Product liability

Product liability is the area of law in which manufacturers, suppliers and others who make products available to the public are held responsible for the injuries those products cause. Although the word "product" has broad connotations, product liability as an area of law is traditionally limited to products in the form of tangible personal property. In most nations legislatures have taken the lead in imposing strict liability for product defects; the courts of several countries, including Canada and South Africa, have not followed California's Greenman holding. The United States was the birthplace of modern product liability law and had the largest number of cases in the nineties of the previous century; as Geraint Howells explained in 1993: "No other country can match the United States for the number and diversity of its product liability cases, nor for the prominence of the subject in the eyes of the general public and legal practitioners." In the United States, the majority of product liability laws are determined at the state level and vary from state to state.

Each type of product liability claim requires proof of different elements in order to present a valid claim. Of the various U. S. states, California was the first to throw away the fiction of a warranty and to boldly assert the doctrine of strict liability in tort for defective products, in the Supreme Court of California's decision in Greenman v. Yuba Power Products, 59 Cal. 2d 57. The Greenman decision was influential on the development of product liability law in other states. In Greenman, Traynor cited to his own earlier concurring opinion in Escola v. Coca-Cola Bottling Co. 24 Cal. 2d 453, 462. In Escola, now recognized as a landmark case in American law, Justice Traynor laid the foundation for Greenman with these words: Even if there is no negligence, public policy demands that responsibility be fixed wherever it will most reduce the hazards to life and health inherent in defective products that reach the market, it is evident that the manufacturer can anticipate some hazards and guard against the recurrence of others, as the public cannot.

Those who suffer injury from defective products are unprepared to meet its consequences. The cost of an injury and the loss of time or health may be an overwhelming misfortune to the person injured, a needless one, for the risk of injury can be insured by the manufacturer and distributed among the public as a cost of doing business, it is to the public interest to discourage the marketing of products having defects that are a menace to the public. If such products find their way into the market it is to the public interest to place the responsibility for whatever injury they may cause upon the manufacturer, who if he is not negligent in the manufacture of the product, is responsible for its reaching the market; however intermittently such injuries may occur and however haphazardly they may strike, the risk of their occurrence is a constant risk and a general one. Against such a risk there should be general and constant protection and the manufacturer is best situated to afford such protection.

The year after Greenman, the Supreme Court of California proceeded to extend strict liability to all parties involved in the manufacturing and sale of defective products and in 1969 made it clear that such defendants were liable not only to direct customers and users, but to any innocent bystanders randomly injured by defective products. Many jurisdictions have been swayed by Justice Traynor's arguments on behalf of the strict liability rule in Escola and subsequent cases. In the 40 years after Greenman, the highest courts of nearly all U. S. states and territories followed California's example in imposing strict liability on manufacturers and retailers for defective products. In a landmark 1986 decision, the U. S. Supreme Court embraced strict liability for defective products by adopting it as part of federal admiralty law. Although the Greenman rule was adopted by many other states through Section 402A of the Restatement of Torts, the Supreme Court of California refused to adopt Section 402A's "unreasonably dangerous" limitation upon strict liability in 1972.

Thus, strict liability in California is strict, in that the plaintiff need not show that the defect was unreasonable or dangerous. On the other hand, in California, the defendant is allowed to introduce evidence in a strict products liability action that the plaintiff contributed to his or her own injuries. California's courts continue to follow the standard set forth in Greenman. In 2002 the California Supreme Court held that strict liability for defective products applies to makers of component products that are installed into and sold as part of real property. However, strict liability is not limitless. In 2012, the Court held that manufacturers are liable under strict liability and negligence only for defects in their products, as distinguished from other products that could be used in association with their products. Section 2 of the Restatement of Torts: Products Liability distinguishes between three major types of product liability claims: Manufacturing defect Design defect Failure to warn However, in most states, these are not legal claims in and of themselves, but are pleaded in terms of the theories mentioned above.

For example, a plaintiff might plead negligent failure to warn or strict liability for defective design. Manufacturing defects are those that occur in the manufacturing process and involve poor-quality materials or sh

Dilara Lokmanhekim

Dilara Lokmanhekim is a Turkish female judoka competing in the lightweight division. Lokmanhekim was born in Antalya, Turkey on April 18, 1994, she has a younger sister. She is Sports College at Bülent Ecevit University in Zonguldak, she was introduced to judo in the school, began to compete in 2005. In 2013, she was injured on her knee, underwent a surgery, she won two junior titles at the 2012 and 2014 European Championships, another one in the under 23 category in 2012. Lokmanheim became silver medalist at the 2014 World Junior Championships in Florida, USA. In 2015, she won the gold medal at the IJF Grand Prix held in Croatia. At the European Open Prague 2015, Czech Republic, she earned a bronze medal. Lokmanhekim won a bronze medal at the World Judo Masters Mohammed VI 2015 held in Morocco, she placed 7th at the 2015 European Games in Azerbaijan. At the Judo Grand-Slam Abu Dhabi 2015, she took the bronze medal, she took the bronze medal at the 2015 IJF Grand Prix in South Korea. She became bronze medalist at the 2016 European Judo Championships in Kazan, Russia


Uchi is a contemporary Japanese sushi restaurant located in Austin, Texas which opened in 2003. The Japanese word "Uchi" translates to "house" in English, the 2,700-square-foot space is a refurbished home. Owner and chef Tyson Cole's menu consists of hot and cool tastings and sashimi, makimono and tempura, a changing omakase based on seasonal items. In 2011, Cole won the “Best Chef, Southwest” award from the James Beard Foundation. Uchiko, Tyson Cole’s follow up to his first restaurant, opened its doors in July 2010. Translated as “child of uchi” from Japanese, Uchiko is located at 4200 North Lamar, just south of 45th Street in Central Austin. Kaz Edwards is the Chef de Cuisine and Charlie Wang is the Head Sushi Chef. Uchi Houston opened in February 2012, located at 904 Westheimer Rd Houston, TX 77006 Lance Gillum is the Chef de Cuisine. Uchi Dallas opened on June 1, 2015, located at 2817 Maple Ave. Dallas, TX 75201. Alex Astranti is the Chef de Cuisine. Right above Uchi is Uchiba, owned by the same people and opened in 2018.

Uchi's success in a city more known for barbecue and brews than stylized fine dining has garnered the restaurant favorable reviews from Fearless Critic. Articles about chef and owner Tyson Cole have been featured in The Wall Street Journal, Oxford American, Tribeza magazine and Food & Wine Magazine. Opened in July 2010, Uchiko elicited attention from publications across the country; the restaurant has been mentioned in the Houston Chronicle, Nation's Restaurant News, Austin American-Statesman, Texas Monthly. In 2011, Uchiko was recognized as one of the top new restaurants in Texas in the Houston Chronicle, The Dallas Morning News, San Antonio Express, Texas Monthly; the restaurant secured its place on the culinary landscape when - in early 2011 - it was named one of the best new restaurants in America by GQ Magazine. Tyson Cole - Owner and Chef Owner of Uchi and Uchi Houston, Chef Cole is an American sushi master. Named one of the Top 10 “Best New Chefs” in 2005 by Food & Wine Magazine, he led a team of Uchi chefs against Chef Masaharu Morimoto on the Food Network program Iron Chef America in March 2008.

He has been named a semifinalist in 2008, 2009, 2010 for the James Beard Foundation Award in the category “Best Chef: Southwest”. Notable awards for Uchi include The Daily Meal - 101 Best Restaurants in America for 2015 Chefs Feed - The Best Dishes in Austin March 2015 Thrillist - The 21 Best Sushi Spots in America January 2015 The Daily Meal - The Best Sushi in America December 2014 TripAdvisor - Travelers' Choice Awards for Fine Dining October 2014 Zagat Guide - Austin's Best Restaurant September 2014 Southern Living - 100 Best Restaurants in the South August 2014 Nylon Magazine Guide to Austin - Best Restaurant November 2013 Bon Appétit - 20 Most Important Restaurants in America October 2013 Zagat Guide - 10 Austin Restaurant All-Stars September 2013 Bon Appétit - The Best New Sushi Restaurants in America October 2012 Travel and Leisure - Best Seafood Restaurants in America October 2012 Rare Magazine – Best Fine Dining June 2010 Rare Magazine – Best Service 2009, 2010 Rare Magazine – Best Sushi 2008-2010 Bon Appétit Magazine – Top Ten Sushi Spots April 2009 The Fearless Critic – Best Restaurant in Austin 2008, 2010 Zagat Guide – Best Food in Austin 2008-2010 Houston Chronicle - Top Restaurants in Texas Austin Business Journal – Best Chef August 2007 Austin American-Statesman XLENT – Five-star review May 2007 Austin Chronicle reader’s poll Favorite Restaurant in Austin 2006-2010 Austin Chronicle reader’s poll Best Sushi 2004-2010 Austin Chronicle reader’s poll Best Chef 2005-2010 Texas Monthly – Best New Restaurants in Texas February 2004Notable awards for Uchiko include Houston Chronicle - Top new restaurants in Texas San Antonio Express - Top new eateries in the state Dallas Morning News - Top 10 new restaurants in Texas GQ Magazine- Top new restaurant in America 2010 Texas Monthly - Where to Eat Now, February 2011 List of sushi restaurants