Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one's capability, capacity and performance, it forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology. In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize as of 2008 the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development. Physical training concentrates on mechanistic goals: training programs in this area develop specific skills or muscles with a view of peaking at a particular time; some physical training programs focus on raising overall physical fitness. In military use, training means gaining the physical ability to perform and survive in combat, learning the many skills needed in a time of war.
These include how to use a variety of weapons, outdoor survival skills, how to survive being captured by the enemy, among many others. See military education and training. For psychological or physiological reasons, people who believe it may be beneficial to them can choose to practice relaxation training, or autogenic training, in an attempt to increase their ability to relax or deal with stress. While some studies have indicated relaxation training is useful for some medical conditions, autogenic training has limited results or has been the result of few studies; some commentators use a similar term for workplace learning to improve performance: "training and development". There are additional services available online for those who wish to receive training above and beyond that, offered by their employers; some examples of these services include career counseling, skill assessment, supportive services. One can categorize such training as on-the-job or off-the-job; the on-the-job training method takes place in a normal working situation, using the actual tools, documents or materials that trainees will use when trained.
On-the-job training has a general reputation as most effective for vocational work. It involves employee training at the place of work while she is doing the actual job. A professional trainer serves as the course instructor using hands-on training supported by formal classroom training. Sometimes training can occur by using web-based technology or video conferencing tools. Simulation based training is another method; this is common in the training of skills requiring a high degree of practice, in those which include a significant responsibility for life and property. An advantage is that simulation training allows the trainer to find and remedy skill deficiencies in their trainees in a controlled, virtual environment; this allows the trainees an opportunity to experience and study events that would otherwise be rare on the job, e.g. in-flight emergencies, system failure, etc. wherein the trainer can run'scenarios' and study how the trainee reacts, thus assisting in improving his/her skills if the event was to occur in the real world.
Examples of skills that include simulator training during stages of development include piloting aircraft, spacecraft and ships, operating air traffic control airspace/sectors, power plant operations training, advanced military/defense system training, advanced emergency response training. Off-the-job training method takes place away from normal work situations — implying that the employee does not count as a directly productive worker while such training takes place. Off-the-job training method involves employee training at a site away from the actual work environment, it utilizes lectures, case studies, role playing, simulation, having the advantage of allowing people to get away from work and concentrate more on the training itself. This type of training has proven more effective in inculcating ideas. Many personnel selection companies offer a service which would help to improve employee competencies and change the attitude towards the job; the internal personnel training topics can vary from effective problem-solving skills to leadership training.
A more recent development in job training is the On the Job Training Plan or OJT Plan. According to the United States Department of the Interior, a proper OJT plan should include: An overview of the subjects to be covered, the number of hours the training is expected to take, an estimated completion date, a method by which the training will be evaluated. In religious and spiritual use, training may refer to the purification of the mind, heart and actions to obtain a variety of spiritual goals such as closeness to God or freedom from suffering. Note for example the institutionalised spiritual training of Threefold Training in Buddhism, Meditation in Hinduism or discipleship in Christianity; these aspects of training can be short term or last a lifetime, depending on the context of the training and which religious group it is a part of. Compare religious ritual. Parochial schools are a widespread institution in the United States. A parochial school is a primary or secondary school supervised by a religious organization a Roman Catholic day school affiliated with a parish or a holy order.
As of 2004, out of the 50 million children who were enrolled in American grade schools, 4.2 million children attend a church-affiliated school, which
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most a military service. Conscription dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names; the modern system of near-universal national conscription for young men dates to the French Revolution in the 1790s, where it became the basis of a large and powerful military. Most European nations copied the system in peacetime, so that men at a certain age would serve 1–8 years on active duty and transfer to the reserve force. Conscription is controversial for a range of reasons, including conscientious objection to military engagements on religious or philosophical grounds; those conscripted may evade service, sometimes by leaving the country, seeking asylum in another country. Some selection systems accommodate these attitudes by providing alternative service outside combat-operations roles or outside the military, such as Siviilipalvelus in Finland, Zivildienst in Austria and Switzerland.
Several countries conscript male soldiers not only for armed forces, but for paramilitary agencies, which are dedicated to police-like domestic only service like Internal Troops, Border Guards or non-combat rescue duties like Civil defence troops – none of, considered alternative to the military conscription. As of the early 21st century, many states no longer conscript soldiers, relying instead upon professional militaries with volunteers enlisted to meet the demand for troops; the ability to rely on such an arrangement, presupposes some degree of predictability with regard to both war-fighting requirements and the scope of hostilities. Many states that have abolished conscription therefore still reserve the power to resume it during wartime or times of crisis. States involved in wars or interstate rivalries are most to implement conscription, whereas democracies are less than autocracies to implement conscription. Former British colonies are less to have conscription, as they are influenced by British anticonscription norms that can be traced back to the English Civil War.
Around the reign of Hammurabi, the Babylonian Empire used. Under that system those eligible were required to serve in the royal army in time of war. During times of peace they were instead required to provide labour for other activities of the state. In return for this service, people subject to it gained the right to hold land, it is possible that this right was not to hold land per se but specific land supplied by the state. Various forms of avoiding military service are recorded. While it was outlawed by the Code of Hammurabi, the hiring of substitutes appears to have been practiced both before and after the creation of the code. Records show that Ilkum commitments could become traded. In other places, people left their towns to avoid their Ilkum service. Another option was to sell Ilkum lands and the commitments along with them. With the exception of a few exempted classes, this was forbidden by the Code of Hammurabi. In medieval Scandinavia the leiðangr, leding, lichting, expeditio or sometimes leþing, was a levy of free farmers conscripted into coastal fleets for seasonal excursions and in defence of the realm.
The bulk of the Anglo-Saxon English army, called the fyrd, was composed of part-time English soldiers drawn from the freemen of each county. In the 690s Laws of Ine, three levels of fines are imposed on different social classes for neglecting military service; some modern writers claim. These thegns were the land-holding aristocracy of the time and were required to serve with their own armour and weapons for a certain number of days each year; the historian David Sturdy has cautioned about regarding the fyrd as a precursor to a modern national army composed of all ranks of society, describing it as a "ridiculous fantasy":The persistent old belief that peasants and small farmers gathered to form a national army or fyrd is a strange delusion dreamt up by antiquarians in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth centuries to justify universal military conscription. Medieval levy in Poland was known as the pospolite ruszenie; the system of military slaves was used in the Middle East, beginning with the creation of the corps of Turkish slave-soldiers by the Abbasid caliph al-Mu'tasim in the 820s and 830s.
The Turkish troops soon came to dominate the government, establishing a pattern throughout the Islamic world of a ruling military class separated by ethnicity and religion by the mass of the population, a paradigm that found its apogee in the Mamluks of Egypt and the Janissary corps of the Ottoman Empire, institutions that survived until the early 19th century. In the middle of the 14th century, Ottoman Sultan Murad I developed personal troops to be loyal to him, with a slave army called the Kapıkulu; the new force was built by taking Christian children from newly conquered lands from the far areas of his empire, in a system known as the devşirme. The captive children were forced to convert to Islam; the Sultans had the young boys trained over several years. Those who showed special promise in fighting skills were trained in advanced warrior skills, put into the sultan's personal service, turned into the Janissaries, the elite branch of the Kapıkulu. A n
Robert James Fischer was an American chess grandmaster and the eleventh World Chess Champion. Many consider him to be the greatest chess player of all time. Fischer showed great skill in chess from an early age. At age 14, he became the US Chess Champion, at 15, he became both the youngest grandmaster up to that time and the youngest candidate for the World Championship. At age 20, Fischer won the 1963–64 US Championship with 11 wins in 11 games, the only perfect score in the history of the tournament, his book My 60 Memorable Games, published in 1969, is regarded as essential reading. He won the 1970 Interzonal Tournament by a record 3½-point margin, won 20 consecutive games, including two unprecedented 6–0 sweeps, in the Candidates Matches. In July 1971, he became. Fischer won the World Chess Championship in 1972, defeating Boris Spassky of the USSR, in a match held in Reykjavík, Iceland. Publicized as a Cold War confrontation between the US and USSR, it attracted more worldwide interest than any chess championship before or since.
In 1975, Fischer refused to defend his title when an agreement could not be reached with FIDE, chess's international governing body, over one of the conditions for the match. Under FIDE rules, this resulted in Soviet GM Anatoly Karpov, who had won the qualifying Candidates' cycle, being named the new world champion by default. After forfeiting his title as World Champion, Fischer became reclusive and sometimes erratic, disappearing from both competitive chess and the public eye. In 1992, he reemerged to win an unofficial rematch against Spassky, it was held in Yugoslavia, under a United Nations embargo at the time. His participation led to a conflict with the US government, which warned Fischer that his participation in the match would violate an executive order imposing US sanctions on Yugoslavia; the US government issued a warrant for his arrest. After that, Fischer lived his life as an émigré. In 2004, he was arrested in Japan and held for several months for using a passport, revoked by the US government.
He was granted an Icelandic passport and citizenship by a special act of the Icelandic Althing, allowing him to live in Iceland until his death in 2008. Fischer made numerous lasting contributions to chess. In the 1990s, he patented a modified chess timing system that added a time increment after each move, now a standard practice in top tournament and match play, he invented Fischerandom, a new variant of chess known today as "Chess960". Bobby Fischer was born at Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago, Illinois, on March 9, 1943, his birth certificate listed his father as Hans-Gerhardt Fischer known as Gerardo Liebscher, a German biophysicist. His mother, Regina Wender Fischer, was a US citizen, born in Switzerland. Raised in St. Louis, Regina became a teacher, registered nurse, a physician. After graduating from college in her teens, Regina traveled to Germany to visit her brother, it was there she met geneticist and future Nobel Prize winner Hermann Joseph Muller, who persuaded her to move to Moscow to study medicine.
She enrolled at I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, where she met Hans-Gerhardt, whom she married in November 1933. In 1938, Hans-Gerhardt and Regina had Joan Fischer; the reemergence of anti-Semitism under Stalin prompted Regina to go with Joan to Paris, where Regina became an English teacher. The threat of a German invasion led her and Joan to go to the United States in 1939. Hans-Gerhardt attempted to follow the pair but, at that time, his German citizenship barred him from entering the United States. Regina and Hans-Gerhardt had separated in Moscow, although they did not divorce until 1945. At the time of her son's birth, Regina was homeless and shuttled to different jobs and schools around the country to support her family, she engaged in political activism, raised both Bobby and Joan as a single parent. In 1949, the family moved to Manhattan and the following year to Brooklyn, New York City, where she studied for her master's degree in nursing and subsequently began working in that field.
In 2002, Peter Nicholas and Clea Benson of The Philadelphia Inquirer published an investigative report backed by detailed and compelling evidence that indicated that Bobby Fischer’s biological father was Paul Nemenyi. Nemenyi, a Hungarian mathematician and physicist of Jewish heritage, was considered an expert in fluid and applied mechanics. Throughout the 1950s, the FBI investigated Regina and her circle for her alleged communist sympathies, as well as her time living in Moscow. FBI files do not identify Nemenyi as Fischer's father, but note that Hans-Gerhardt Fischer never entered the United States, while recording that Nemenyi took a keen interest in Fischer's upbringing. Not only were Regina and Nemenyi reported to have had an affair in 1942, but Nemenyi made monthly child support payments to Regina and paid for Bobby's schooling until his own death in 1952. In addition and Benson found letters by Nemenyi's first son, identifying Bobby Fischer as his brother. In March 1949, 6-year-old Bobby and his sister Joan learned how to play chess using the instructions from a set bought at a candy store.
When Joan lost interest in chess and Regina did not have time to play, Fischer was left to play many of his first games against himself. When the family vacationed at Patchogue, Long Island, New York, that summer, Bobby found a book of old chess games and studied it intensely. In 1950, the family moved to Brooklyn, first to an apartment at the corner of Union street and Franklin Avenue, to a two-bedroom apartment at 560 L
Naval Postgraduate School
The Naval Postgraduate School is a public graduate school operated by the United States Navy and located in Monterey, California. It grants master’s degrees, doctoral degrees, certificates. Established in 1909, the school offers research fellowship opportunities at the postdoctoral level through the National Academies’ National Research Council research associateship program. On 9 June 1909, Secretary of the Navy George von L. Meyer signed General Order No. 27, establishing a school of marine engineering at Annapolis, Maryland. On 31 October 1912, Meyer signed Navy General Order No. 233, which renamed the school the Postgraduate Department of the United States Naval Academy. The order established courses of study in ordnance and gunnery, electrical engineering, radio telegraphy, naval construction, civil engineering and continued the program in marine engineering. During World War II, Fleet Admiral Ernest King, chief of naval operations and commander-in-chief of both the Atlantic and Pacific fleets, established a commission to review the role of graduate education in the Navy.
In 1945, Congress passed legislation to make the school a accredited, degree-granting graduate institution. Two years Congress adopted legislation authorizing the purchase of an independent campus for the school. A postwar review team, which had examined 25 sites nationwide, had recommended the old Hotel Del Monte in Monterey as a new home for the Postgraduate School. During WWII, the Navy had leased the facilities, first for a pre-flight training school for part of the Electronics Training Program. Negotiations with the Del Monte Properties Company led to the purchase of the hotel and 627 acres of surrounding land for $2.13 million. The Postgraduate School moved to Monterey in December 1951. Today, the school has over 40 programs of study including regarded M. S. and PhD programs in management, national security affairs and computer engineering and astronautical engineering, systems engineering, space systems and satellite engineering, oceanography meteorology, other disciplines, all with an emphasis on military applications.
The school's Space Systems Academic Group has graduated several astronauts. The school is home to the Center for Information Systems Security Studies and Research and the Center for Homeland Defense and Security. CISR is America's foremost center for defense-related research and education in Information Assurance, Inherently Trustworthy Systems, defensive information warfare. On November 27, 2012, Vice Admiral Daniel Oliver and Provost Dr. Leonard Ferrari were relived of duty by Secretary of the Navy Ray Mabus. A Navy press release cited findings from a Naval Inspector General investigation which included Oliver's misuse of standard contracting procedures to circumvent federal hiring and compensation authorities; the investigation found that both Oliver and Ferrari "inappropriately accepted gifts from an independent private foundation organized to support the school." NPS offers graduate programs through twelve departments. The different schools and departments offer various PhD and M. S.-level degrees: Graduate School of Business & Public Policy includes the academic groups:Acquisition Management Enterprise Management Financial Management Management Manpower and Economics Operations and Logistics ManagementGraduate School of Engineering & Applied Sciences, includes the units:Applied Mathematics Department Electrical and Computer Engineering Department Mechanical and Astronautical Engineering Department Meteorology Department Oceanography Department Physics Department Systems Engineering Department Space Systems Academic Group Navigation Systems Engineering Institute Under Sea Warfare Systems Academic Committee Remote Sensing Center Spacecraft Robotics LaboratoryGraduate School of Operational & Information Sciences includes the departments, located in Glasgow Hall, which has 50 stairs:Computer Sciences Defense Analysis Information Sciences Operations ResearchSchool of International Graduate Studies with multiple centers:National Security Affairs Academic Program Defense Resource Management Institute Center on Contemporary Conflict Center for Civil Military Relations Center for Stabilization Reconstruction and Studies Leadership Development and Education for Sustained Peace International Defense and Acquisition Resource Management Center for Homeland Defense and Security International Graduate Program Office Program for Culture & Conflict StudiesNPS operates an active, for US warfighters and civilian government employees.
Center for Homeland Defense and Security Emergency responders including local, tribal and federal can enroll in a variety of programs including online distributed learning program, executive education programs, most prominently a Master of Arts program. Masters of Arts Program The M. A. program is offered at no cost to eligible local, tribal and federal officials. To accommodate participants' time constraints, NPS requires students to be in residence only two weeks every quarter. Students complete the remainder of their coursework online. NPS students are active-duty officers from all branches of the U. S. military, although U. S. Government civilians and members of foreign militaries can matriculate under a variety of programs. Most of the faculty are civilians. Joseph Weber - class of'44 or'45 - Regarded as the "Father of Gravitational Wave Detection" Wayne E. Meyer – class of'55 – Regarded as the "Father of Aegis" Edgar Mitchell – class of'61 – Astronau
Sesame Workshop the Children's Television Workshop, is an American nonprofit organization, responsible for the production of several educational children's programs—including its first and best-known, Sesame Street—that have been televised internationally. Television producer Joan Ganz Cooney and foundation executive Lloyd Morrisett developed the idea to form an organization to produce Sesame Street, a television series which would help children those from low-income families, prepare for school, they spent two years, from 1966 to 1968, researching and raising money for the new series. Cooney was named as the Workshop's first executive director, termed "one of the most important television developments of the decade". Sesame Street premiered as a series on National Educational Television in the United States on November 10, 1969, moved to NET's successor, the Public Broadcasting Service, in late 1970; the Workshop was formally incorporated in 1970. Gerald S. Lesser and Edward L. Palmer were hired to perform research for the series.
They hired a staff of producers and writers. After the initial success of Sesame Street, they began to plan for its continued survival, which included procuring additional sources of funding and creating other television series; the early 1980s were a challenging period for the Workshop. After Sesame Street's initial success, the CTW began to think about its survival beyond the development and first season of the show, since their funding sources were composed of organizations and institutions that tended to start projects, not sustain them. Government funding ended by 1981, so the CTW developed other activities, including unsuccessful ventures into adult programs, the publications of books and music, international co-productions, interactive media and new technologies, licensing arrangements, programs for preschools. By 2005, income from the CTW's international co-productions of the series was $96 million. By 2008, the Sesame Street Muppets accounted for $15–17 million per year in licensing and merchandising fees.
Cooney resigned as CEO during 1990. On June 5, 2000, the CTW changed its name to Sesame Workshop to better represent its activities beyond television, Gary Knell became CEO. H. Melvin Ming replaced Knell during 2011. During 2014, Ming was succeeded by Jeffrey D. Dunn. During the late 1960s, 97% of all American households owned a television set, preschool children watched an average of 27 hours of television per week. Early childhood educational research at the time had shown that when children were prepared to succeed in school, they earned better grades and learned more effectively. Children from low-income families, had fewer resources than children from higher-income families to prepare them for school. Research had shown that children from low-income, minority backgrounds tested "substantially lower" than middle-class children in school-related skills, that they continued to have educational deficits throughout school; the topic of developmental psychology had grown during this period, scientists were beginning to understand that changes of early childhood education could increase children's cognitive growth.
During the winter of 1966, Joan Ganz Cooney hosted what she called "a little dinner party" at her apartment near Gramercy Park. Attending were her husband Tim Cooney, her boss Lewis Freedman, Lloyd and Mary Morrisett, whom the Cooneys knew socially. Cooney was a producer of documentary films at New York public television station WNDT, won an Emmy for a documentary about poverty in America. Lloyd Morrisett was a vice-president at Carnegie Corporation, was responsible for funding educational research, but had been frustrated in his efforts because they were unable to reach the large numbers of children in need of early education and intervention. Cooney was committed to using television to change society, Morrisett was interested in using television to "reach greater numbers of needy kids"; the conversation during the party, which according to writer Michael Davis was the start of a five-decade long professional relationship between Cooney and Morrisett, turned to the possibilities of using television to educate young children.
A week Cooney and Freedman met with Morrisett at the office of Carnegie Corporation to discuss doing a feasibility study for creating an educational television program for preschoolers. Cooney was chosen to perform the study. During the summer of 1967, Cooney took a leave of absence from WNDT, funded by Carnegie Corporation, traveled the U. S. and Canada interviewing experts in child development and television. She reported her findings in a fifty-five-page document entitled "The Potential Uses of Television in Preschool Education"; the report described what the new series, which became Sesame Street, would be like and proposed the creation of a company that managed its production, which became known as the Children's Television Workshop. For the next two years and Morrisett researched and developed the new show, acquiring $8 million funding for Sesame Street, establishing the CTW. Due to her professional experience, Cooney always assumed the show's natural network would be PBS. Morrisett was amenable to broadcast it by commercial stations, but all three major networks rejected the idea.
Davis, considering Sesame Street's licensing inco
Educational technology is "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating and managing appropriate technological processes and resources". Educational technology is the use of educational theoretic, it encompasses several domains including learning theory, computer-based training, online learning, where mobile technologies are used, m-learning. Accordingly, there are several discrete aspects to describing the intellectual and technical development of educational technology: Educational technology as the theory and practice of educational approaches to learning. Educational technology as technological tools and media, for instance massive online courses, that assist in the communication of knowledge, its development and exchange; this is what people are referring to when they use the term "EdTech". Educational technology for learning management systems, such as tools for student and curriculum management, education management information systems.
Educational technology as back-office management, such as training management systems for logistics and budget management, Learning Record Store for learning data storage and analysis. Educational technology itself as an educational subject; the Association for Educational Communications and Technology defined educational technology as "the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating and managing appropriate technological processes and resources". It denoted instructional technology as "the theory and practice of design, utilization and evaluation of processes and resources for learning"; as such, educational technology refers to all valid and reliable applied education sciences, such as equipment, as well as processes and procedures that are derived from scientific research, in a given context may refer to theoretical, algorithmic or heuristic processes: it does not imply physical technology. Educational technology is the process of integrating technology into education in a positive manner that promotes a more diverse learning environment and a way for students to learn how to use technology as well as their common assignments.
Educational technology is an inclusive term for both the material tools and the theoretical foundations for supporting learning and teaching. Educational technology is not restricted to high technology but is anything that enhances classroom learning in the utilization of blended, face to face, or online learning. An educational technologist is someone, trained in the field of educational technology. Educational technologists try to analyze, develop and evaluate process and tools to enhance learning. While the term educational technologist is used in the United States, learning technologist is synonymous and used in the UK as well as Canada. Modern electronic educational technology is an important part of society today. Educational technology encompasses e-learning, instructional technology and communication technology in education, EdTech, learning technology, multimedia learning, technology-enhanced learning, computer-based instruction, computer managed instruction, computer-based training, computer-assisted instruction or computer-aided instruction, internet-based training, flexible learning, web-based training, online education, digital educational collaboration, distributed learning, computer-mediated communication, cyber-learning, multi-modal instruction, virtual education, personal learning environments, networked learning, virtual learning environments, m-learning, ubiquitous learning and digital education.
Each of these numerous terms has had its advocates. However, many terms and concepts in educational technology have been defined nebulously. Moreover, Moore saw these terminologies as emphasizing particular features such as digitization approaches, components or delivery methods rather than being fundamentally dissimilar in concept or principle. For example, m-learning emphasizes mobility, which allows for altered timing, location and context of learning. In practice, as technology has advanced, the particular "narrowly defined" terminological aspect, emphasized by name has blended into the general field of educational technology. "virtual learning" as narrowly defined in a semantic sense implied entering an environmental simulation within a virtual world, for example in treating posttraumatic stress disorder. In practice, a "virtual education course" refers to any instructional course in which all, or at least a significant portion, is delivered by the Internet. "Virtual" is used in that broader way to describe a course, not taught in a classroom face-to-face but through a substitute mode that can conceptually be associated "virtually" with classroom teaching, which means that people do not have to go to the physical classroom to learn.
Accordingly, virtual education refers to a form of distance learning in which course content is delivered by various methods such as course management applications, multimedia resources, videoconferencing. Virtual education and simulated learning opportunities, such as games or dissections, offer opportunities for students to connect classroom content to authentic situations. Educational conte
Head Start (program)
Head Start is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families. The program's services and resources are designed to foster stable family relationships, enhance children's physical and emotional well-being, establish an environment to develop strong cognitive skills; the transition from preschool to elementary school imposes diverse developmental challenges that include requiring the children to engage with their peers outside the family network, adjust to the space of a classroom, meet the expectations the school setting provides. Launched in 1965 by its creator and first director Jule Sugarman, Head Start was conceived as a catch-up summer school program that would teach low-income children in a few weeks what they needed to know to start elementary school; the Head Start Act of 1981 expanded the program. The program was revised when it was reauthorized in December 2007.
Head Start is one of the longest-running programs attempting to address the effects of systemic poverty in the United States by intervening to aid children. As of late 2005, more than 22 million children had participated; the current director of Head Start is Dr. Deborah Bergeron Head Start began as part of President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society campaign, its justification came from the staff of the President's Council of Economic Advisers. Stan Salett, civil rights organizer, national education policy advisor and creator of the Upward Bound Program, is credited with initiating the Head Start program. Johnson started the War on Poverty shortly after President Kennedy's assassination; the murder shook the nation, Johnson attempted to gain public trust by passing legacy legislation during the subsequent months. Johnson received an initial briefing from Walter Heller, who informed Johnson of Kennedy's poverty program. By March 1964, the legislation, now known as the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, had been prepared for Congress.
The legislation included training and service programs for communities, including the Job Corps. The Office of Economic Opportunity's Community Action Program launched Project Head Start as an eight-week summer program in 1965; the program was led by Dr. Robert Cooke, a pediatrician at Johns Hopkins University, Dr. Edward Zigler, a professor of psychology and director of the Yale Child Study Center, they designed a comprehensive child development program intended to help communities meet the needs of disadvantaged preschool children. The following year it was authorized by Congress as a year–round program. In 1968, Head Start began funding a television series that would be called Sesame Street, operated by the Carnegie Corporation Children's Television Workshop. In 1969, Head Start was transferred to the Office of Child Development in the Department of Health and Welfare by the Nixon Administration. Today it is a program within the Administration for Children and Families in DHHS. In 1994, the Early Head Start program was established to serve children from birth to age three, in an effort to capitalize on research evidence that showed that the first three years are critical to children's long-term development.
Programs are administered by local organizations and education agencies such as school systems. In the early years, some 700,000 children enrolled at a per-capita cost of $2,000 to $3,000. Under the full-time program, enrollment dropped to under 400,000 by the early 1970s. Enrollment reached close to 1 million children by 2011; the Head Start Policy Council makes up part of the Head Start governing body. Policy Council must be composed of two types of representatives: parents of enrolled children and community representatives. At least 51% of the members of this group must be the parents of enrolled children. All parent members of the Policy Council must stand for re-election annually; this is done through their individual parent groups. Grantees/Delegates are required to provide proportionate representation to parents in all program options and settings. If agencies operate programs serving different geographical regions or ethnic groups, they must ensure that all groups being served will have an equal opportunity to serve on the Policy Council.
The Policy Council is required to meet once each month. The term follows the federal government fiscal year. Service on the Policy Council board is limited to three consecutive years per lifetime; the meetings are conducted in accordance with Robert's Rules. The meeting day and time is agreed upon during the first meeting of the term year and may be adjusted as needed; the Policy Council approval is needed for several program functions, from new hires to the program, as well as for the budget and spending. The Council can serve the program in ways that the others in the program cannot, as it is the only body, part of Head Start that can do fundraising. In addition to monthly meetings, Policy Council may at times need to hold special or emergency meetings or have a phone vote. Policy Council representatives are required to attend classroom meetings and report back to the Policy Council with issues and needs of the classroom, they may be asked to sit in on interviews as Head Start requires that a Policy Council representative be present for all interviews.
The officers of Policy Council include vice-chairperson and vice-secretary. Classrooms are able to elect alternate Policy Council reps in case the main rep is unable to attend the meetings. Head Start serves ov