Prospekt Mira (Koltsevaya line)
Prospekt Mira is a station of the Moscow Metro's Koltsevaya line. Opened on 30 January 1952 as part of the second stage of the line, it is a pylon design by architects Vladimir Gelfreykh and Mikhail Minkus. Called Botanichesky Sad after the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University which are located nearby, the theme of this station develops the connotation of the name in the overall colour tone; the arches are faced with flared white marble and are topped with ceramic bas-relief frieze made of floral elements. In the centre are medallion bas-reliefs featuring the different aspects in the development of agriculture in the Soviet Union; the station walls are laid with dark red Ural marble and chessboard floor pattern is made of grey and black granite. The ceiling vault is decorated with casts, lighting comes from several cylindrical chandeliers; the station's vestibule is built into the ground floor of a multi-story building on the corner of Mira Avenue and Protopopovsky lane. Designed by A. Arkin, its façade features an original clock over the two archways.
Inside, opposite the escalator hall is a large smalt artwork Mothers of the World by A. Kuznetsov. In 1958, the wall at the end of the station was dismantled to make way for a transfer to the new station Botanichesky Sad on the Rizhskaya line. In 1966 both stations were renamed after to avoid confusion with the larger Moscow Botanical Garden of Academy of Sciences, which would see the station Botanichesky Sad be named after that in 1978. In May 2015, the vestibule of the station was closed for one year, due to major refurbishments works, reopened on 16 May 2016
Alekseyevskaya (Moscow Metro)
Alexeyevskaya is a station on the Moscow Metro's Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya line. It serves Alexeyevsky District; the station's round entrance is located on the east side of Prospekt Mira between Staroalexeyevskaya and Novoalexeyevskaya streets. From day of opening this station was named "Mir" and was station with most short name in history of Moscow Metro, it was designed by Yu. Kolesnikova, G. Golubev and opened on 1 May 1958; the station was planned to be as decorated as previous stations, but the design was modified due to Khrushchev's opposition to unnecessary decorative elements. As a result, Alexeyevskaya has clean lines for a station built in the 1950s, its octagonal pylons are white marble with green stripes, the arches and ventilation grilles are painted white. Lighting comes from elegant chandeliers; the station was named Mir, but was changed to Scherbakovskaya in 1966 in honor of Aleksandr Shcherbakov, a founding member of the Union of Soviet Writers. In November 1990, the city renamed the station Alekseyevskaya for the historical settlement of Alekseyevskoye, which once belonged to Prince Dmitry Troubetskoy
Akademicheskaya (Moscow Metro)
Akademicheskaya is a station on the Moscow Metro's Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line. It is named for the several Akademichesky Proyezd streets located nearby, which were themselves named after the Russian Academy of Sciences but have all been renamed since. Akademicheskaya opened on October 13, 1962, was designed by Yuliya Kolesnikova and Fokina. Built to the new pillar-trispan design, which became prevalent in the 1960s due to its low construction costs; the station has white marble pillars accented with a stripe of black marble near the top. The walls faced with white tile with four horizontal blue stripes, were re-covered in 2003 with coloured aluminium planes for a cleaner, more modern look; the entrances to the station are located around Ho Chi Minh Square, at the intersection of Profsoyuznaya street and Dmitriya Ulyanova street. The station serves 67,400 passengers daily
The Moskva River is a river of western Russia. It rises about 140 km west of Moscow, flows east through the Smolensk and Moscow Oblasts, passing through central Moscow. About 110 km south east of Moscow, at the city of Kolomna, it flows into the Oka River, itself a tributary of the Volga, which flows into the Caspian Sea. Moskva and Moscow are two different renderings of the same Russian word Москва; the city is named after the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested that the name of the city derives from this term, although several theories exist. To distinguish the river and the city, Russians call the river Moskva-reka instead of just Moskva; the river is 503 km long, with a vertical drop of 155 m. The area of its drainage basin is 17,600 km2; the maximum depth is 3 metres above Moscow city limits, up to 6 metres below it. It freezes in November–December and begins to thaw around late March. In Moscow, the river freezes occasionally.
The absolute water level in downtown Moscow is 120 metres above sea level. The main tributaries are the Ruza, Yauza and Severka rivers. Sources of water are estimated as 12 % rain and 27 % subterranean. Since completion of the Moscow Canal, the Moskva River has collected a share of Upper Volga water; this has enabled reliable commercial shipping, interrupted by summer droughts. The average discharge, including Volga waters, varies from 38 m3/s near Zvenigorod to 250 m3/s at the Oka inlet; the speed of the current, depending on the season, varies from 0.1 m/s to 1.5–2.0 m/s. Moscow, the capital of Russia, is situated on its banks; the river flows through the towns of Mozhaysk, Zhukovsky, Voskresensk, — at the confluence of the Moskva and Oka — Kolomna. As of 2007, there are its canals within Moscow city limits. Within the city, the river is 120–200 metres wide, the narrowest point being under the Kremlin walls. Drinking water for the city of Moscow is collected from five stations on the Moskva River and from the Upper Volga reservoirs.
Canals, built within Moscow city limits, have created a number of islands. Some of them have names in Russian, some have none. Major, permanent islands are: Serebryany Bor. Separated from the mainland in the 1930s. Tatarskaya Poyma known as Mnyovniki. Separated from the mainland in the 1930s Balchug Island known as Bolotny Ostrov, lying just opposite the Kremlin; the island was formed by the construction of the Vodootvodny Canal in the 1780s, has no official name in Russian. Moscow residents informally call it "Bolotny Ostrov" while members of Moscow's English-speaking community refer to it as Balchug. One uninhabited island north of Nagatino. Three uninhabited islands east of Nagatino, connected by the Pererva lock system. There is a fleet of river ice-breaker cruisers which ply routes from moorings at the Hotel Ukraine and Gorky Park to the Novospassky Monastery and back. Duration of trips ranges from 1.5 to 3 hours. "Moskva". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit; this differs from a tram or streetcar, which uses the track as the return path, needing only one wire and one pole. They are distinct from other kinds of electric buses, which rely on batteries. Power is most supplied as 600-volt direct current, but there are exceptions. Around 300 trolleybus systems are in operation, in cities and towns in 43 countries. Altogether, more than 800 trolleybus not more than about 400 concurrently; the trolleybus dates back to 29 April 1882, when Dr. Ernst Werner Siemens demonstrated his "Elektromote" in a Berlin suburb; this experiment continued until 13 June 1882, after which there were few developments in Europe, although separate experiments were conducted in the U. S. In 1899, another vehicle which could run either on or off rails was demonstrated in Berlin; the next development was when Lombard Gerin operated an experimental line at the Paris Exhibition of 1900 after four years of trials, with a circular route around Lake Daumesnil that carried passengers.
Routes followed in 6 places including Fontainebleau. Max Schiemann on 10 July 1901 opened the world's fourth passenger-carrying trolleybus system, which operated at Bielatal, in Germany. Schiemann built and operated the Bielatal system, is credited with developing the under-running trolley current collection system, with two horizontally parallel overhead wires and rigid trolleypoles spring-loaded to hold them up to the wires. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days there were many other methods of current collection; the Cédès-Stoll system was first operated near Dresden between 1902 and 1904, 18 systems followed. The Lloyd-Köhler or Bremen system was tried out in Bremen with 5 further installations, the Cantono Frigerio system was used in Italy. Throughout the period, trackless freight systems and electric canal boats were built. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
Though it was opened on 20 June, the public was not admitted to the Bradford route until the 24th. Bradford was the last to operate trolleybuses in the UK, the system closing on 26 March 1972; the last rear-entrance trolleybus in Britain was in Bradford and is now owned by the Bradford Trolleybus Association. Birmingham was the first to replace a tram route with trolleybuses, while Wolverhampton, under the direction of Charles Owen Silvers, became world-famous for its trolleybus designs. There were 50 trolleybus systems in the UK. By the time trolleybuses arrived in Britain in 1911, the Schiemann system was well established and was the most common, although the Cédès-Stoll system was tried in West Ham and in Keighley. Smaller trackless trolley systems were built in the US early as well; the first non-experimental system was a seasonal municipal line installed near Nantasket Beach in 1904. The trackless trolley was seen as an interim step, leading to streetcars. In the U. S. A. some systems subscribed to the all-four concept of using buses, trolleybuses and rapid transit subway and/or elevated lines, as appropriate, for routes ranging from the used to the heaviest trunk line.
Buses and trolleybuses in particular were seen as entry systems that could be upgraded to rail as appropriate. In a similar fashion, many cities in Britain viewed trolleybus routes as extensions to tram routes where the cost of constructing or restoring track could not be justified at the time, though this attitude changed markedly in the years after 1918. Trackless trolleys were the dominant form of new post-war electric traction, with extensive systems in among others, Los Angeles, Rhode Island, Atlanta; some trolleybus lines in the United States came into existence when a trolley or tram route did not have sufficient ridership to warrant track maintenance or reconstruction. In a similar manner, a proposed tram scheme in Leeds, United Kingdom, was changed to a trolleybus scheme to cut costs. Trolleybuses are uncommon today in North America, but they remain common in many European countries as well as Russia and China occupying a position in usage between street railways and diesel buses. Worldwide, around 300 cities or metropolitan areas are served by trolleybuses today.
Trolleybuses are used extensively in large European cities, such as Athens, Bratislava, Budapest, Kiev, Milan, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Tallinn, Varna and Zurich, as well as smaller ones such as Arnhem, Coimbra, Kaunas, Limoges, Modena, Piatra Neamț, Plzeň, Prešov, Solingen, Szeged, Târgu Jiu and Yalta. See Trolleybus usage by country. Transit authorities in some cities have reduced or discontinued their use of trolleybuses in recent years, while othe
Sukharevskaya (Moscow Metro)
Sukharevskaya is a station on the Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya line of the Moscow Metro. It opened on 5 January 1972; the station's underground vestibule is located under Sretenka Street just south of the Garden Ring. From its opening until November 1990, the station was called Kolkhoznaya, as a nod to the collective farming of the Soviet Union and the named square; as Soviet names lost favor, the square was renamed into the Large and Small Sukharev Squares, both of which are named for the Sukharev Tower, which stood nearby until 1934. The station was renamed Sukharevskaya, accordingly; the yellowish marble pylons resemble stylized sheaves of wheat in keeping with the station's original name, Kolkhoznaya or "Collective Farm." The walls are decorated with plaques by R. Pogrebnoy, Ye. Kolyupanova, S. Kolyupanov. Lighting comes from rows of inset lamps running along the base of the ceiling
Prospekt Mira (Kaluzhsko–Rizhskaya line)
Prospekt Mira is a station on the Kaluzhsko–Rizhskaya line of the Moscow Metro. It was designed by V. Lebedev and P. Shteller and opened on 1 May 1958; the station features flared pylons faced with white marble and trimmed with sharp-edged metal cornices. The walls are faced with off-white ceramic tile with horizontal black stripes. Between 1958 and until 1971 the station was the southern terminus of the Rizhskaya line; the entrance to the station is located on the west side of Prospekt Mira in the ground floor of the Metro's central control building. From this station it is possible to transfer to Prospekt Mira on the Koltsevaya line