Honda City (AA)
The first generation Honda City was a subcompact hatchback aimed at the Japanese domestic market. The somewhat uniquely designed City, referred to by Honda as "Tall Boy" style, was marketed abroad and was available in a number of versions. First introduced in November 1981 it carried the model codes AA for sedans, VF for vans, FA for the widetrack Turbo II and Cabriolets, it was sold at the Honda Japan dealership sales channel called Honda Clio. While the City's layout was traditional for its category, with front-wheel drive and a transversely mounted engine, its upright seating arrangement was innovative, creating legroom comparable to larger cars. This, combined with class leading fuel economy led to it being a rapid and considerable success in the Japanese domestic market. In spite of the creativity and novelty of its design, the City was narrowly pipped for the Japanese motoring journalists' Car Of The Year Award by the luxurious Toyota Soarer; the engine was the CVCC-II 1,231 cc four-cylinder "ER" designed for the City.
It was available together with the Motocompo, a special 50 cc'foldaway' scooter constructed to fit in the City's small luggage area, itself designed around the Motocompo. A sportier R version, the economical E and two commercial van versions were introduced. In September 1982 a turbocharged version of the Honda ER engine was added to the lineup. Designed by Pininfarina and introduced in August 1984, a drop-top Cabriolet utilized the wider track and bigger bumpers of the Turbo II "Bulldog", but was only available with the aspirated 67 PS engine; these widetrack models were designated "FA" rather than "AA". The Cabriolet was well equipped, with a glass rear window and twelve pastel colors not available on the hatchback versions. Part of a worldwide eighties' wave of convertibles based on family cars, this was the first car of this kind built in Japan. A March 1985 light facelift brought some interior improvements; the E and E II models were replaced by the new E III, while a lower priced U model joined the lineup.
The U was the only non-commercial City to be available with a four-speed manual in the Japanese domestic market. Aspirated engines in the AA Citys gained a new fiber-reinforced aluminum alloy connecting rods, a world first in series production. One month the R became available with the interesting Hypershift transmission, a four-speed with an electronically controlled overdrive on second and fourth gears - in essence creating a 7-speed gearbox. In addition to vans and convertibles, there was an "R Manhattan Roof" version with a 10 cm taller roof. A "R Manhattan Sound" version incorporated high-quality stereo equipment; the E-series used trip computers to increase gas mileage. The E III, in addition to benefitting from the FRM conrods had an electronically variable lean-burn engine. First generation production ended in late 1986 with the introduction of the GA type City. Commercial versions were called Pro in Japan, were available with either two or five seats; the Pro had to make do without brake boost and transistorized ignition, were not available with the five speed manual transmission.
The bare-bones Pro had a manual choke. Exports of the City were only of aspirated hatchback and van versions. In Europe it was renamed Honda Jazz, due to Opel having the rights to the City name after having used it on a hatchback version of the Kadett C, it was marketed in Europe from 1982 to 1986, but was priced too high to compete. The European Jazz was only classified as a four-seater, offered either 45 or 56 hp depending on fuel grade; the City was sold in Australia and New Zealand. The Australian-spec model claimed 47 kW at 5000 rpm, on Super fuel with 10.2:1 compression and fitted with a twin-throat carburetor. Similar to the Japanese City Pro-T cargo model, the Australian model was allowed to carry 370 kg while the Japanese version was only classed for 300 kg; the Honda City Turbo was a sport compact / hot hatch produced by Japanese automaker Honda between September 1982 and 1986, based on the aspirated Honda City AA. For a long time the City Turbo was one of the few non-kei car Hondas to be equipped with a turbocharged engine.
The City Turbo was the brainchild of Hirotoshi Honda, son of Honda founder Soichiro Honda as well as founder and owner of Mugen. In the early 1980s Mugen was a small tuning company, beginning to make its mark producing performance parts for motorcycles and automobiles, but was yet to gain recognition outside of racing circles; when he created the City Turbo, Hirotoshi took one of Honda's most unassuming vehicles and turned it into an aggressive street rocket, considered to be well ahead of its time. Impressed, Honda took Hirotoshi's idea and made a production version, introduced in September 1982. A few months earlier, Honda staffers took two City Turbos on a gruelling 10,000 km round trip of Europe, all the way from Sicily to Karasjok in the arctic north. In November 1983, the intercooled Turbo II joined the lineup. Flared fenders, wings and graphics combined for a much more pugnacious appearance, making its "Bulldog" nickname fitting. In late 1984 the original Turbo was discontinued(although there were some tha
A motorcycle called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, cruising, sport including racing, off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda and Hero MotoCorp. In developing countries, motorcycles are considered utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, excluding car-centric Japan. According to the US Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars; the term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction.
There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes and mopeds, many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well; each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, each design creates a different riding posture. In some countries the use of pillions is restricted; the first internal combustion, petroleum fueled. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885; this vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier.
Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen, it was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. The first commercial design for a self-propelled cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle, conceived of Edward Butler in England in 1884, he exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884. The vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888; the Butler Petrol Cycle was a three-wheeled vehicle, with the rear wheel directly driven by a 5⁄8 hp, 40 cc displacement, 2 1⁄4 in × 5 in bore × stroke, flat twin four-stroke engine equipped with rotary valves and a float-fed carburettor and Ackermann steering, all of which were state of the art at the time. Starting was by compressed air; the engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the rear driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a throttle valve lever.
No braking system was fitted. The driver was seated between the front wheels, it wasn't, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing. Many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a'motorcycle', credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle. Given the rapid rise in use of electric motorcycles worldwide, defining only internal-combustion powered two-wheelers as'motorcycles' is problematic. If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle the first motorcycles built seem to be the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede which patent application was filled in December 1868, constructed around the same time as the American Roper steam velocipede, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Who demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U. S. in 1867, Roper built about 10 steam cars and cycles from the 1860s until his death in 1896.
In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. Excelsior Motor Company a bicycle manufacturing company based in Coventry, began production of their first motorcycle model in 1896; the first production motorcycle in the US was the Orient-Aster, built by Charles Metz in 1898 at his factory in Waltham, Massachusetts. In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine; as the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles. At the turn of the 19th century the first major mass-production firms were set up. In 1898, Triumph Motorcycles in England began producing motorbikes, by 1903 it was producing over 500 bikes.
Other British firms were Royal Enfield and Birmingham Small Arms Company who
A car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation. Most definitions of car say they run on roads, seat one to eight people, have four tires, transport people rather than goods. Cars came into global use during the 20th century, developed economies depend on them; the year 1886 is regarded as the birth year of the modern car when German inventor Karl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Cars became available in the early 20th century. One of the first cars accessible to the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were adopted in the US, where they replaced animal-drawn carriages and carts, but took much longer to be accepted in Western Europe and other parts of the world. Cars have controls for driving, passenger comfort, safety, controlling a variety of lights. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex; these include rear reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, in-car entertainment.
Most cars in use in the 2010s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, began to become commercially available in 2008. There are benefits to car use; the costs include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments and maintenance, depreciation, driving time, parking fees and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, public health, health care, disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Road traffic accidents are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide; the benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility and convenience. The societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, revenue generation from the taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies.
There are around 1 billion cars in use worldwide. The numbers are increasing especially in China and other newly industrialized countries; the word car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum, or the Middle English word carre. In turn, these originated from the Gaulish word karros, it referred to any wheeled horse-drawn vehicle, such as a cart, carriage, or wagon. "Motor car" is attested from 1895, is the usual formal name for cars in British English. "Autocar" is a variant, attested from 1895, but, now considered archaic. It means "self-propelled car"; the term "horseless carriage" was used by some to refer to the first cars at the time that they were being built, is attested from 1895. The word "automobile" is a classical compound derived from the Ancient Greek word autós, meaning "self", the Latin word mobilis, meaning "movable", it entered the English language from French, was first adopted by the Automobile Club of Great Britain in 1897. Over time, the word "automobile" fell out of favour in Britain, was replaced by "motor car".
"Automobile" remains chiefly North American as a formal or commercial term. An abbreviated form, "auto", was a common way to refer to cars in English, but is now considered old-fashioned; the word is still common as an adjective in American English in compound formations like "auto industry" and "auto mechanic". In Dutch and German, two languages related to English, the abbreviated form "auto" / "Auto", as well as the formal full version "automobiel" / "Automobil" are still used — in either the short form is the most regular word for "car"; the first working steam-powered vehicle was designed — and quite built — by Ferdinand Verbiest, a Flemish member of a Jesuit mission in China around 1672. It was a 65-cm-long scale-model toy for the Chinese Emperor, unable to carry a driver or a passenger, it is not known with certainty if Verbiest's model was built or run. Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot is credited with building the first full-scale, self-propelled mechanical vehicle or car in about 1769, he constructed two steam tractors for the French Army, one of, preserved in the French National Conservatory of Arts and Crafts.
His inventions were, handicapped by problems with water supply and maintaining steam pressure. In 1801, Richard Trevithick built and demonstrated his Puffing Devil road locomotive, believed by many to be the first demonstration of a steam-powered road vehicle, it was unable to maintain sufficient steam pressure for long periods and was of little practical use. The development of external combustion engines is detailed as part of the history of the car but treated separately from the development of true cars. A variety of steam-powered road vehicles were used during the first part of the 19th century, including steam cars, steam buses and steam rollers. Sentiment against them led to the Locomotive Acts of 1865. In 1807, Nicéphore Niépce and his brother Claude created what was the world's first internal combustion engine, but they chose to install it in a boat on the river Saone in France. Coincidentally, in 1807 the Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed his own'de Rivaz internal combustion engine' and used it to develop the world's first vehicle to be powered by such an engine.
The Honda VFR800 is a sport touring motorcycle made by Honda since 1998. The model was the successor to the VFR750F and shares the V4 engine configuration with the Honda VF and VFR series. Rather than being a direct development of the previous, carbureted VFR750F engine, the VFR800 engine was a detuned and longer-stroke power plant based on the fuel-injected engine designed for the RC45 of 1994; the RVF750R RC45 engine, although a development of the VFR750R RC30 and derived from the VFR750F RC24, was different from Honda's previous V4s as the gear drive for the camshafts was moved from the centre of the engine to the engine's right-side. Another change was the two side-mounted radiators as opposed to just one at the engine front like in the VFR750; the engine was tuned for road use in the VFR800, so that torque was improved throughout the rev range while maximum power was only higher than the VFR750. The VFR800's frame, which uses the engine as a stressed member, was derived from the VTR1000 Firestorm, retains the trademark VFR single-sided swingarm though, pivoted from the aft of the crankcase.
It uses normal'right-side-up' front forks. In 2000, Honda updated the fifth-generation VFR with a catalytic converter, oxygen sensors, an EFI system that would enter closed-loop mode under highway operation; these came with a temperature-actuated fast idle system, negating the need for a choke lever. The rear-view mirrors got updated as well, with Honda forgoing the old rubberized stalks, instead going for rustproof metal ones. Bikes supplied for Europe came with the H. I. S. S. Immobiliser system in an effort to combat theft; the VFR800 has a DCBS linked braking system. This is a departure from traditional motorcycle braking system where front and rear braking are independent of each other. In this system, the front brake lever applies pressure to four of the six front brake caliper pistons; the rotational movement of the left caliper when engaged actuates a secondary master cylinder and applies pressure to one of the rear caliper's pistons. The rear brake pedal is directly attached to the remaining pistons.
The DCBS system is designated "Dual" as both hand lever and foot pedal each control both front and rear brakes. Honda first introduced this braking system on the 1992 Honda CBR1000F, it was based on the Unified Braking System, introduced on the 1983 GL1100. The sixth generation VFR was introduced in 2002, it featured dual underseat exhausts, optional ABS, DCBS linked brakes, optional hard luggage. It featured chain-driven cams rather than the gear-driven cams of earlier VFRs, VTEC valve actuation; the VFR800 was phased out after the 2009 model year in the United States, when Honda introduced the larger VFR1200F. The RC46 model of VFR800 continues to be sold in certain international markets; the VFR800 was the first non-JDM motorcycle to use VTEC valve-gear. Honda used VTEC to meet tightening noise and emissions standards and to increase the peak engine horsepower. Based on the VTEC-E system, the simplified motorcycle version of VTEC employs only two of the four valves per cylinder when operating at lower engine speeds.
All four valves per cylinder are engaged above 6,800 rpm. This is initiated by an electronically actuated oil spool valve, which sends oil pressure to the lifter actuators, which move the engagement pins into place above the valve stem, allowing the remaining two valves to open; this design allows for variable valve timing as well, since the cam lobe profiles can be made different. After much criticism of the abruptness of power transition, Honda lowered the VTEC activation rpm threshold to 6,400 rpm in 2006; the VTEC disengages two cylinder valves. A facelifted VFR800 debuted at the 2013 EICMA show in Italy; the revised model features a new single sided exhaust system, akin to the fifth-generation one, lighter wheels, additional mass-reduction, lowering the curb weight by 10 kg. The new VFR features traction control, a new instrument panel, revised aerodynamic bodywork with LED lighting, though the engine and chassis remain unchanged from the previous sixth-generation model. Continued from the sixth-generation model is the 2006 refined version of the VTEC system.
The side-mounted heat exchangers were dropped in favour of a single front-mounted unit. The model is sold worldwide. In the US market, it is available in two versions: Deluxe; the Deluxe version adds ABS, traction control, grip heaters, center stand, self-canceling turn signals. Outside the US, only the Deluxe version is sold. Honda VF and VFR VFR1200F Honda VFR400 Honda VFR800 VTEC model information. Honda motorcycles at Curlie
Honda A engine
The Honda A series inline-four-four-cylinder engine is used in 1980s Honda Accord and Prelude models. Introduced in 1982, with the second-generation Honda Prelude. Available in three displacement sizes: 1.6-, 1.8- and 2.0-liters. It features cast iron block and aluminum SOHC head design with three valves per cylinder for a total of 12 valves, it was available in fuel-injected configurations. The Honda A-series engines succeeded the earlier EZ, ES, BS and ET engines in the Honda Accord and Prelude. There were several variations, ranging from the 1.6-liter A16A to the 2.0-liter A20A. Beginning in the 1988 model year, in the North American market, the A20A3 and A20A4 used a dual-stage runner intake manifold design, 4-2-1 exhaust manifold, a more advanced electronic distributor; the Programmed fuel injection engines were equipped with partial OBD-0 engine computers. The aftermarket has produced various parts for the Prelude A series engine. Most upgrades and modifications to the A-series engines are of the do-it-yourself variety, with one of the more popular being a turbo setup and OBD-1 conversion for more tuneability options.
The A16A1 was a carbureted 1.6-liter engine used in 1986–1989 Accords and Vigors outside the North American market. This engine was known as non-US Accords. Induction: Single 2bbl Keihin carburetor Displacement: 1.598 L. Prelude A18A has twin side-draft CV carburetors while the Accords came with single down-draught carburetor. Induction: Single 2bbl Keihin carburetor Displacement: 1,829 cc Bore x Stroke: 80 mm × 91 mm Compression Ratio: 9.0:1 Power: 110 PS at 5800 rpm Torque: 149 N⋅m. It has a SOHC 12-valve NON-CVCC cylinder head, with two intake valves and one exhaust valve per cylinder, they were found in both Preludes during the 1980s. The A20A1 and A20A2 were the carbureted versions of the A20A engines, it was available in the 1986–1989 Accord DX and LX. They are the same engine, the only difference between them being that the A20A2 has no emissions components, so it has a higher power output. Induction: Single 2bbl Keihin Feedback Carburetor Exhaust: 4-1 Cast Manifold Displacement: 1,955 cc Bore x Stroke: 82.7 mm × 91 mm Compression Ratio: 9.2:1.
They were run by Honda's PGM-FI system on a partial OBD-0 computer. The A20A4 gives a higher power output because of not having emissions components; the A20A3 was offered in the 1984–1987 Honda Prelude 2.0Si, the 1986-1989 Honda Accord LX-i as well as the 1989 Honda Accord SE-i. Induction: Honda PGM-FI Exhaust: 4-1 Cast Manifold.
Honda E engine
The E-series was a line of inline 4-cylinder automobile engines from Honda. These engines were used in the popular Honda Civic and Prelude cars in the 1970s and 1980s. One notable technology was CVCC, introduced with this family, which allowed the company to meet strict emissions standards without using a catalytic converter; the CVCC ED1 was on the Ward's 10 Best Engines of the 20th century list. See the Japanese Wikipedia entryThe EA-series is a water-cooled 356 cc inline two-cylinder engine replacing the N360's air-cooled 354 cc engine. An SOHC design with a timing belt, the EA was first seen in the 1971 Honda Life; this engine was derived from the air-cooled engine in the Honda CB450 and was adapted for water-cooled application. The displacement was reduced to be in compliance with Japanese kei car legislation that stipulated maximum engine displacement. Bore and stroke were 67 mm × 50.6 mm. A version producing 30 PS at 8,000 rpm was installed in the Honda Life, while the Honda Z and the Honda Life Touring received a twin-carb model with 36 PS at a heady 9,000 rpm.
1971.06-1974 Honda Life 1972.11-1974 Honda Z The EB series Displaced 1,169 cc Bore & Stroke 70 mm × 76 mm compression ratio: 8.6:1 Valve Train: SOHC 8-valve design with a 2 barrel carburetor or 1 carburator. Power: 69 PS 5,500 rpm Torque: 10.2 kg⋅m at 4,000 rpm Max Speed: 155 km estimated The EB2 and EB3 displaced 1,238 cc differenced the diameter of valves in the head Displaced 1.2 L Bore & Stroke 72 mm × 76 mm. Valve Train: SOHC 8-valve design with a 2 barrel carburetor or 1 carburato Power: 64 PS at 5,000 rpm and Torque: 10.6 kg⋅m at 3,000 rpm. EB1 1973- Honda Civic EB2 1974-1979 Honda Civic EB3 1978-1979 Honda Civic Displaced 1.5 L Bore & Stroke 74 mm × 86.5 mm. compression ratio: 8.1 Valve Train: SOHC 8-valve design with a 2 barrel carburetor. Fel control: electric fuel pump Power: 65 PS 5,500 rpm Torque: 10.5 kg⋅m at 3,000 rpm Oil Capacity: 3.5 L EC 1975-1979 Honda Civic 4 doors The ED series introduced the CVCC technology. This group displaced 1.5 L. Output with a 3 barrel carburetor was 53 PS @ 5000 rpm and 9.4 kg⋅m @ 3000 rpm.
ED1 1975- Honda Civic CVCC ED2 1975- Honda Civic Wagon ED3 1976-1979 Honda Civic CVCC ED4 1976-1979 Honda Civic Wagon Displaced 1.6 L. Fel control: electric fuel pump Power: 82 PS 5,300 rpm Torque: 12.35 kg⋅m at 3,000 rpm Cast iron block & aluminum cylinder head Six port cylinder head Valve order Three barrel Keihin carburettor Point type ignitionUSAGE: 1976-1978 Honda Accord CVCC, US market automobiles. The EG displaced 1.6 L. Output was 69 PS @ 5000 rpm and 11.7 kg⋅m @ 3000 rpm. EG 1976-1978 Honda Accord Non USDM The water-cooled SOHC two-cylinder EH was first seen installed in the first generation Honda Acty truck introduced in July 1977, in the 1985 Honda Today, it was based on one bank of cylinders from the horizontally opposed four used on the Honda Gold Wing GL1000 motorcycle, with which it shared the 72 mm bore. The horsepower rating of the 545 cc 72 mm × 67 mm engine was 28 PS at 5,500 rpm, 4.2 kg⋅m at 4,000 rpm. When installed in the Today, max power was raised to 31 PS at the same revs, torque at 4.4 kg⋅m, with a compression ratio of 9.5:1.
Applications: 1977.07-1988.05 Honda Acty 1985.09-1988.02 Honda Today Displaced 1.3 L Bore & Stroke 72 mm × 82 mm compression ratio: 7.9:1 Valve Train: SOHC 12-valve auxiliar valve CVCC design with a 2 barrel carburetor or 1 carburator. Fel control: electric fuel pump Power: 68 PS 5,500 rpm Torque: 10 kg⋅m at 3,500 rpm Max Speed: 155 km estimated Oil Capacity: 3 L EJ1 1980-1983 Honda Civic CVCC The EK was an SOHC 12-valve engine, displacing 1.8 L. Output varied as the engine; this was the last CVCC configuration engine manufactured by Honda. Displaced 1.8 L Bore & Stroke 77 mm × 94 mm compression ratio: 8.8:1 design with a 2 barrel carburetor. Fuel control: electric fuel pump Power: 97 PS 5,500 rpm Torque: 14.3 kg⋅m at 3,000 rpm Cast iron block & aluminum cylinder head Three barrel Keihin carburetor Electronic ignition Oil cooler Cylinder head iterations: Six port cylinder head & IEEIIEEI valve order for 1979 & 1980 49 state Eight Port cylinder head & IEEIIEEI valve order for 1980 and 1981 Eight Port cylinder head & EIEIIEIE valve order from 1982 to end of CVCC production Power: 6-port output was 73 PS at 4500 rpm and 13 kg⋅m at 3,000 rpm, while the original 8-port head raised this to 76 PS at 4500 rpm and 13.3 kg⋅m (130 N⋅m.
Honda Motor Company, Ltd. is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft and power equipment. Honda has been the world's largest motorcycle manufacturer since 1959, as well as the world's largest manufacturer of internal combustion engines measured by volume, producing more than 14 million internal combustion engines each year. Honda became the second-largest Japanese automobile manufacturer in 2001. Honda was the eighth largest automobile manufacturer in the world in 2015. Honda was the first Japanese automobile manufacturer to release a dedicated luxury brand, Acura, in 1986. Aside from their core automobile and motorcycle businesses, Honda manufactures garden equipment, marine engines, personal watercraft and power generators, other products. Since 1986, Honda has been involved with artificial intelligence/robotics research and released their ASIMO robot in 2000, they have ventured into aerospace with the establishment of GE Honda Aero Engines in 2004 and the Honda HA-420 HondaJet, which began production in 2012.
Honda has three joint-ventures in China. In 2013, Honda invested about 5.7 % of its revenues in development. In 2013, Honda became the first Japanese automaker to be a net exporter from the United States, exporting 108,705 Honda and Acura models, while importing only 88,357. Throughout his life, Honda's founder, Soichiro Honda, had an interest in automobiles, he worked as a mechanic at the Art Shokai garage, where he entered them in races. In 1937, with financing from his acquaintance Kato Shichirō, Honda founded Tōkai Seiki to make piston rings working out of the Art Shokai garage. After initial failures, Tōkai Seiki won a contract to supply piston rings to Toyota, but lost the contract due to the poor quality of their products. After attending engineering school without graduating, visiting factories around Japan to better understand Toyota's quality control processes, by 1941 Honda was able to mass-produce piston rings acceptable to Toyota, using an automated process that could employ unskilled wartime laborers.
Tōkai Seiki was placed under control of the Ministry of Commerce and Industry at the start of World War II, Soichiro Honda was demoted from president to senior managing director after Toyota took a 40% stake in the company. Honda aided the war effort by assisting other companies in automating the production of military aircraft propellers; the relationships Honda cultivated with personnel at Toyota, Nakajima Aircraft Company and the Imperial Japanese Navy would be instrumental in the postwar period. A US B-29 bomber attack destroyed Tōkai Seiki's Yamashita plant in 1944, the Itawa plant collapsed in 13 January 1945 Mikawa earthquake. Soichiro Honda sold the salvageable remains of the company to Toyota after the war for ¥450,000, used the proceeds to found the Honda Technical Research Institute in October 1946. With a staff of 12 men working in a 16 m2 shack, they built and sold improvised motorized bicycles, using a supply of 500 two-stroke 50 cc Tohatsu war surplus radio generator engines.
When the engines ran out, Honda began building their own copy of the Tohatsu engine, supplying these to customers to attach to their bicycles. This was the Honda A-Type, nicknamed the Bata Bata for the sound. In 1949, the Honda Technical Research Institute was liquidated for ¥1,000,000, or about US$5,000 today. At about the same time Honda hired engineer Kihachiro Kawashima, Takeo Fujisawa who provided indispensable business and marketing expertise to complement Soichiro Honda's technical bent; the close partnership between Soichiro Honda and Fujisawa lasted until they stepped down together in October 1973. The first complete motorcycle, with both the frame and engine made by Honda, was the 1949 D-Type, the first Honda to go by the name Dream. Honda Motor Company grew in a short time to become the world's largest manufacturer of motorcycles by 1964; the first production automobile from Honda was the T360 mini pick-up truck, which went on sale in August 1963. Powered by a small 356-cc straight-4 gasoline engine, it was classified under the cheaper Kei car tax bracket.
The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car, which followed the T360 into production in October 1963. Its chain-driven rear wheels pointed to Honda's motorcycle origins. Over the next few decades, Honda worked to expand its product line and expanded operations and exports to numerous countries around the world. In 1986, Honda introduced the successful Acura brand to the American market in an attempt to gain ground in the luxury vehicle market; the year 1991 saw the introduction of the Honda NSX supercar, the first all-aluminum monocoque vehicle that incorporated a mid-engine V6 with variable-valve timing. CEO Tadashi Kume was succeeded by Nobuhiko Kawamoto in 1990. Kawamoto was selected over Shoichiro Irimajiri, who oversaw the successful establishment of Honda of America Manufacturing, Inc. in Marysville, Ohio. Irimajiri and Kawamoto shared a friendly rivalry within Honda. Following the death of Soichiro Honda and the departure of Irimajiri, Honda found itself being outpaced in product development by other Japanese automakers and was caught off-guard by the truck and sport utility vehicle boom of the 1990s, all which took a toll on the profitability of the company.
Japanese media reported in 1992 and 1993 that Honda was at serious risk of an unwanted and hostile takeov