A professional association seeks to further a particular profession, the interests of individuals engaged in that profession and the public interest. In the United States, such an association is a nonprofit organization for tax purposes; the roles of professional associations have been variously defined: "A group, of people in a learned occupation who are entrusted with maintaining control or oversight of the legitimate practice of the occupation. In the UK, the Science Council defines a professional body as "an organisation with individual members practicing a profession or occupation in which the organisation maintains an oversight of the knowledge, skills and practice of that profession or occupation"; the Quality Assurance Agency distinguishes between statutory bodies and regulators that "have powers mandated by Parliament to regulate a profession or group of professions and protect the use of professional titles" and professional bodies that "are independent membership organisations that oversee the activities of a particular profession and represent the interests of members" and which "may offer registration or certification of unregulated occupations on a voluntary basis."Most professional organizations of global scope are located in the United States.
The USA has led the transformation of various occupations into professions, a process described in the academic literature as professionalization. Many professional bodies are involved in accrediting degrees and examining the skills and competencies necessary to practice a person, granting professional certifications to indicate that a person is qualified in the subject area. Sometimes membership of a professional body is synonymous with certification. Membership of a professional body, as a legal requirement, can in some professions form the primary formal basis for gaining entry to and setting up practice within the profession. Many professional bodies act as learned societies for the academic disciplines underlying their professions. Advocacy Bar association Guild Inter-professional association Learned society Syndicate Trade association Trade union Working group List of Professional bodies in the United Kingdom List of Professional bodies in Australia List of Professional bodies in Canada Anders Kjellberg Union density and specialist/professional unions in Sweden, Lund University: Studies in Social Policy, Industrial Relations, Working Life and Mobility.
Research Reports 2013:2
ESIEE, is a network of French graduate schools composed of two graduate schools of engineering known as ESIEE Paris and ESIEE Amiens and one graduate school of management called ESIEE Management. In 1904 the Breguet school was kept this name until the 1960s, it was a graduate school of engineering in the field of electricity. In 1968 the school is operated by the Paris Chamber of Commerce. In 1992 another branch of the school opened in Amiens. In 1995 the ESIEE Management was created. 80 of the 450 students in Amiens graduate every year. During the last two years, students in Amiens choose a specialization among the following subjects: Building services engineering Computer networks and telecommunications Electrical engineering and sustainable development Manufacturing systems ESIEE Management is a business school for high tech projects where management and technologies are inseparable. Courses are based on learning the knowledge of a technical subject; the academic disciplines and the 10 months of internship allow graduate students to be effective in companies.
The possibility to spend the third year in a foreign country gives the opportunity for students to pursue an international career. The academic specializations are: Management and Biotechnology or Bioindustry Management and Computer Science or Digital Communications Management and Advanced Materials or Integrated Engineering Approximately 400 of the 1,800 students in Paris graduate every year and 60% of them spent at least three months studying or working outside France. Depending on their specialization, they can attend classes in its 650 m2 clean room, it is known as the first engineering school to have students design and launch an artificial satellite, named SARA, in 1991, as part of extracurricular work in ESIEESPACE, a student club. During the last two years, students in Paris choose a specialization among the following subjects: Computer science Signal processing and telecommunications Network engineering Electronics and microelectronics Embedded systems Manufacturing systems engineeringESIEE launched master of science programs in nano-science MEMS, electronic engineering and system on a chip, programs to which international students and 4th and 5th year ESIEE students may participate.
ESIEE Paris is one amongst the top ten Grandes écoles in the post-bac category according to the French magazine L'Étudiant in 2013. The three schools share the same alumni association called AA-ESIEE; the mission of the association is to strengthen and support the alumni network of ESIEE by developing contacts and mutual assistance among its members. The AA-ESIEE is headquartered in the 17th arrondissement of Paris. History of the Breguet School History of ESIEE Paris
Pultney Township is one of the sixteen townships of Belmont County, United States. The 2010 census found 8,795 people in the township. Located in the eastern part of the county along the Ohio River, it borders the following townships: Pease Township - north Mead Township - south Richland Township - westWest Virginia lies across the Ohio River to the east: Ohio County to the northeast, Marshall County to the southeast. Several populated places are located in Pultney Township: The village of Bellaire in the east, along the Ohio River Part of the village of Shadyside in the southeast, along the Ohio River The census-designated place of Neffs in the northwest The unincorporated community of Blaine in the north The unincorporated community of Lansing in the north. Pultney Township was organized in 1801, it is the only Pultney Township statewide. In 1833, Pultney Township contained one or two stores, four flouring mills, three or four gristmills, several saw mills, a woolen factory; the township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1.
Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election. Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. County website