New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
The First Fleet is the name given to the 11 ships that left England on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia. The First Fleet was commanded by Commodore Arthur Phillip, who was given instructions authorising him to make regulations, the cost to Britain of outfitting and despatching the Fleet was £84,000. Ropes, agricultural equipment and a miscellany of other stores were needed, the party had to rely on its own provisions to survive until it could make use of local materials, assuming suitable supplies existed, and grow its own food and raise livestock. Scale models of all the ships are on display at the Museum of Sydney, the models were built by ship makers Lynne and Laurie Hadley, after researching the original plans and British archives. The replicas of the Supply, Scarborough, Prince of Wales, Lady Penrhyn, Alexander, Fishburn, nine Sydney harbour ferries built in the mid-1980s are named after First Fleet vessels. The unused names are Lady Penrhyn and Prince of Wales, the people of the fleet included seamen and their families, government officials, and a large number of convicts, including women and children.
The majority were British, but there were African, the six convict transports each had a detachment of marines on board. Most of the families of the marines travelled aboard the Prince of Wales, a number of people on the First Fleet kept diaries and journals of their experiences, including the surgeons. There are twelve known journals in existence as well as some letters, the exact number of people directly associated with the First Fleet will likely never be established, as all accounts of the event vary slightly. A total of 1,420 people have identified as embarking on the First Fleet in 1787. The total number of persons embarking on the First Fleet would, therefore, be approximately 1,530 with about 1,483 reaching Sydney Cove. The Scarborough, of 418 tons, had on board 205 male convicts,1 captain,2 lieutenants,2 sergeants,2 corporals,1 drummer, and 26 privates, with 1 assistant surgeon to the colony. The Charlotte, of 346 tons, had on board 89 male and 20 female convicts,1 captain,2 lieutenants,2 sergeants,3 corporals,1 drummer, and 35 privates, with the principal surgeon of the colony.
The Lady Penrhyn, of 338 tons, had on board 101 female convicts,1 captain,2 lieutenants, and 3 privates, with a person acting as a surgeons mate. The Prince of Wales, of 334 tons, had on board 2 male and 50 female convicts,2 lieutenants,3 sergeants,2 corporals,1 drummer, and 24 privates, with the surveyor-general of the colony. The Friendship, … of 228 tons, had on board 76 male and 21 female convicts,1 captain,2 lieutenants,2 sergeants,3 corporals,1 drummer, and 36 privates, with 1 assistant surgeon to the colony. There were on board, beside these,28 women,8 male and 6 female children, belonging to the soldiers of the detachment, the Fishburn store-ship was of 378 tons, the Borrowdale of 272 tons, and the Golden Grove of 331 tons. Golden Grove carried the chaplain for the colony, with his wife, not only these store-ships, but the men of war and transports were laden with provisions, implements of agriculture, camp equipage, clothing for the convicts, etc
A fanzine is a nonprofessional and nonofficial publication produced by fans of a particular cultural phenomenon for the pleasure of others who share their interest. The term was coined in an October 1940 science fiction fanzine by Russ Chauvenet, publishers and contributors of articles or illustrations to fanzines receive no financial compensation. Fanzines are traditionally circulated free of charge, or for a nominal cost to defray postage or production expenses, copies are often offered in exchange for similar publications, or for contributions of art, articles, or letters of comment, which are published. The term fanzine is sometimes confused with fan magazine, but the term most often refers to commercially produced publications for fans. P. These publications were produced first on small tabletop printing presses, often by students, as professional printing technology progressed, so did the technology of fanzines. Early fanzines were hand-drafted or typed on a typewriter and printed using primitive reproduction techniques.
Only a very small number of copies could be made at a time, the use of mimeograph machines enabled greater press runs, and the photocopier increased the speed and ease of publishing once more. Today, thanks to the advent of publishing and self-publication. When Hugo Gernsback published the first scientifiction magazine, Amazing Stories in 1926, by 1927 readers, often young adults, would write to each other, bypassing the magazine. Science fiction fanzines had their beginnings in Serious & Constructive correspondence, fans finding themselves writing the same letter to several correspondents sought to save themselves a lot of typing by duplicating their letters. Early efforts included simple carbon copies but that proved insufficient, the first science fiction fanzine, The Comet, was published in 1930 by the Science Correspondence Club in Chicago and edited by Raymond A. Palmer and Walter Dennis. The term fanzine was coined by Russ Chauvenet in the October 1940 edition of his fanzine Detours, fanzines were distinguished from prozines, that is, all professional magazines.
Prior to that, the fan publications were known as fanmags or letterzines, Science fiction fanzines used a variety of printing methods. Typewriters, school dittos, church mimeos and multi-color letterpress or other mid-to-high level printing, some fans wanted their news spread, others reveled in the artistry and beauty of fine printing. The hectograph, introduced around 1876, was so named because it could produce up to a hundred copies, hecto used an aniline dye, transferred to a tray of gelatin, and paper would be placed on the gel, one sheet at a time, for transfer. Messy and smelly, the process could create vibrant colors for the few copies produced, the next small but significant technological step after hecto is the spirit duplicator, essentially the hectography process using a drum instead of the gelatin. Introduced by Ditto Corporation in 1923, these machines were known for the six decades as Ditto Machines and used by fans because they were cheap to use. The mimeograph machine, which forced ink through a wax paper stencil cut by the keys of a typewriter, was the standard for many decades, a second-hand mimeo could print hundreds of copies and print in color
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the second largest library in the world by number of items catalogued. It holds well over 150 million items from many countries, as a legal deposit library, the British Library receives copies of all books produced in the United Kingdom and Ireland, including a significant proportion of overseas titles distributed in the UK. The Library is a public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media. The Librarys collections include around 14 million books, along with holdings of manuscripts. In addition to receiving a copy of every publication produced in the UK and Ireland, the Library adds some three million items every year occupying 9.6 kilometres of new shelf space. Prior to 1973, the Library was part of the British Museum, the Euston Road building is classified as a Grade I listed building, of exceptional interest for its architecture and history. The British Library was created on 1 July 1973 as a result of the British Library Act 1972.
Prior to this, the library was part of the British Museum. In 1983, the Library absorbed the National Sound Archive, which holds many sound and video recordings, with over a million discs, the core of the Librarys historical collections is based on a series of donations and acquisitions from the 18th century, known as the foundation collections. From 1997 to 2009 the main collection was housed in this new building. Construction work on the Newspaper Storage Building was completed in 2013, the collection has now been split between the St Pancras and Boston Spa sites. The British Library Document Supply Service and the Librarys Document Supply Collection is based on the site in Boston Spa. Collections housed in Yorkshire, comprising low-use material and the newspaper and Document Supply collections, the Library previously had a book storage depot in Woolwich, south-east London, which is no longer in use. The new library was designed specially for the purpose by the architect Colin St John Wilson, facing Euston Road is a large piazza that includes pieces of public art, such as large sculptures by Eduardo Paolozzi and Antony Gormley.
It is the largest public building constructed in the United Kingdom in the 20th century, in December 2009 a new storage building at Boston Spa was opened by Rosie Winterton. The building was Grade I listed on 1 August 2015, in England, Legal Deposit can be traced back to at least 1610. The other five libraries are, the Bodleian Library at Oxford, the University Library at Cambridge, the Trinity College Library at Dublin, in 2003 the Ipswich MP Chris Mole introduced a Private Members Bill which became the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003. The Act extends United Kingdom legal deposit requirements to electronic documents, such as CD-ROMs, the Library holds the Asia and Africa Collections which include the India Office Records and materials in the languages of Asia and of north and north-east Africa
How the West Was Won (film)
How the West Was Won is a 1962 American Metrocolor epic-Western film. The picture was one of the last old-fashioned epic films made by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer to enjoy great success, set between 1839 and 1889, it follows four generations of a family as they move ever westward, from western New York state to the Pacific Ocean. The picture was filmed in the curved-screen three-projector Cinerama process, the film is narrated by Spencer Tracy. The score was listed at #25 on AFIs 100 Years of Film Scores, the film gained unanimous widespread critical acclaim, and a perfect 100% rating on Rotten Tomatoes. In 1997, the film was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry of the Library of Congress as being deemed culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant. Zebulon Prescott and his family set out west for the frontier via the Erie Canal, along the journey, they meet mountain man, Linus Rawlings, who is traveling east, to Pittsburgh, to trade his furs. Rawlings and Zebulons daughter, Eve are attracted to each other, Linus Rawlings stops at an isolated trading post, run by a murderous clan of river pirates, headed by Alabama Colonel Jeb Hawkins.
Linus is betrayed when he accompanies seductive Dora Hawkins, into a cave, modeled after the real outlaw haunt, of Cave-In-Rock State Park, Dora Hawkins stabs him in the back and Rawlings falls into a deep hole. He is not seriously wounded, and is able to rescue the Prescott party from a similar fate, the bushwhacking thieves, including Dora, are dispatched, being killed in an attack by Rawlings, in a form of rough, frontier justice. Linus, finding that he live without Eve, reappears. She insists on homesteading, at the spot where her parents died, Eves sister Lilith chooses to go to St. Louis, where she finds work performing in a dance hall. She attracts the attention of professional gambler Cleve Van Valen, after overhearing that she has just inherited a California gold mine, and to avoid paying his debts to another gambler, Cleve joins the wagon train taking her there. He and wagonmaster Roger Morgan court her along the way, surviving an attack by Cheyenne Indians and Cleve arrive at the mine, only to find that it is worthless.
Lilith returns to work in a hall in a camp town. Morgan finds her and again proposes marriage unromantically and she tells him, Not now, not ever. Later, Lilith is singing in the salon of a riverboat. By chance, Cleve is a passenger, when he hears Liliths voice, he leaves the poker table to propose to her. He tells her of the opportunities waiting in the growing city of San Francisco
Man of La Mancha
Man of La Mancha is a 1964 musical with a book by Dale Wasserman, lyrics by Joe Darion, and music by Mitch Leigh. It is adapted from Wassermans non-musical 1959 teleplay I, Don Quixote and it tells the story of the mad knight Don Quixote as a play within a play, performed by Cervantes and his fellow prisoners as he awaits a hearing with the Spanish Inquisition. The work is not and does not pretend to be a rendition of either Cervantes life or of Don Quixote. Wasserman complained repeatedly about taking the work as a version of Don Quixote. The original 1965 Broadway production ran for 2,328 performances and won five Tony Awards, the musical has been revived four times on Broadway, becoming one of the most enduring works of musical theatre. The principal song, The Impossible Dream, became a standard, Man of La Mancha was first performed at the Goodspeed Opera House in East Haddam, Connecticut in 1965 and had its New York premiere on the thrust stage of the ANTA Washington Square Theatre in 1965.
Man of La Mancha started as a teleplay written by Dale Wasserman for CBSs DuPont Show of the Month program. This original telecast starred Lee J. Cobb, Colleen Dewhurst, the DuPont Corporation disliked the title Man of La Mancha, thinking that its viewing audience would not know what La Mancha actually meant, so a new title, I, Don Quixote, was chosen. The play was broadcast live on November 9,1959, with an audience of 20 million. Unfortunately, due to the production being staged in the days of videotape and due to the inferiority of kinescopes. Mitch Leigh was selected as composer, with orchestrations by Carlyle W. Hall, the original lyricist of the musical was poet W. H. Auden, but his lyrics were discarded, some of them considered too overtly satiric and biting, attacking the bourgeois audience at times. Audens lyrics were replaced by those of Joe Darion, the musical first played at the Goodspeed Opera House in Connecticut in 1965. After 21 previews, the opened at the experimental thrust-stage ANTA Washington Square Theatre in Greenwich Village on November 22,1965.
Musical staging and direction were by Albert Marre, choreography was by Jack Cole, richard Kiley won a Tony Award for his performance as Cervantes/Quixote in the original production, and it made Kiley a bona fide Broadway star. Kiley was replaced in the original Broadway run by first Jose Ferrer on Broadway and in the 1966 National Tour, Atkinson performed Cervantes/Quixote in the 1968 National Tour and for all of the matinee performances in the 1972 Broadway revival, which starred Kiley. The original cast included Irving Jacobson, Ray Middleton, Robert Rounseville, john Cullum, Hal Holbrook, and Lloyd Bridges played Cervantes and Don Quixote during the run of the production. Keith Andes played the role, the musical was performed on a single set that suggested a dungeon. All changes in location were created by alterations in the lighting, by the use of props supposedly lying around the floor of the dungeon, more recent productions, have added more scenery
Ohio /oʊˈhaɪ. oʊ/ is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States. Ohio is the 34th largest by area, the 7th most populous, the states capital and largest city is Columbus. The state takes its name from the Ohio River, the name originated from the Iroquois word ohi-yo’, meaning great river or large creek. Partitioned from the Northwest Territory, the state was admitted to the Union as the 17th state on March 1,1803, Ohio is historically known as the Buckeye State after its Ohio buckeye trees, and Ohioans are known as Buckeyes. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the United States House of Representatives, Ohio is known for its status as both a swing state and a bellwether in national elections. Six Presidents of the United States have been elected who had Ohio as their home state, Ohios geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo, Ohio has the nations 10th largest highway network, and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North Americas population and 70% of North Americas manufacturing capacity.
To the north, Lake Erie gives Ohio 312 miles of coastline, Ohios southern border is defined by the Ohio River, and much of the northern border is defined by Lake Erie. Ohios neighbors are Pennsylvania to the east, Michigan to the northwest, Ontario Canada, to the north, Indiana to the west, Kentucky on the south, Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the rivers 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark, the border with Michigan has changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features glaciated plains, with a flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau features rugged hills, in 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, at attempt to address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region.
This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia, the worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Miami River watershed flooded, as a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States. Grand Lake St. Marys in the west central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the era of 1820–1850. For many years this body of water, over 20 square miles, was the largest artificial lake in the world and it should be noted that Ohios canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their emergence to location on canals. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold, precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round
Along with Londons West End theatres, Broadway theatres are widely considered to represent the highest level of commercial theatre in the English-speaking world. The Theater District is a popular tourist attraction in New York City, the great majority of Broadway shows are musicals. They presented Shakespeare plays and ballad operas such as The Beggars Opera, in 1752, William Hallam sent a company of twelve actors from Britain to the colonies with his brother Lewis as their manager. They established a theatre in Williamsburg and opened with The Merchant of Venice, the company moved to New York in the summer of 1753, performing ballad operas and ballad-farces like Damon and Phillida. The Revolutionary War suspended theatre in New York, but thereafter theatre resumed in 1798, the Bowery Theatre opened in 1826, followed by others. Blackface minstrel shows, a distinctly American form of entertainment, became popular in the 1830s, by the 1840s, P. T. Barnum was operating an entertainment complex in lower Manhattan.
In 1829, at Broadway and Prince Street, Niblos Garden opened, the 3, 000-seat theatre presented all sorts of musical and non-musical entertainments. In 1844, Palmos Opera House opened and presented opera for four seasons before bankruptcy led to its rebranding as a venue for plays under the name Burtons Theatre. The Astor Opera House opened in 1847, booth played the role for a famous 100 consecutive performances at the Winter Garden Theatre in 1865, and would revive the role at his own Booths Theatre. Other renowned Shakespeareans who appeared in New York in this era were Henry Irving, Tommaso Salvini, Fanny Davenport, lydia Thompson came to America in 1868 heading a small theatrical troupe, adapting popular English burlesques for middle-class New York audiences. Thompsons troupe called the British Blondes, was the most popular entertainment in New York during the 1868–1869 theatrical season, the six-month tour ran for almost six extremely profitable years. Theatre in New York moved from downtown gradually to midtown beginning around 1850, in 1870, the heart of Broadway was in Union Square, and by the end of the century, many theatres were near Madison Square.
Broadways first long-run musical was a 50-performance hit called The Elves in 1857, New York runs continued to lag far behind those in London, but Laura Keenes musical burletta The Seven Sisters shattered previous New York records with a run of 253 performances. It was at a performance by Keenes troupe of Our American Cousin in Washington, the production was a staggering five-and-a-half hours long, but despite its length, it ran for a record-breaking 474 performances. The same year, The Black Domino/Between You, Me and the Post was the first show to call itself a musical comedy, Tony Pastor opened the first vaudeville theatre one block east of Union Square in 1881, where Lillian Russell performed. Comedians Edward Harrigan and Tony Hart produced and starred in musicals on Broadway between 1878 and 1890, with book and lyrics by Harrigan and music by his father-in-law David Braham. They starred high quality singers, instead of the women of repute who had starred in earlier musical forms. Plays could run longer and still draw in the audiences, leading to better profits, as in England, during the latter half of the century, the theatre began to be cleaned up, with less prostitution hindering the attendance of the theatre by women
It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have called the pound. At various times, the sterling was commodity money or bank notes backed by silver or gold. The pound sterling is the worlds oldest currency still in use, the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and Jersey produce their own local issues of sterling, the Guernsey pound and the Jersey pound. The pound sterling is used in the Isle of Man, the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, and regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland. Sterling is the fourth most-traded currency in the exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those three currencies it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights, Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves. The full, official name, pound sterling, is used mainly in formal contexts, otherwise the term pound is normally used.
The abbreviations ster. or stg. are sometimes used, the term British pound is commonly used in less formal contexts, although it is not an official name of the currency. The pound sterling is referred to as cable amongst forex traders, the origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the dollar/pound sterling exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex brokers are sometimes referred to as cable dealers, as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived, silver coins known as sterlings were issued in the Saxon kingdoms,240 of them being minted from a pound of silver. Hence, large payments came to be reckoned in pounds of sterlings, in 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection. And because the Leagues money was not frequently debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the Easterlings, and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called Easterlings Hall, or Esterlingeshalle.
For further discussion of the etymology of sterling, see sterling silver, the currency sign for the pound sign is £, which is usually written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. The ISO4217 currency code is GBP, the abbreviation UKP is used but this is non-standard because the ISO3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes, GGP, JEP, stocks are often traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices. A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, since decimalisation in 1971, the pound has been divided into 100 pence. The symbol for the penny is p, hence an amount such as 50p properly pronounced fifty pence is more colloquially, quite often, pronounced fifty pee /fɪfti, pi and this helped to distinguish between new and old pence amounts during the changeover to the decimal system
Opera is an art form in which singers and musicians perform a dramatic work combining text and musical score, usually in a theatrical setting. In traditional opera, singers do two types of singing, recitative, a style and arias, a more melodic style. Opera incorporates many of the elements of theatre, such as acting, scenery. The performance is given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble. Opera is a key part of the Western classical music tradition, in the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, attracting foreign composers such as George Frideric Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Christoph Willibald Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his operas in the 1760s. The first third of the 19th century saw the point of the bel canto style, with Gioachino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti. It saw the advent of Grand Opera typified by the works of Auber and Meyerbeer, the mid-to-late 19th century was a golden age of opera and dominated by Richard Wagner in Germany and Giuseppe Verdi in Italy.
The popularity of opera continued through the era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Giacomo Puccini. During the 19th century, parallel operatic traditions emerged in central and eastern Europe, the 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism and Minimalism. With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso, since the invention of radio and television, operas were performed on these mediums. Beginning in 2006, a number of opera houses began to present live high-definition video transmissions of their performances in cinemas all over the world. In 2009, an opera company offered a download of a complete performance. The words of an opera are known as the libretto, some composers, notably Wagner, have written their own libretti, others have worked in close collaboration with their librettists, e. g. Mozart with Lorenzo Da Ponte. Vocal duets and other ensembles often occur, and choruses are used to comment on the action, in some forms of opera, such as singspiel, opéra comique and semi-opera, the recitative is mostly replaced by spoken dialogue.
Melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of, or instead of, the terminology of the various kinds of operatic voices is described in detail below. Over the 18th century, arias were accompanied by the orchestra. Subsequent composers have tended to follow Wagners example, though some, the changing role of the orchestra in opera is described in more detail below
King of Kings (1961 film)
King of Kings is a 1961 American Biblical epic film made by Samuel Bronston Productions and distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Directed by Nicholas Ray, the film is a dramatization of the story of Jesus Christ from his birth and ministry to his crucifixion and resurrection, in 63 BC, Pompey conquers Jerusalem and the city is sacked. He enters the Temple to seize the treasure of Solomon and massacres the priests there and he discovers that the treasure is only a collection of scrolls of the Torah. These he holds over a fire until an old priest reaches for them imploringly, a carpenter named Joseph and his wife Mary, who is about to give birth, arrive in Bethlehem for the census. Not having found accommodation for the night, they take refuge in a stable, the shepherds, who have followed the Magi from the East, gather to worship him. However, informed of the birth of a child-king, orders the centurion Lucius to take his men to Bethlehem and Joseph flee to Egypt with the child. The Massacre of the Innocents occurs, Herod dies, killed in his death throes by his son Herod Antipas, who takes power.
In Nazareth, who is now twelve years old, is working with Joseph when soldiers arrive under the command of Lucius, but he does nothing and only asks that Mary and Joseph register their sons birth before the years end. Years pass and Jewish rebels led by Barabbas and Judas Iscariot prepare to attack a caravan carrying the next governor of Judea, Pontius Pilate, the ambush fails, partly due to the diligence of Lucius, and Barabbas and Judas flee for their lives. Pilate and Herod Antipas meet on the banks of the River Jordan, Jesus arrives here, now 30 years of age. He is baptized by John, who recognizes that he is the Messiah, Jesus goes into the desert, where he is tempted by Satan. After forty days, Jesus travels to Galilee, where he recruits his Apostles, in Jerusalem, Herod Antipas arrests John the Baptist, who is visited by Jesus in prison. Judas leaves the rebel Barabbas and joins the Apostles, Jesus begins to preach and gather crowds, among which are Claudia, Pilates wife, and Lucius. Herod reluctantly beheads John on a whim of his stepdaughter, Herod and the High Priest Caiaphas are terrorized by the works and miracles of Jesus.
Barabbas plots a revolt in Jerusalem during Passover, during which time Jesus enters the city in triumph. The rebels storm the Antonia Fortress, but the legions of Pilate, having learned of the plot and crush the revolt, Jesus meets the disciples on the evening of Thursday, having supper one last time with them and after goes to pray at Gethsemane. In the meantime, Judas wants Jesus to free Judea from the Romans, Jesus is brought before Caiaphas and to Pilate. Pilate starts the trial, but sensing that the issue is one of Jewish sensibilities, sends him to Herod Antipas, Pilate is infuriated by Antipass returning of Jesus and commands his soldiers to scourge him