Procedural programming is a programming paradigm, derived from structured programming, based on the concept of the procedure call. Procedures known as routines, subroutines, or functions contain a series of computational steps to be carried out. Any given procedure might be called at any point during a program's execution, including by other procedures or itself; the first major procedural programming languages appeared circa 1957–1964, including Fortran, ALGOL, COBOL, PL/I and BASIC. Pascal and C were published circa 1970–1972. Computer processors provide hardware support for procedural programming through a stack register and instructions for calling procedures and returning from them. Hardware support for other types of programming is possible, but no attempt was commercially successful. Modularity is desirable in large, complicated programs. Inputs are specified syntactically in the form of arguments and the outputs delivered as return values. Scoping is another technique, it prevents the procedure from accessing the variables of other procedures, including previous instances of itself, without explicit authorization.
Less modular procedures used in small or written programs, tend to interact with a large number of variables in the execution environment, which other procedures might modify. Because of the ability to specify a simple interface, to be self-contained, to be reused, procedures are a convenient vehicle for making pieces of code written by different people or different groups, including through programming libraries. Procedural programming languages are imperative languages, because they make explicit references to the state of the execution environment; this could be anything from variables to something like the position of the "turtle" in the Logo programming language. The terms "procedural programming" and "imperative programming" are used synonymously. However, procedural programming relies on blocks and scope, whereas imperative programming as a whole may or may not have such features; as such, procedural languages use reserved words that act on blocks, such as if, for, to implement control flow, whereas non-structured imperative languages use goto statements and branch tables for the same purpose.
The focus of procedural programming is to break down a programming task into a collection of variables, data structures, subroutines, whereas in object-oriented programming it is to break down a programming task into objects that expose behavior and data using interfaces. The most important distinction is that while procedural programming uses procedures to operate on data structures, object-oriented programming bundles the two together, so an "object", an instance of a class, operates on its "own" data structure. Nomenclature varies between the two, although they have similar semantics: The principles of modularity and code reuse in practical functional languages are fundamentally the same as in procedural languages, since they both stem from structured programming. So for example: Procedures correspond to functions. Both allow the reuse of the same code in various parts of the programs, at various points of its execution. By the same token, procedure calls correspond to function application.
Functions and their invocations are modularly separated from each other in the same manner, by the use of function arguments, return values and variable scopes. The main difference between the styles is that functional programming languages remove or at least deemphasize the imperative elements of procedural programming; the feature set of functional languages is therefore designed to support writing programs as much as possible in terms of pure functions: Whereas procedural languages model execution of the program as a sequence of imperative commands that may implicitly alter shared state, functional programming languages model execution as the evaluation of complex expressions that only depend on each other in terms of arguments and return values. For this reason, functional programs can have a free order of code execution, the languages may offer little control over the order in which various parts of the program are executed. Functional programming languages support first-class functions, anonymous functions and closures, although these concepts are being included in newer procedural languages.
Functional programming languages tend to rely on tail call optimization and higher-order functions instead of imperative looping constructs. Many functional languages, are in fact impurely functional and offer imperative/procedural constructs that allow the programmer to write programs in procedural style, or in a combination of both styles, it is common for input/output code in functional languages to be written in a procedural style. There do exist a few esoteric functional languages that eschew structured programming precepts for the sake of being difficult to program in; these languages are the exception to the common ground between functional languages. In logic programming, a program is a set of premises, computation is performed by attempting to prove candidate theorems. From this point of view, logic programs are declarative, focusing on what the problem is, rather than on how to solve it. However, the backward reasoning technique, implemented by SLD resolution, used to solve problems in logic programming languages such as Prolog, treats programs as goal-reduction procedures.
Torah Day School of Houston is a Jewish Day School in Houston established in 1977 by the Texas Regional Headquarters of the Chabad Lubavitch. It offers a Jewish education to grades K-8 in addition to its Early Childhood Center for children ages eighteen months through four years old. Rabbi Shimon Lazaroff opened the school along with parents in an attempt to provide quality Jewish and general studies education for the Houston Jewish Community. For over thirty years its students have received a traditional Jewish education, comprehensive in scope, a simultaneous general studies program; the dual curriculum eliminates the need for after school religious classes as it provides daily Judaic learning experiences for pre-school through eighth grade students. Texas Alliance of Accredited Private Schools National Accreditation Board of Merkos - Central Organization for Jewish Education The Jewish Federation of Greater Houston A beneficiary of the United Jewish Campaign Torah Umesorah - National Society for Hebrew Day Schools Rabbi Shimon Lazaroff - Head of School Mrs. Chiena Lazaroff - Director Rabbi Enan Francis - Principal and Assistant Head of School Eileen Kaplan - Head of Early Childhood Development Program History of the Jews in Houston Torah Day School of Houston Website Chabad Lubavitch Center - 2007 Building Expansion Project
The Anglican Archbishop of Armagh is the ecclesiastical head of the Church of Ireland, bearing the title Primate of All Ireland, the metropolitan of the Province of Armagh and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Armagh. The diocese traces its history to Saint Patrick in the 5th century, his current successor is Bishop Richard Clarke, enthroned at his cathedra in St Patrick's Cathedral in Armagh on 15 December 2012 and signs as +Richard ARMAGH. Saint Patrick, having received some grants of land from the chieftain Daire, on the hill called Ard-Macha, built a stone church on the summit and a monastery and some other religious edifices round about, fixed on this place for his metropolitan see. In Irish times, the primacy of Armagh was questioned only by the great southern centre of the Irish Church, at Cashel. Brian Boru recognized the supremacy of Armagh in a political move to gain support from Armagh for Boru's claim to the High Kingship. Another noteworthy incumbent was St. Malachy O'Morgair, who suffered many tribulations in trying to effect a reformation in the diocese.
St. Malachy is honoured as the patron saint of the diocese; when the English kings got a footing in the country, they began to intervene in the election of bishops. The English kings began to claim possession of the temporalities of the sees during vacancies and to insist on the newly elected bishops suing them humbly for their restitution. During the reign of Henry VIII, George Dowdall, a zealous supporter of the king, had been elevated into the See of Armagh by that monarch, but on the introduction of the Book of Common Prayer in the reign of Edward VI, he left the kingdom in disgust. Thereupon the king in 1552, appointed Hugh Goodacre to the see, he survived his consecration only three months. In the beginning of the reign of Mary I, Dowdall was again appointed to the see on account of the great zeal he had shown against Protestantism. Adam Loftus, from whom the Church of Ireland hierarchy derive their orders, was consecrated by Hugh Curwin, Archbishop of Dublin. A most learned primate was James Ussher, whose most important works were "Veterum Epistolarum Hibernicarum Sylloge", published in 1632, "Brittanicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates", which appeared in 1639.
He left his valuable library, comprising several thousand printed books and manuscripts, to Trinity College and his complete works were published by that institution in twenty-four volumes. His judgment against toleration of Roman Catholics, i.e. "to consent that they may exercise their religion and profess their faith and doctrine is a grievous sin", was a signal for the renewal of persecution and led to the Rising of the Irish Catholics in 1641. John Bramhall, another learned divine, succeeded Ussher, his works on polemic and other subjects have been published in four folio volumes. Narcissus Marsh, another learned prelate, built the noble library in Dublin which bears his name, filled it with a valuable collection of theological and Oriental works and liberally endowed it for the support of a librarian and deputy. Richard Robinson raised Armagh by his munificence from extreme decay to a state of opulence and embellished it with various useful public institutions, he built an episcopal headquarters, a public library, an infirmary, an observatory.
Lord John George Beresford was distinguished by his munificence. He is said to have spent £ 280,000 in acts of public benevolence. On his successor, Marcus Gervais Beresford, fell a large portion of the task of providing for the future organization and sustentation of the Church of Ireland, disestablished from 1 January 1871. Prior to the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland in 1871, the Church of Ireland Archbishop of Armagh was entitled to sit in the House of Lords as a Lord Spiritual, along with the other Archbishops in rotation; the following is a basic list of the Church of Ireland archbishops of Armagh. Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Armagh
The Soul Cages is a fairy tale invented by Thomas Keightley published as a piece of genuine Irish folktale in T. Crofton Croker's Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland, it features a male merrow inviting a local fisherman to his undersea home. The ` soul cages' in the title refer to a collection of human souls; the tale is set in County Clare. Jack Dogherty was a fisherman who scavenged goods by occasional beachcombing, he long yearned to meet a merrow, as his grandfather had done before. He got a glimpse of a male merrow discovered he could observe the creature at Merrow's rock on windy days. One such day he was driven to seek refuge in a cave, came face-to-face with the merrow, who called himself Coomara, it had green hair and teeth, a red nose, scaly legs, a fish-tail, stubby fin-like arms. They spoke at length about their abilities for drinking alcohol and their cellars, how they both scavenged bottles from shipwrecks. Coomara arranged a meeting a week and arrived carrying two cocked hats.
The second hat was meant for Jack to use, since it conferred the wearer the power to submerge in the ocean, Coo meant to invite Jack to his undersea home. The merman made; the merman entertained his guest in his shack, dry inside with fires going, although the furnishings were crude. The seafood meal was magnificent, they enjoyed the fine collection of spirits. Jack was shown a collection of cages which Coomara revealed contained the souls of drowned sailors. Coomara meant no harm, thought he rescued the souls from the cold water to a dry place, but Jack was resolved to release the souls. Jack threw a rock in the sea to summon Coomara. Jack had coaxed his wife Biddy to leave the house and go on a religious errand, was now inviting Coomara to his home. Jack offered spirits from his cellar, planned on getting the merman drunk while he sneaked out with the cocked hat and go rescue the souls; the first day he did not succeed because Jack himself got overly drunk, forgetting that he did not have the coolness of the sea above his head to moderate the effects of alcohol.
The next day, he offered the mermaid the powerful poteen he obtained from his brother-in-law, watered down his own drinking. Jack succeeded in releasing some souls. Jack was forgiven for the good deed; the merman seemed not to notice. He and Jack met many times after that and Jack continued to release souls, but one day the merman would not respond to the signal of the rock cast into the sea, was not seen anymore. Keightley was one of the tale-collectors for Croker, but was never given credit for his service. Keightley subsequently republished "Soul Cages" in his own work, The Fairy Mythology, in a edition, admitted that this piece was not genuinely collected folklore, but a tale he invented, based on the German legend of "The Peasant and the Waterman." The German tale was one of Brother Grimm's Deutsche Sagen, No. 25, "Der Wassermann und der Bauer", a translation of it was given by both Croker and Keightley. Although some commentators represent this as a "hoax" perpetrated by Keightley against Croker and the rest, in a letter Keightley wrote to Wilhelm Grimm, he maintained that the concoction of this tale was Croker's idea, the "Soul Cages", published did not remain entire intact as Keightley had written it, but certain modifications had been made to it by Croker.
The question of genuinity of the folklore is complicated by the fact that Keightley claimed to have found sources afterwards, in the coasts of Cork and Co. Wicklow, who knew tales just as Keightley had written them, except the souls were kept in "things like flower-pots". One scholar, who believed Keightley's confession to have taken place as late as 1878, viewed this as Keightley's "creation" becoming disseminated among the populace during the intervening years and "pass back into oral tradition". However, in the 1829 letter Keightley explains he "met with two persons different parts of Ireland who were well acquainted with the legend from their childhood", implying the legend existed many years before Keightley invented it. Keightley had localized the tale to County Clare. Thomas Johnson Westropp, who collected folk-belief of mer-folk in County Clare was not able to find instances of this tale near the setting of the tale, in either Doonbeg or Kilkee, but he seemed to regard this tale as genuine despite reservations.
So, although a piece of "fakelore", to borrow the coinage of Richard Dorson, the fairy tale came to be regarded as authentic, has been included in a number of folktales anthologies after Keightley's confession. Explanatory notes Citations
Shinsui Itō was the pseudonym of a Nihonga painter and ukiyo-e woodblock print artist in Taishō- and Shōwa-period Japan. He was one of the great names of the shin-hanga art movement, which revitalized the traditional art after it began to decline with the advent of photography in the early 20th century, his real name was Itō Hajime. Itō was born in the Fukagawa district of Tokyo. After unwise investments bankrupted his father's business, he was forced to drop out of elementary school in the third grade and became a live-in apprentice at a printing shop, it was in this manner that he became interested in printing techniques and in the arts. In 1911, Itō was accepted as an apprentice under Kaburagi Kiyokata, issued his first woodblock print the following year, his talent was soon apparent, from the following year, his paintings were entered in public exhibitions. In 1912, his works were first shown by the Tatsumi gakai and works were displayed by the Kyodokai, the Nihon bijutsuin, in the government sponsored Bunten show.
His works were received with much praise by art critics, his reputation was soon made. His early works won numerous awards, he accepted a post at the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun to supply illustrations for newspapers; as with most artists of the shin-hanga movement, Itō was spotted by publisher Watanabe Shōzaburō, who monopolized the market. Itō came to be known as a specialist in the bijin-ga genre, although he occasionally painted landscapes. Itō's first major print, "Before the Mirror", depicts a young woman wearing a deep red kimono under-robe, looking off into an unseen mirror. Instead of using the harsh aniline red common in other contemporary prints, Itō used a natural vegetable dye, overprinting the robe several times to achieve a rich crimson color. Special care was taken for the speckled gray texture background, making a contrast with the red garment, black hair, white skin. Itō's early landscape series, Eight Views of Lake Biwa inspired Kawase Hasui, his early bijin-ga are considered his finest works, including Twelve Figures of New Beauties.
Itō established his own independent studio in 1927. Although many of his early works were direct reflections of traditional ukiyo-e both in subject matter and in style, his technique was revolutionary. Ito would paint a "master painting" in watercolors, dedicated craftsmen would make the actual prints from this "master copy". Itō was thus a pioneer in the shin-hanga movement. Watanabe and Itō continued their business cooperation into the 1960s, Watanabe exported thousands of Shinsui prints, generating great success for them both. During the Pacific War, Itō was drafted by the Japanese government into producing propaganda art, he was sent to the South Pacific and Japanese-occupied Netherlands East Indies, completed over 3000 sketches during his travels to various islands under Japanese rule. At the end of the war, he relocated from the ruins of Tokyo to Komoro in the mountains of Nagano Prefecture, he relocated from there to Kamakura, Kanagawa, in 1949. In the post-war period Itō came to be regarded as one of the best known and respected personalities in Japanese society, received several important honors during his lifetime.
In 1952 the "Commission for the Protection of Cultural Properties" declared his woodblock designing talent to be of "intangible cultural properties", the equivalent of being declared a Living National Treasure. In 1958, he became a member of the Japan Art Academy. In 1970, he received the Order of the Rising Sun. One of Itō's works, was the subject of the 1974 Philatelic Week commemorative postage stamp issued by the Japanese post office. Another work, Fubuki was depicted on a 1983 Japanese commemorative postage stamp as part of the Modern Japanese Arts series. Itō's daughter, Yukiji Asaoka, is singer. Itō died in 1972 of cancer, his grave is at the temple of Ryūsō-in in Tokyo. Eight Views of Lake Biwa – 1917–1918 Twelve Figures of New Beauties – 1922–1923 Collection of Modern Beauties – 1929–1931 Twelve Views of Ōshima – 1937–1938 Three Views of Mount Fuji – 1938–1939 Ten Views of Shinano – 1948 Incense Party - 1950 Merritt and Nanako Yamada.. Guide to Modern Japanese Woodblock Prints, 1900-1975.
Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824817329. Ito Shinsui's works at Los Angeles County Museum of Art Brief biography of Ito Shinsui - Jyuluck-Do Corporation Artworks and history of Ito Shinsui
The trouble with unusual names has not been lost on scientists when needing to explain genetic diseases to lay-people. This has been noted in patients with a defect in the sonic hedgehog gene pathway and the disease named CATCH22 for "cardiac anomaly, T-cell deficit and hypocalcaemia for chromosome 22q11.2 microdeletions". This name was abandoned due to the no-win connotations. In 1993, a researcher at the University of Cambridge was ordered to change the name of the gene he had discovered, VELCRO, because of copyright issues with Velcro; the gene was re-named to puckered. In 2005, Pokémon threatened to sue the discoverer of POKEMON because the name was attracting attention when its link to the development of cancer was published. In the early discovery days of genomics, genes were given creative names upon discovery. Although a nomenclature committee has now been formed, several of these names remain. Moronic acid, a natural triterpene Traumatic acid, a monounsaturated dicarboxylic acid occurring in plants Aerodactylus, a disputed pterosaur genus named for the Pokémon Aerodactyl.
Midichloria, a genus of Gram-negative, non spore-forming bacteria, is derived from the midi-chlorians, a symbiotic, microscopic life form described in the fictional Star Wars universe. Spongiforma squarepantsii, a fungus species from Malaysia named after the Nickelodeon character SpongeBob SquarePants from the show of the same name. Yoda purpurata, a species of acorn worm from the North Atlantic ocean, was named after the fictional character Yoda from the Star Wars franchise, it is the only known hermaphroditic member within the phylum. Chromatin Interaction Analysis by Paired-End Tag Sequencing is a technique to determine chromatin interactions which shares a name with Chia Pets. List of chemical compounds with unusual names