William Temple (bishop)
William Temple was a bishop in the Church of England. He served as Bishop of Archbishop of York and Archbishop of Canterbury. A renowned teacher and preacher, Temple is best known for his 1942 book Christianity and Social Order, which set out an Anglican social theology and a vision for what would constitute a just post-war society, he is noted for being one of the founders of the Council of Christians and Jews in 1942. He is the last Archbishop of Canterbury to have died while in office. Temple was born in 1881 in Exeter, England, the second son of Frederick Temple Archbishop of Canterbury in 1897. From an early age, he suffered from a cataract which left him without use of his right eye at age 40, he was educated at Rugby School and Balliol College, where he obtained a double first in classics and served as president of the Oxford Union. After graduation, he became fellow and lecturer in philosophy at Queen's College, Oxford from 1904 to 1910 and was ordained in 1909 and priested in 1910. Between 1910 and 1914 he was Headmaster of Repton School after which he returned to being a full-time cleric.
He married Frances Anson in 1916. There were no children from the marriage, he was appointed Bishop of Manchester in 1921 and Archbishop of York in 1929. During his life, Temple wrote and completed his largest philosophical work, Mens Creatrix in 1917. In 1926 during the General strike while he was Bishop of Manchester he contributed "to bridge the gulf between coal-miners and coalowners". In 1932–33, he gave the Gifford Lectures, published in 1934 as Gifford Lectures, Nature and God, he became the leader of the "Life and Liberty movement, an unofficial body", founded to start change in the governance of the Church of England. In 1942, Temple became Archbishop of Canterbury. In the same year he published Social Order; the work attempted to marry faith and socialism and sold around 140,000 copies. Temple supported economic and social reforms, he became the first President of the Workers' Educational Association, a member of the Labour Party from 1918 to 1925. He was chairman of an international and interdenominational Conference on Christian Politics and Citizenship held in 1924 and participated in the ecumenical movement.
One of the Anglican delegates to the World Conference on Faith and Order held in Lausanne in 1927, Temple both helped prepare and chaired the second World Conference Faith and Order in Edinburgh 1937. He helped form the British Council of Churches after his elevation to the archbishopric in 1942, the World Council of Churches in 1948. Temple was influential in bringing together Britain's various churches to support the Education Act of 1944. Against the background of persecution of Jewish people during World War II, Temple jointly founded with Chief Rabbi Joseph Hertz the Council of Christians and Jews to combat anti-Semitism and other forms of prejudice in Britain. In March 1943, Temple addressed the House of Lords, urging action to be taken on the atrocities being carried out by Nazi Germany, he said: My chief protest is against procrastination of any kind.... The Jews are being slaughtered at the rate of tens of thousands a day on many days.... It is always true that the obligations of decent men are decided for them by contingencies which they did not themselves create and largely by the action of wicked men.
The priest and the Levite in the parable were not in the least responsible for the traveller's wounds as he lay there by the roadside and no doubt they had many other pressing things to attend to, but they stand as the picture of those who are condemned for neglecting the opportunity of showing mercy. We at this moment have upon us a tremendous responsibility. We stand of God. Temple drew criticism from his numerous Quaker connections, by writing an introduction to "Christ and Our Enemies" which did not condemn the Allied carpet bombing of Germany citing the fact that he was "not only non-pacifist but anti-pacifist". In 1944, he published The Church Looks Forward, he publicly supported a negotiated peace, as opposed to the unconditional surrender that the Allied leaders were demanding. Temple is noteworthy in being one of the first theologians to engage with the process theology and philosophy streams represented by thinkers such as Alfred N. Whitehead and Samuel Alexander, an approach most deemed emergent evolution in his day.
This attempt is most notable in his Gifford Lectures, mentioned above. He had a talent for settling disputes, of great use when he moderated conferences, but it was rather his philosophy, derived from dialectic of Hegel and Plato. Despite of his early doubts in "Virgin Birth and the Bodily Resurrection of Jesus" which didn't permit the Bishop of Oxford to ordain him in 1906 beginning from 1913 Temple became a orthodox adherent, he suffered from gout all his life and he had "to stand on one foot for his last public appearance at a clergy retreat". Temple died at Westgate-on-Sea, Kent on 26 October 1944, he was cremated at Kent. He was the first Primate of All England to be cremated and this had an immense effect upon the opinion of church people not only in his country, but throughout the whole Anglican community, his ashes were buried under a large stone in the cloister garden of Canterbury Cathedral, close to his father's grave. There is a memorial to him at the parish church of St George in Bicknoller, Somerset where he spent his holidays from 1933 to 1944.
A house at Archbish
Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII, born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli, was head of the Catholic Church from 2 March 1939 to his death. Before his election to the papacy, he served as secretary of the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, papal nuncio to Germany, Cardinal Secretary of State, in which capacity he worked to conclude treaties with European and Latin American nations, most notably the Reichskonkordat with Nazi Germany. While the Vatican was neutral during World War II, Pius XII maintained links to the German Resistance, used diplomacy to aid the victims of the war and lobby for peace, spoke out against race-based murders and other atrocities; the Reichskonkordat and his leadership of the Catholic Church during the war remain the subject of controversy—including allegations of public silence and inaction about the fate of the Jews. After the war, he advocated peace and reconciliation, including lenient policies towards former Axis and Axis-satellite nations, he was a staunch opponent of Communism and of the Italian Communist Party.
During his papacy, the Church issued the Decree against Communism, declaring that Catholics who profess Communist doctrine are to be excommunicated as apostates from the Christian faith. In turn, the Church experienced severe persecution and mass deportations of Catholic clergy in the Eastern Bloc, he explicitly invoked ex cathedra papal infallibility with the dogma of the Assumption of Mary in his Apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus. His magisterium includes 1,000 addresses and radio broadcasts, his forty-one encyclicals include the Church as the Body of Christ. He eliminated the Italian majority in the College of Cardinals in 1946. After his 1958 death, he was succeeded by Pope John XXIII. In the process toward sainthood, his cause for canonization was opened on 18 November 1965 by Pope Paul VI during the final session of the Second Vatican Council, he was made a Servant of God by Pope John Paul II in 1990 and Pope Benedict XVI declared Pius XII Venerable on 19 December 2009. Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli was born on 2 March 1876 in Rome into a family of intense Catholic piety with a history of ties to the papacy.
His parents were Virginia Pacelli. His grandfather, Marcantonio Pacelli, had been Under-Secretary in the Papal Ministry of Finances and Secretary of the Interior under Pope Pius IX from 1851 to 1870 and helped found the Vatican's newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano in 1861, his cousin, Ernesto Pacelli, was a key financial advisor to Pope Leo XIII. Together with his brother Francesco and his two sisters and Elisabetta, he grew up in the Parione district in the centre of Rome. Soon after the family had moved to Via Vetrina in 1880 he began school at the convent of the French Sisters of Divine Providence in the Piazza Fiammetta; the family worshipped at Chiesa Nuova. Eugenio and the other children made their First Communion at this church and Eugenio served there as an altar boy from 1886. In 1886 too he was sent to the private school of Professor Giuseppe Marchi, close to the Piazza Venezia. In 1891 Pacelli's father sent Eugenio to the Liceo Ennio Quirino Visconti Institute, a state school situated in what had been the Collegio Romano, the premier Jesuit university in Rome.
In 1894, aged 18, Pacelli began his theology studies at Rome's oldest seminary, the Almo Collegio Capranica, in November of the same year, registered to take a philosophy course at the Jesuit Pontifical Gregorian University and theology at the Pontifical Roman Athenaeum S. Apollinare, he was enrolled at the State University, La Sapienza where he studied modern languages and history. At the end of the first academic year however, in the summer of 1895, he dropped out of both the Capranica and the Gregorian University. According to his sister Elisabetta, the food at the Capranica was to blame. Having received a special dispensation he continued his studies from home and so spent most of his seminary years as an external student. In 1899 he completed his education in Sacred Theology with a doctoral degree awarded on the basis of a short dissertation and an oral examination in Latin. While all other candidates from the Rome diocese were ordained in the Basilica of St. John Lateran, Pacelli was ordained a priest on Easter Sunday, 2 April 1899 alone in the private chapel of a family friend the Vicegerent of Rome, Mgr Paolo Cassetta.
Shortly after ordination he began postgraduate studies in canon law at Sant'Apollinaire. He received his first assignment as a curate at Chiesa Nuova. In 1901 he entered the Congregation for Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, a sub-office of the Vatican Secretariat of State. Monsignor Pietro Gasparri, the appointed undersecretary at the Department of Extraordinary Affairs, had underscored his proposal to Pacelli to work in the "Vatican's equivalent of the Foreign office" by highlighting the "necessity of defending the Church from the onslaughts of secularism and liberalism throughout Europe". Pacelli became an apprentice, in Gasparri's department. In January 1901 he was chosen, by Pope Leo XIII himself, according to an official account, to deliver condolences on behalf of the Vatican to King Edward VII of the UK
A skilled worker is any worker who has special skill, training and ability in their work. A skilled worker may have attended a university or technical school. Or, a skilled worker may have learned their skills on the job. Examples of skilled labor include engineers, software development, police officers, physicians, crane operators, truck drivers, drafters, craftsmen and accountants; these workers can be either blue-collar or white-collar workers, with varied levels of training or education. In the northern region of the United States, craft unions may have served as the catalyst to develop a strong solidarity in favor of skilled labor in the period of the Gilded Age. In the early 1880s, the craft unions of skilled workers walked hand in hand with the Knights of Labor but the harmony did not last long and by 1885, the Knights' leadership became hostile to trade unions; the Knights argued that the specialization of industrialization had undermined the bargaining power of skilled labor. This was true in the 1880s but it had not yet made obsolete the existence of craft unionism....
The impact of scientific management upon skilled workers should not be overstressed in the period before World War I. The period between 1901 and 1925 signals the rise and fall of the Socialist Party of America which depended on skilled workers. In 1906, with the publication of The Jungle, the most popular voice of socialism in the early 20th century, Upton Sinclair gave them ignorant "... Negroes and the lowest foreigners —Greeks, Roumanians and Slovaks" hell. There was a divergence in status within the working class between skilled and unskilled labor due to the fall in prices of some products and the skilled workers' rising standard of living after the depression of 1929. Skilled workers were the heart of the labor movement before World War I but during the 1920s, they lost much of their enthusiasm and the movement suffered thereby. In the 20th century, in Nazi Germany, the lower class was subdivided into: agricultural workers and semi-skilled workers, skilled craft workers, other skilled workers and domestic workers.
After the end of World War II, West Germany surpassed France in the employment of skilled labor needed at a time when industrialization was sweeping Europe at a fast pace. West Germany's preponderance in the training of skilled workers in technical schools, was the main factor to outweigh the balance between the two countries. In the period between 1950 and 1970, the number of technicians and engineers in West Germany rose from 160,000 to 570,000 by promoting skilled workers through the ranks so that those who were performing skilled labor in 1950 had become technicians and engineers by 1970. In the first decade of the 21st century, the average wage of a skilled machinist in the United States of America is $3,000 to $4,000 per month. In China, the average wage for a factory worker is $150 a month. In addition to the general use of the term, various agencies or governments, both federal and local, may require skilled workers to meet additional specifications; such definitions can affect matters such as immigration and eligibility for travel or residency.
For example, according to US Citizenship and Immigration Services, skilled worker positions are not seasonal or temporary and require at least two years of experience or training. Skilled work varies in education requirements and availability. Euch differences are reflected in titling, opportunity and salary. Both skilled and non-skilled workers are vital and indispensable for the smooth-running of a free-market and/or capitalist society. According to Alan Greenspan, former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank, "Enhancing elementary and secondary school sensitivity to market forces should help restore the balance between the demand for and the supply of skilled workers in the United States."Generally, individual skilled workers are more valued to a given company than individual non-skilled workers, as skilled workers tend to be more difficult to replace. As a result, skilled workers tend to demand more in the way of financial compensation because of their efforts. According to Greenspan, corporate managers are willing to bid up pay packages to acquire skilled workers as they identify the lack of skilled labor as one of today's greatest problems.
Education can be received in a variety of manners, is acknowledged through various means. Below is a sampling of educational conventions. On-the-job training - Apprenticeship - Vocational certification - Associate Degree - Higher Apprenticeship - Undergraduate Degree - Professional Degree - Graduate Degree - In American industry, there has been a change in the concentration of skilled workers from the areas of past economic might e. g. steel, automobile and chemicals to the more recent industry developments e. g. computers, telecommunications and information technology, stated to represent a plus rather than a minus for the American standard o
Cosmo Gordon Lang
William Cosmo Gordon Lang, 1st Baron Lang of Lambeth, known as Cosmo Gordon Lang, was a Scottish Anglican prelate who served as Archbishop of York and Archbishop of Canterbury. During the abdication crisis of 1936, he took a strong moral stance, his comments in a subsequent broadcast being condemned as uncharitable towards the departed king; the son of a Scots Presbyterian minister, Lang abandoned the prospect of a legal and political career to train for the Anglican priesthood. Beginning in 1890, his early ministry was served in slum parishes in Leeds and Portsmouth, except for brief service as an Oxford college chaplain. In 1901 he was appointed suffragan Bishop of Stepney in London, where he continued his work among the poor, he served as a canon of St Paul's Cathedral, London. In 1908 Lang was nominated as Archbishop of York, despite his junior status as a suffragan rather than a diocesan bishop, his religious stance was broadly Anglo-Catholic, tempered by the liberal Anglo-Catholicism advocated in the Lux Mundi essays.
He entered the House of Lords as a Lord Spiritual and caused consternation in traditionalist circles by speaking and voting against the Lords' proposal to reject David Lloyd George's 1909 "People's Budget". This radicalism was not maintained in subsequent years. At the start of the First World War, Lang was criticised for a speech in which he spoke sympathetically of the German Emperor; this troubled him and may have contributed to the rapid ageing which affected his appearance during the war years. After the war he began to promote church unity and at the 1920 Lambeth Conference was responsible for the Church's Appeal to All Christian People; as Archbishop of York he supported controversial proposals for the 1928 revision of the Book of Common Prayer but, after acceding to Canterbury, he took no practical steps to resolve this issue. Lang became Archbishop of Canterbury in 1928, he presided over the 1930 Lambeth Conference, which gave limited church approval to the use of contraception. After denouncing the Italian invasion of Abyssinia in 1935 and condemning European anti-semitism, Lang supported the appeasement policies of the British government.
In May 1937 he presided over the coronation of King George Queen Elizabeth. On retirement in 1942 Lang was raised to the peerage as Baron Lang of Lambeth and continued to attend and speak in House of Lords debates until his death in 1945. Lang himself believed. Others have praised his qualities of his efficiency and his commitment to his calling. Cosmo Gordon Lang was born in 1864 at the manse in Fyvie, the third son of the local Church of Scotland minister, the Reverend John Marshall Lang, his wife Hannah Agnes Lang. Cosmo was baptised at Fyvie church by a neighbouring minister, the name "William" being added inadvertently to his given names because the local laird was called William Cosmo Gordon; the additional name was used subsequently. In January 1865 the family moved to Glasgow on John Lang's appointment as a minister in the Anderston district. Subsequent moves followed: in 1868 to Morningside, Edinburgh and, in 1873, back to Glasgow when John Lang was appointed minister to the historic Barony Church.
Another of John Lang's sons was the Very Rev Marshall Buchanan Lang, who followed his father into the Church of Scotland serving as its Moderator in 1935. In Glasgow, Lang attended the Park School, a day establishment where he won a prize for an essay on English literature and played the occasional game of football. Holidays were spent in different parts of Scotland, most notably in Argyll to which in life, Lang would return. In 1878, at the age of 14, Lang passed his matriculation examinations. Despite his youth, he began his studies at the University of Glasgow that year. At the university Lang's tutors included some of Scotland's leading academics: the Greek scholar Richard Claverhouse Jebb, the physicist William Thomson and the philosopher Edward Caird. Long afterwards Lang commented on the inability of some of these eminent figures to handle "the Scottish boors who formed a large part of their classes". Lang was most influenced by Caird, who gave the boy's mind "its first real awakening".
Lang recalled how, in a revelation as he was passing through Kelvingrove Park, he expressed aloud his sudden conviction that: "The Universe is one and its Unity and Ultimate Reality is God!" He acknowledged that his greatest failure at the University was his inability to make any progress in his understanding of mathematics, "to me and always, unintelligible". In 1881 Lang made his first trip outside Scotland, to London where he heard the theologian and orator Henry Parry Liddon preach in St Paul's Cathedral, he heard William Ewart Gladstone and Joseph Chamberlain debating in the House of Commons. That year he travelled to Cambridge to stay with a friend, studying there. A visit to King's College Chapel persuaded Lang; when he discovered that as part of his degree studies he would be examined in mathematics, his enthusiasm disappeared. Instead, he applied to Balliol College and was accepted. In mid-1882 he ended his studies at Glasgow with a Master of Arts degree, was awarded prizes for essays on politics and church history.
Lang started at Balliol in October 1882. In his first term he sat for the Brakenbury Scholarship, described by his biographer John Gilbert Lockhart as "the Blue
Arthur Hinsley was an English prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Archbishop of Westminster from 1935 until his death, was elevated to the cardinalate in 1937. Hinsley was born in Carlton to Thomas and Bridget Hinsley, his father was a carpenter and his mother was an Irish Catholic. He studied at Ushaw College in Durham and proceeded for theological studies to the English College in Rome. Hinsley's education was sponsored by his parish priest, one of the Duke of Norfolk's chaplains at Carlton Towers. Ordained to the priesthood on 23 December 1893 and was appointed to teach at Ushaw College, a position he held until 1897, he took up pastoral ministry in Leeds and served as headmaster of St. Bede's Grammar School from 1900 to 1904. In 1917, after another period of pastoral work, Hinsley became a Domestic Prelate of His Holiness and the rector of the English College in Rome, a post in which he remained until 1928. On 10 August 1926, he was appointed Titular bishop of Sebastopolis in Armenia by Pope Pius XI.
Hinsley received his episcopal consecration on the following 30 November from Rafael Cardinal Merry del Val, with Archbishop Giuseppe Palica and Bishop Peter Amigo serving as co-consecrators, in the chapel of the English College. He was named Apostolic visitor to British Africa on 10 December 1927. While in Africa, he suffered a bout of paratyphoid fever. At the age of 65 he made a valiant effort with other clerics to climb Mount Etna in South Italy. Sadly they had to turn back as one of the party, Cardinal Francis Carberri, had respiratory problems halfway up the mountain. Hinsley always said on his deathbed that he regretted not climbing up Etna. Pius XI, on 9 January 1930, made Hinsley Titular Archbishop of Sardis and Apostolic Delegate to the British missions in Africa that were not under the jurisdiction of the apostolic delegations of Egypt, Belgian Congo, South Africa, he retired as Apostolic Delegate due to ill health on 25 March 1934 and in recognition of his long service in Rome and to the Vatican was appointed a canon of St. Peter's Basilica.
It was from this tranquil, semi-retired position, in his 70th year, that Hinsley was the nominated fifth Archbishop of Westminster on 1 April 1935, thus becoming the spiritual leader of the Catholic Church in England and Wales. He was created Cardinal-Priest of S. Susanna by Pope Pius XI in the consistory of 13 December 1937. In his capacity of cardinal, Hinsley served as one of the electors in the 1939 papal conclave, which selected Pope Pius XII. A supporter of ecumenism, Hinsley founded the multi-denominational'Sword of the Spirit' in October 1940 to rally his fellow English clergymen against totalitarianism, he defended Alfred Noyes in his argument with the Vatican. The English prelate condemned Hitler and other Fascist leaders during World War II, it has been claimed his support for Winston Churchill was important to the Prime Minister in 1940 and helped improve relations between the Church and the British establishment. Catholic schools at that time educated 8 % of children in Wales; the President of the Board of Education, Rab Butler, was drawing up plans for what would become the Education Act 1944, was keen to draw Church schools into the state system in return for financial support.
Although he was able to negotiate deals with the Church of England and the nonconformist Churches, Butler was told that his plans were not acceptable to the Roman Catholic Church. Hinsley wrote a shrewd letter to "The Times", stressing President Roosevelt's commitment to freedom of conscience and arguing that Catholic schools should not be bullied by the state as they provided for the poorest inner-city communities. Hinsley, nearly blind and deaf, died from a heart attack at his country retreat of Hare Street House near Buntingford, at age 77, he was buried at Westminster Cathedral. Archbishop William Temple, of Canterbury, described him as "a most devoted citizen of his country... a most kindly and warmhearted friend". The Daily Mail described him as "the greatest English Cardinal since Wolsey...and the best loved Cardinal England had." Howard, Anthony RAB: The Life of R. A. Butler, Jonathan Cape 1987 ISBN 978-0224018623 Diocese of Westminster The Church of Santa Susanna Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church Catholic-Hierarchy
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788; the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, have only had common ownership since 1967. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite: For much more than a century The Times has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain, its news and its editorial comment have in general been coordinated, have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain.
To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street. The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India and The New York Times. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution; the Times is the originator of the used Times Roman typeface developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in Times Modern; the Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet; the Times had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006.
It has been used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning; the Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. Henry Johnson had invented the logography, a new typography, reputedly faster and more precise. Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce a daily advertising sheet; the first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785. Unhappy because the word Universal was omitted from the name, Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. In 1803, Walter handed editorship to his son of the same name.
In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in Newgate Prison for libel printed in The Times, his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers. The Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times were large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig. In 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson. Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights in politics and amongst the City of London.
Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname'The Thunderer'. The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence; the Times was the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England. In other events of the nineteenth century, The Times opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws until the number of demonstrations convinced the editorial board otherwise, only reluctantly supported aid to victims of the Irish Potato Famine, it enthusiastically supported the Great Reform Bill of 1832, which reduced corruption and increased the electorate from 400,000 people to 800,000 people.
During the American Civil War, The Times represented the view of the wealthy classes, favouring the secessionists, but it was not a supporter of slavery. The third John Walter, the founder's grandson, succeeded his father in 1847; the paper continued as more or less independent, but from t