or associated with Japan. The word anime is the Japanese term for animation. Outside Japan, anime refers to animation from Japan or as a Japanese-disseminated animation style characterized by colorful graphics, vibrant characters and fantastical themes; the culturally abstract approach to the word's meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan. For simplicity, many Westerners view anime as a Japanese animation product; some scholars suggest defining anime as or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of Orientalism. The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, Japanese anime production has since continued to increase steadily; the characteristic anime art style emerged in the 1960s with the works of Osamu Tezuka and spread internationally in the late twentieth century, developing a large domestic and international audience. Anime is distributed theatrically, by way of television broadcasts, directly to home media, over the Internet.
It is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences. Anime is a diverse art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies, it consists of an ideal story-telling mechanism, combining graphic art, characterization and other forms of imaginative and individualistic techniques. The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of camera effects, including panning and angle shots. Being hand-drawn, anime is separated from reality by a crucial gap of fiction that provides an ideal path for escapism that audiences can immerse themselves into with relative ease. Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, including characteristically large emotive or realistically sized eyes; the anime industry consists of over 430 production studios, including major names like Studio Ghibli and Toei Animation.
Despite comprising only a fraction of Japan's domestic film market, anime makes up a majority of Japanese DVD sales. It has seen international success after the rise of English-dubbed programming; this rise in international popularity has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style. Whether these works are anime-influenced animation or proper anime is a subject for debate amongst fans. Japanese anime accounts for 60% of the world's animated cartoon television shows, as of 2016. Anime is an art form animation, that includes all genres found in cinema, but it can be mistakenly classified as a genre. In Japanese, the term anime is used as a blanket term to refer to all forms of animation from around the world. In English, anime is more restrictively used to denote a "Japanese-style animated film or television entertainment" or as "a style of animation created in Japan"; the etymology of the word anime is disputed. The English term "animation" is written in Japanese katakana as アニメーション and is アニメ in its shortened form.
The pronunciation of anime in Japanese differs from pronunciations in other languages such as Standard English, which has different vowels and stress with regards to Japanese, where each mora carries equal stress. As with a few other Japanese words such as saké, Pokémon, Kobo Abé, English-language texts sometimes spell anime as animé, with an acute accent over the final e, to cue the reader to pronounce the letter, not to leave it silent as Standard English orthography may suggest; some sources claim that anime derives from the French term for animation dessin animé, but others believe this to be a myth derived from the French popularity of the medium in the late 1970s and 1980s. In English, anime—when used as a common noun—normally functions as a mass noun. Prior to the widespread use of anime, the term Japanimation was prevalent throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In the mid-1980s, the term anime began to supplant Japanimation. In general, the latter term now only appears in period works where it is used to distinguish and identify Japanese animation.
The word anime has been criticised, e.g. in 1987, when Hayao Miyazaki stated that he despised the truncated word anime because to him it represented the desolation of the Japanese animation industry. He equated the desolation with animators lacking motivation and with mass-produced, overly expressionistic products relying upon a fixed iconography of facial expressions and protracted and exaggerated action scenes but lacking depth and sophistication in that they do not attempt to convey emotion or thought; the first format of anime was theatrical viewing which began with commercial productions in 1917. The animated flips were crude and required played musical components before adding sound and vocal components to the production. On July 14, 1958, Nippon Television aired Mogura no Abanchūru, both the first televised and first color anime to debut, it wasn't until the 1960s when the first televised series were broadcast and it has remained a popular medium since. Works released in a direct to video format are called "original video animation" or "original animation video".
The emergence of the Internet has led some animators to distribute works online in a format called "original net anime". The home distribution of anime releases were
Quake III Arena
Quake III Arena is a multiplayer-focused first-person shooter video game released in December 1999. The game was developed by id Software and featured music composed by Sonic Mayhem and Front Line Assembly founder, Bill Leeb. Quake III Arena is the third game in the Quake series and differs from previous games by excluding a traditional single-player element, instead focusing on multiplayer action; the single-player mode is played against computer-controlled bots. Notable features of Quake III Arena include the minimalist design, lacking used items and features, the extensive customizability of player settings such as field of view, texture detail and enemy model, advanced movement features such as strafe-jumping and rocket-jumping. Quake III Arena contains mature content; the game was praised by reviewers who, for the most part, described the gameplay as fun and engaging. Many liked the crisp graphics and focus on multiplayer. Quake III Arena has been used extensively in professional electronic sports tournaments such as QuakeCon, Cyberathlete Professional League and the Electronic Sports World Cup.
Unlike its predecessors, Quake III Arena does not have a plot-based single-player campaign. Instead, it simulates the multiplayer experience with computer-controlled players known as bots; the game's story is brief: "the greatest warriors of all time fight for the amusement of a race called the Vadrigar in the Arena Eternal." The introduction video shows the abduction of such a warrior, while making a last stand. Continuity with prior games in the Quake series and Doom is maintained by the inclusion of player models and biographical information. A familiar mixture of gothic and technological map architecture as well as specific equipment is included, such as the Quad Damage power-up, the infamous rocket launcher, the BFG super-weapon. In Quake III Arena, the player progresses through tiers of maps, combating different bot characters that increase in difficulty, from Crash to Xaero; as the game progresses, the fights take place against tougher opponents. While deathmatch maps are designed for up to 16 players, tournament maps are designed for duels between 2 players and in the single-player game could be considered'boss battles'.
The weapons are balanced by role, with each weapon having advantages in certain situations, such as the railgun at long-range and the lightning gun at close quarters. The BFG super-weapon is an exception to this. Weapons appear as level items. If a player dies, all of their weapons are lost and they receive the spawn weapons for the current map the gauntlet and machine gun. Players drop the weapon they were using when killed, which other players can pick up. Quake III Arena comes with several gameplay modes. Quake III Arena was designed for multiplayer; the game allows players whose computers are connected by a network or to the internet, to play against each other in real time, incorporates a handicap system. It employs a client -- server model. Quake III Arena's focus on multiplayer gameplay spawned a lively community, similar to QuakeWorld, active to this day; the playable characters in bold have appeared in previous entries in the Quake series, or in id Software's sister franchise, Doom. Vader During early March 1999, ATI leaked the internal hardware vendor copy of the game.
This was a functional version of the engine with working guns. The IHV contained most of the weapons that would make it into the final game although most were not modeled. Many of the sounds that would make it into the final release were included. After the IHV leak, id Software released a beta of the game called Quake III Arena Test on April 24, 1999; the Q3Test started with version 1.05 and included three levels that would be included in the final release: dm7, dm17, q3tourney2. Id Software continued to update Q3Test up until version 1.09.id co-founder and former technical director John Carmack has stated that Quake III Arena is his favourite game he has worked on. The id Tech 3 engine is the name given to the engine, developed for Quake III Arena. Unlike most other games released at the time, Quake III Arena requires an OpenGL-compliant graphics accelerator to run; the game does not include a software renderer. The graphic technology of the game is based around a "shader" system where the appearance of many surfaces can be defined in text files referred to as "shader scripts."
Quake 3 introduced spline-based curved surfaces in addition to planar volumes, which are responsible for many of the surfaces present within the game. Quake 3 provided support for models animated using vertex animation with attachment tags, allowing models to maintain separate torso and leg animations and hold weapons. Quake 3 is one of the first games where the third-pers
A particle system is a technique in game physics, motion graphics, computer graphics that uses a large number of small sprites, 3D models, or other graphic objects to simulate certain kinds of "fuzzy" phenomena, which are otherwise hard to reproduce with conventional rendering techniques - highly chaotic systems, natural phenomena, or processes caused by chemical reactions. Introduced in the 1982 film Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan for the fictional "Genesis effect", other examples include replicating the phenomena of fire, smoke, moving water, falling leaves, rock falls, fog, dust, meteor tails and galaxies, or abstract visual effects like glowing trails, magic spells, etc. - these use particles that fade out and are re-emitted from the effect's source. Another technique can be used for things that contain many strands - such as fur and grass - involving rendering an entire particle's lifetime at once, which can be drawn and manipulated as a single strand of the material in question. Particle systems may be three-dimensional.
A particle system's position and motion in 3D space are controlled by what is referred to as an emitter. The emitter acts as the source of the particles, its location in 3D space determines where they are generated and where they move to. A regular 3D mesh object, such as a cube or a plane, can be used as an emitter; the emitter has attached to it a set of particle behavior parameters. These parameters can include the spawning rate, the particles' initial velocity vector, particle lifetime, particle color, many more, it is common for all or most of these parameters to be "fuzzy" — instead of a precise numeric value, the artist specifies a central value and the degree of randomness allowable on either side of the center. When using a mesh object as an emitter, the initial velocity vector is set to be normal to the individual face of the object, making the particles appear to "spray" directly from each face but optional. A typical particle system's update loop can be separated into two distinct stages, the parameter update/simulation stage and the rendering stage.
During the simulation stage, the number of new particles that must be created is calculated based on spawning rates and the interval between updates, each of them is spawned in a specific position in 3D space based on the emitter's position and the spawning area specified. Each of the particle's parameters is initialized according to the emitter's parameters. At each update, all existing particles are checked to see if they have exceeded their lifetime, in which case they are removed from the simulation. Otherwise, the particles' position and other characteristics are advanced based on a physical simulation, which can be as simple as translating their current position, or as complicated as performing physically accurate trajectory calculations which take into account external forces, it is common to perform collision detection between particles and specified 3D objects in the scene to make the particles bounce off of or otherwise interact with obstacles in the environment. Collisions between particles are used, as they are computationally expensive and not visually relevant for most simulations.
After the update is complete, each particle is rendered in the form of a textured billboarded quad. However, this is sometimes not necessary for games. Conversely, in motion graphics particles tend to be full but small-scale and easy-to-render 3d models, to ensure fidelity at high resolution. Particles can be rendered as Metaballs in off-line rendering. 3D mesh objects can "stand in" for the particles — a snowstorm might consist of a single 3D snowflake mesh being duplicated and rotated to match the positions of thousands or millions of particles. Particle systems can be either static; the consequence of this distinction is similar to the difference between snowflakes and hair - animated particles are akin to snowflakes, which move around as distinct points in space, static particles are akin to hair, which consists of a distinct number of curves. The term "particle system" itself brings to mind only the animated aspect, used to create moving particulate simulations — sparks, fire, etc. In these implementations, each frame of the animation contains each particle at a specific position in its life cycle, each particle occupies a single point position in space.
For effects such as fire or smoke that dissipate, each particle is given a fade out time or fixed lifetime. However, if the entire life cycle of each particle is rendered the result is static particles — strands of material that show the particles' overall trajectory, rather than point particles; these strands can be used to simulate hair, fur and similar materials. The strands can be controlled with the same velocity vectors, force fields, spawning rates, deflection parameters that ani
Animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animations are made with computer-generated imagery. Computer animation can be detailed 3D animation, while 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster real-time renderings. Other common animation methods apply a stop motion technique to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts, puppets or clay figures; the effect of animation is achieved by a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon and beta movement, but the exact causes are still uncertain. Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, flip book and film. Television and video are popular electronic animation media that were analog and now operate digitally.
For display on the computer, techniques like animated GIF and Flash animation were developed. Animation is more pervasive. Apart from short films, feature films, animated gifs and other media dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is heavily used for video games, motion graphics and special effects. Animation is prevalent in information technology interfaces; the physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics – in for instance the moving images in magic lantern shows – can be considered animation. The mechanical manipulation of puppets and objects to emulate living beings has a long history in automata. Automata were popularised by Disney as animatronics. Animators are artists; the word "animation" stems from the Latin "animationem", noun of action from past participle stem of "animare", meaning "the action of imparting life". The primary meaning of the English word is "liveliness" and has been in use much longer than the meaning of "moving image medium"; the history of animation started long before the development of cinematography.
Humans have attempted to depict motion as far back as the paleolithic period. Shadow play and the magic lantern offered popular shows with moving images as the result of manipulation by hand and/or some minor mechanics. A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree. In 1833, the phenakistiscope introduced the stroboscopic principle of modern animation, which would provide the basis for the zoetrope, the flip book, the praxinoscope and cinematography. Charles-Émile Reynaud further developed his projection praxinoscope into the Théâtre Optique with transparent hand-painted colorful pictures in a long perforated strip wound between two spools, patented in December 1888. From 28 October 1892 to March 1900 Reynaud gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500.000 visitors at the Musée Grévin in Paris. His Pantomimes Lumineuses series of animated films each contained 300 to 700 frames that were manipulated back and forth to last 10 to 15 minutes per film.
Piano music and some dialogue were performed live, while some sound effects were synchronized with an electromagnet. When film became a common medium some manufacturers of optical toys adapted small magic lanterns into toy film projectors for short loops of film. By 1902, they were producing many chromolithography film loops by tracing live-action film footage; some early filmmakers, including J. Stuart Blackton, Arthur Melbourne-Cooper, Segundo de Chomón and Edwin S. Porter experimented with stop-motion animation since around 1899. Blackton's The Haunted Hotel was the first huge success that baffled audiences with objects moving by themselves and inspired other filmmakers to try the technique for themselves. J. Stuart Blackton experimented with animation drawn on blackboards and some cutout animation in Humorous Phases of Funny Faces. In 1908, Émile Cohl's Fantasmagorie was released with a white-on-black chalkline look created with negative prints from black ink drawings on white paper; the film consists of a stick figure moving about and encountering all kinds of morphing objects, including a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.
Inspired by Émile Cohl's stop-motion film Les allumettes animées, Ladislas Starevich started making his influential puppet animations in 1910. Winsor McCay's Little Nemo showcased detailed drawings, his Gertie the Dinosaur was an early example of character development in drawn animation. During the 1910s, the production of animated short films referred to as "cartoons", became an industry of its own and cartoon shorts were produced for showing in movie theaters; the most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade. El Apóstol was a 1917 Argentine animated film utilizing cutout animation, the world's first animated feature film. A fire that destroyed producer Federico Valle's film studio incinerated the only known copy of El Apóstol, it is now considered a lost film. In 1919, the silent animated short Feline Follies was released, marking the debut of Felix the Cat, being the first animated character in the silent film era to win a high level of popularity.
The earliest extant feature-length animated film is The Adve
Spore (2008 video game)
Spore is a 2008 life simulation real-time strategy and similar to many other single-player sandbox games. The God game was developed by Maxis and designed by Will Wright, was released for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. Covering many genres including action, real-time strategy, role-playing games, Spore allows a player to control the development of a species from its beginnings as a microscopic organism, through development as an intelligent and social creature, to interstellar exploration as a spacefaring culture, it has drawn wide attention for its massive scope, its use of open-ended gameplay and procedural generation. Throughout each stage, players are able to use various creators to produce content for their games; these are automatically uploaded to the online Sporepedia and are accessible by other players for download. Spore was released after several delays to favorable reviews. Praise was given for the fact that the game allowed players to create customized creatures and buildings. However, Spore was criticized for its gameplay, seen as shallow by many reviewers.
Controversy surrounded Spore due to the inclusion of SecuROM, its digital rights management software, which can open the user's computer to security risks. Spore allows the player to develop a species from a microscopic organism to its evolution into a complex animal, its emergence as a social, intelligent being, to its mastery of the planet and finally to its ascension into space, where it interacts with alien species across the galaxy. Throughout the game, the player's perspective and species change dramatically; the game is broken up into distinct "stages". The outcome of one phase affects the initial conditions and leveling facing the player in the next; each phase exhibits its own style of play, has been described by the developers as ten times more complicated than its preceding phase. Phases feature optional missions. If all of a player's creations are destroyed at some point, the species will be respawned at its nearest colony or at the beginning of the phase. Unlike many other Maxis games, Spore has a primary win condition, obtained by reaching a supermassive black hole placed at the center of the galaxy and receiving a "Staff of Life".
However, the player may continue to play. The first four phases of the game, if the player uses the editors only minimally, will take up to 15 hours to complete, but can take as little as one or two hours. Note that there is no time limit for any stage: the player may stay in a single stage as long as they wish, progress to the next stage when ready. At the end of each phase, the player's actions cause their creature to be assigned a characteristic, or consequence trait; each phase has three consequence traits based on how aggressively or peacefully the phase was played. Characteristics determine how the creature will start the next phase and give it abilities that can be used in the game. Spore is a game, separated into stages, each stage presenting a different type of experience with different goals to achieve; the five stages are the Cell Stage, the Creature Stage, the Tribal Stage, the Civilization Stage, the Space Stage. Once the primary objective is completed, the player has the option to advance to the next stage, or continue playing the current stage.
The Cell Stage is the first stage in the game, begins with a cinematic explanation of how the player's cell got onto the planet through the scientific concept of panspermia, with a meteor crashing into the ocean of a planet and breaking apart, revealing a single-celled organism. The player guides this simple microbe around in a 3D environment on a single 2D plane, reminiscent of Flow, where it must deal with fluid dynamics and predators, while eating meat chunks or plants; the player may choose whether the creature is a carnivore prior to starting the stage. The player can find "meteor bits" or kill other cells to find parts that upgrade their creature by adding abilities such as electricity, poison or other parts. Once the microbe has found a part, the player can call a mate to enter the editor, in which they can modify the shape and abilities of the microbe by spending "DNA points" earned by eating organisms in the stage; the cell's eating habits in the Cell Stage directly influence its diet in the Creature Stage, only mouths appropriate to the diet established in the Cell Stage will become available in the Creature Stage.
Once the player decides to progress to the next stage, the creature editor appears, prompting the user to add legs before the shift to land. The Creature editor differs in that it gives the player the ability to make major changes to the creature's body shape and length, place parts in three-dimensional space instead of a top-down view as in the Cell editor. In the Creature Stage, the player creates their own land creature intended to live on a single continent. If the player attempts to swim to another island, an unidentified monster eats the player, the player is warned not to come again; the biosphere contains a variety of animal species which carnivorous and omnivorous creatures can hunt for food, fruit-bearing plants intended for herbivores and omnivores. The player creature's Hunger becomes a measured stat as well as its Health in this stage. In the Creature S
Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings
Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings is a historical fantasy video game published by LucasArts for the Wii, Nintendo DS, PlayStation 2, PlayStation Portable. It was released on 9 June 2009; the game is the third in the series of original 3D Indiana Jones games, preceded by Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb, Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine. The Wii version includes Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis video game as an unlockable; the game was developed for the higher-end PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360 systems, before switching to the aforementioned lower-end platforms. As a result, both systems never saw a proper Indiana Jones video game being released besides the Lego Indiana Jones duology. While investigating the disappearance of his former college professor, Indy finds evidence that the biblical staff Moses used to part the Red Sea might be real and someone dangerous is after it; the plot centers around Indy's search for the Staff of Moses. The Wii version of the game includes an exclusive co-op story mode and unlockable version of the classic point and click adventure Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis.
On the PlayStation 2 and Wii versions Big Head mode, Henry Jones Sr. Tuxedo Indy, Han Solo from Star Wars are unlockable; the story begins with Indiana Jones hunting for an ancient ram's head idol in Sudan in 1939. Indy enters the temple of the idol. After a few narrow escapes, including a swarm of spiders and collapsing statues, Indy finds the idol and is about to exit, when he encounters a group of Nazis. Indy is confronted by their leader, Magnus Voller, a Nazi aide bearing a pistol. Indy is forced to give up the Idol, but makes an escape when he distracts Voller. Indy makes his way outside, fights off some Nazi soldiers, he gets in a truck and chases after a plane, taking off down the runway. After catching up to the plane, he takes off, he is pursued by some Nazi fighters, but escapes and heads back to the United States. Back in America, Indiana receives a letter from Archie Tan, he explains that he has information about the disappearance of Indy's former college professor, Charles Kingston.
Indy heads to San Francisco to talk to Archie, only to find that he and his granddaughter Suzie have been kidnapped. Indy tracks down Suzie, learns from her the location of her grandfather's office, he learns of an ancient artifact that Archie was guarding, the Jade Sphere. Indy heads to the office and finds a secret passageway, leading to some waiting thugs, he defeats the thugs and rides a rickety chair lift down into a subterranean chamber filled with old ships. The chairlift gets hit by a thug with a pistol but Indy manages to survive the ride down, he survives when a mast falls down. He dispatches them, he finds the Jade Sphere in a pile of cannonballs. A day Indy is standing outside a San Francisco office, when he spots Archie across the street being held by Magnus Voller and a Nazi agent. Voller orders Indy to hand over the Sphere. Indy appears to throw the Sphere to Voller before he and Archie flee, but when Magnus opens the packaging he discovers it is a worthless statue. Indy and Archie are chased by cars with machine gunners inside.
Indy uses his pistol to shoot out the tires or engines of the cars, the trolley is stopped by Archie. After Archie tells Indy about the events that transpired, Indiana decides to head for Central America, where Kingston found the Sphere years ago. At the dock to his destination, Indy gets into a minor argument with an Irish photographer named Maggie O'Mally, who decides to escort him on the way there. However, their campsite and the surrounding forest are attacked by native mercenaries in Magnus's employment. Indy manages to fend off the attackers, he saves a village of Indians in the PS2 version, who give him the key to a pyramid. Indy travels through the ruined pyramid, based on the Mayan underworld, which leads to a diary of Kingston's revealing details of the Staff of Kings, the artifact that Moses used to part the Red Sea. After obtaining further clues on the staff's location in Istanbul, Indy locates Kingston in Nepal; the Nazis have followed Indiana to the Staff's resting place and kidnap Kingston and Maggie.
Indy sneaks onto the Nazis' zeppelin, the Odin, rescues Maggie, but is unable to prevent Magnus from fatally shooting Kingston and using the Staff to clear a path through the Red Sea. In response and Maggie chase Magnus on a motorcycle with a sidecar and defeat him with a rocket launcher. Magnus attempts to escape, but Indy sucker-punches him into the wall of water. Upon reaching dry land, the staff unleashes a blast, it turns into a snake, Indy laments "Ugh.. It can take care of itself...". The game was announced in 2005. In a July 2008 interview with DailyGame, a LucasArts representative dismissed rumours of the game's cancellation, stating that it was "very deep into development"; the game was intended to target the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360, leveraging their power to display more advanced graphics while using the same engine as the high-definition versions of Star Wars: The Force Unleashed, but was switched to lower-end consoles and handhelds. The game's story was inspired by Raiders of the Lost Ark and is a collaborative effort of the design and management teams at LucasArts, with one of the writers being Peter Hirschmann.
It was created a few years before the release and received some input from George Lucas and Steven Spielbe
Ragdoll physics is a type of physics engine procedural animation, used as a replacement for traditional static death animations in video games and animated films. Early video games used manually created animations for characters' death sequences; this had the advantage of low CPU utilization, as the data needed to animate a "dying" character was chosen from a set number of pre-drawn frames. As computers increased in power, it became possible to do limited real-time physical simulations. A ragdoll is, therefore, a collection of multiple rigid bodies tied together by a system of constraints that restrict how the bones may move relative to each other; when the character dies, their body begins to collapse to the ground, honouring these restrictions on each of the joints' motion, which looks more realistic. The term ragdoll comes from the problem that the articulated systems, due to the limits of the solvers used, tend to have little or zero joint/skeletal muscle stiffness, leading to a character collapsing much like a toy rag doll into comically improbable or compromising positions.
The Jurassic Park licensed game Jurassic Park: Trespasser exhibited ragdoll physics in 1998 but received polarised opinions. It was remembered, for being a pioneer in video game physics. Modern use of ragdoll physics goes beyond death sequences—there are fighting games where the player controls one part of the body of the fighter and the rest follows along, such as Rag Doll Kung Fu, racing games such as the FlatOut series. Recent procedural animation technologies, such as those found in NaturalMotion's Euphoria software, have allowed the development of games that rely on the suspension of disbelief facilitated by realistic whole-body muscle/nervous ragdoll physics as an integral part of the immersive gaming experience, as opposed to the antiquated use of canned-animation techniques; this is seen in Grand Theft Auto IV, Grand Theft Auto V, Red Dead Redemption, Max Payne 3, as well as titles such as LucasArts' Star Wars: The Force Unleashed and Puppet Army Faction's Kontrol, which feature 2D powered ragdoll locomotion on uneven or moving surfaces.
Ragdolls have been implemented using Featherstone's algorithm and spring-damper contacts. An alternative approach uses idealized contacts. While the constrained-rigid-body approach to ragdolls is the most common, other "pseudo-ragdoll" techniques have been used: Verlet integration: used by Hitman: Codename 47 and popularized by Thomas Jakobsen, this technique models each character bone as a point connected to an arbitrary number of other points via simple constraints. Verlet constraints are much simpler and faster to solve than most of those in a modelled rigid body system, resulting in much less CPU consumption for characters. Inverse kinematics post-processing: used in Halo: Combat Evolved and Half-Life, this technique relies on playing a pre-set death animation and using inverse kinematics to force the character into a possible position after the animation has completed; this means that, during an animation, a character could wind up clipping through world geometry, but after it has come to rest, all of its bones will be in valid space.
Blended ragdoll: this technique was used in Halo 2, Halo 3, Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare, Left 4 Dead, Medal of Honor: Airborne, Uncharted: Drake's Fortune. It works by playing a pre-made animation, but constraining the output of that animation to what a physical system would allow; this helps alleviate the ragdoll feeling of characters going limp, offering correct environmental interaction as well. This requires both animation processing and physics processing, thus making it slower than traditional ragdoll alone, though the benefits of the extra realism seem to overshadow the reduction in processing speed; the ragdolling player model will appear to stretch out and spin around in multiple directions, as though the character were made of rubber. This erratic behavior has been observed to occur in games that use certain versions of the Havok engine, such as Halo 2 and Fable II. Procedural animation: traditionally used in non-realtime media, this technique employs the use of multi-layered physical models in non-playing characters, deformable scenic elements from "simulated materials" in vehicles, etc.
By removing the use of pre-made animation, each reaction seen by the player is unique, whilst still deterministic. Cartoon physics Joint constraints Stair Dismount Truck Dismount Lugaru