Woolworths NZ is the second largest grocery company in New Zealand, with revenue of NZ$6.2 billion for the year to June 2018. Alongside Foodstuffs, Woolworths NZ forms part of the New Zealand supermarket duopoly. Progressive Enterprises Limited was once owned by the Western Australian Supermarket Group FAL - Foodland Associated Limited which operated Action Supermarkets, Supa Valu Supermarkets and Dewsons Supermarkets, it is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Australia's Woolworths Limited. 1948: Progressive Enterprises was established in 1949 by the Picot family. 1961: Progressive Enterprises became the parent company to Foodtown Supermarkets Limited. 1974: Albert Gubay opens the first 3Guys store. Progressive Enterprises purchased the chain in 1987, rebranded or closed them throughout the 1990s with the store in Hillcrest, Hamilton being one of the last when it closed in January 1998. 1988: Progressive Enterprises became part of Australian business Coles Myer 1992: Coles Myer relaunched Progressive Enterprises onto the New Zealand stock exchange as a public company.
On 25 May 2005, it was announced that Woolworths Limited, one of Australia's largest retailers, would be purchasing Progressive Enterprises along with 22 Action stores in Australia. The deal was worth NZ$2.5 billion and culminated in the official transfer of assets on 24 November 2005. In 2006, company workers at three distribution centres initiated industrial action in an attempt to win a collective employment agreement and pay rise; the company responded by suspending grocery distribution centre operations and allowing suppliers to send stock directly to supermarkets. In 2006, the company was awarded the Roger Award For The Worst Transnational Corporation Operating in New Zealand. On 15 August 2007, it was announced that all Progressive Enterprises employees on youth rates or under the age of 18 will now all get paid adult rates which in some cases can be up to an 80% pay increase; the average pay is around $13.50 from $9.00. In June 2018, Progressive Enterprise Limited renamed to Woolworths NZ Woolworths NZ runs the following grocery store chains: Countdown: 184 supermarket stores SuperValue: 40 stores - convenience supermarket stores, run as a franchise FreshChoice: 30 stores - Higher quality supermarket with a large range, run as a franchiseIt operates online grocery shopping in the name of Countdown.
Until it operated one Woolworths supermarket in Mount Maunganui, now closed. The Foodtown brand was phased out in early 2012. In August 2011, Progressive Enterprises won a prestigious NZ Marketing award. Gubays 3 Guys Big Fresh Price Chopper Georgie Pie Foodtown Woolworths Countdown Freefrom Macro Essentials The Odd Bunch Signature Range Naytura FreshZone Basics No Frills Woolworths Select Home Brand 2006 Progressive Enterprises dispute Progressive Enterprises Limited Press release - Woolworths acquisition
Progressive Field is a baseball park located in the downtown area of Cleveland, United States. It is the home field of the Cleveland Indians of Major League Baseball and, together with Quicken Loans Arena, is part of the Gateway Sports and Entertainment Complex, it was ranked as Major League Baseball's best ballpark in a 2008 Sports Illustrated fan opinion poll. The ballpark opened as Jacobs Field in 1994 to replace Cleveland Stadium, which the team had shared with the Cleveland Browns of the National Football League. Since 2008, the facility has been named for Progressive Corporation, based in the Cleveland suburb of Mayfield, which purchased naming rights for $58 million over 16 years; the previous name came from team owners Richard and David Jacobs, who had acquired naming rights when the facility opened. The ballpark is still referred to as "The Jake", based on its original name; when it opened, the listed seating capacity was 42,865 people and between 1995 and 2001 the team sold out 455 consecutive regular-season games.
Modifications over the years resulted in several moderate changes to the capacity, peaking at 45,569 in 2010. After the 2014 and 2015 seasons, the facility was renovated in two phases, which upgraded and reconfigured several areas of the park and reduced seating capacity; as of 2019, seating capacity is listed at 34,788 people, though additional fans can be accommodated through standing room areas and temporary seating. Since moving to Progressive Field, the Indians have won 10 Central Division titles and have hosted playoff games in 11 seasons, the most recent being in 2018. Progressive Field is one of the few facilities in baseball history to host the Major League Baseball All-Star Game and games of the World Series in the same season, which occurred in 1997; the Indians have hosted games of the American League Championship Series in five seasons and have advanced to the World Series three times at the park. The Cleveland Indians played home games at Cleveland Stadium, which they shared with the Cleveland Browns of the National Football League.
The Indians first played at the stadium, which seated nearly 80,000 people for baseball, for the 1932 and 1933 seasons, but returned to smaller League Park for most games in 1934. From 1936 to 1946, they played weekend and holiday games at Cleveland Stadium, night games and other dates where larger crowds were expected, moving to the stadium full-time in 1947. Cleveland Stadium was the largest stadium in the American League during its tenure as a baseball facility and was the largest stadium in Major League Baseball for all but a few seasons, it had been a symbol of the Indians' glory years of the 1940s and 1950s, attracting some of the largest crowds in baseball history. However, during the team's lean years from the 1960s through the early 1990s crowds of 40,000 people were swallowed up in the environment; as a result, the Indians began pressing for a new stadium. Plans for a new stadium first began in 1984 when Cuyahoga County voters defeated a property tax for building a 100% publicly funded domed stadium, which would have been shared by the Indians and Browns.
That year, committee leaders met to re-evaluate these plans, a location was agreed upon. The eventual site of the stadium, the location of the Central Market, was acquired in December 1985. In April 1986, designs for the new stadium were agreed upon and about a year demolition at the site started. Cuyahoga County voters approved a 15-year sin tax on alcohol and cigarette sales in May 1990 to finance the new Gateway Sports and Entertainment Complex, which included the ballpark, an adjacent arena for the Cleveland Cavaliers of the National Basketball Association, two parking garages. Construction started in January 1992, by May of that year, the concrete construction had been poured. In June 1992, Mel Harder, who pitched the opening game at Cleveland Stadium in 1932, contemporary stars Charles Nagy and Sandy Alomar, Jr. executed the ceremonial first pitch at the site of the new ballpark before construction began. The installation of seating was completed in October 1993; the ballpark, referred to as "Cleveland Indians Baseball Park" and "Indians Park" on blueprints, cost $175 million to build, of which $91 million was provided by Indians owner Richard Jacobs.
The remaining $84 million was raised by the sin tax. An open house was held April 1, 1994, the following day, an exhibition game was held against the Pittsburgh Pirates; the first official game was held April 4. U. S. President Bill Clinton threw out the ceremonial first pitch, the Indians defeated the Seattle Mariners 4–3 in 11 innings in front of a crowd of 41,459 people; the ballpark was the first new major sporting facility to open in Cleveland since Cleveland Arena opened in 1937. During that inaugural and strike-shortened 1994 season, the Indians finished 35–16 at home, which included an 18-game home winning streak; the ballpark hosted playoff games for the first time in 1995 as the Indians ended a 41-year playoff drought. The first playoff game was on October 3, a 5–4 win in 11 innings over the Boston Red Sox in Game 1 of the American League Division Series. Jacobs Field played host to Games 3, 4, 5 of the American League Championship Series against the Seattle Mariners and Games 3, 4, 5 of the 1995 World Series against the Atlanta Braves.
Two years Jacobs Field hosted its first All-Star Game and the first All Star Game in Cleveland since 1981. That year, the Indians hosted Games 3, 4, 5 of the 1997 World Series against the Florida Marlins, it was the tenth time in Major League history the All-Star Game and games of the World Series were played in the same facility in the same season, the first time since 1977. The longest home run in ballpark history was hit
Progressive lenses called multifocal lenses, progressive addition lenses, varifocal lenses, progressive power lenses, graduated prescription lenses, or progressive spectacle lenses are corrective lenses used in eyeglasses to correct presbyopia and other disorders of accommodation. They are characterised by a gradient of increasing lens power, added to the wearer's correction for the other refractive errors; the gradient starts at the wearer's distance prescription at the top of the lens and reaches a maximum addition power, or the full reading addition, at the bottom of the lens. The length of the progressive power gradient on the lens surface depends on the design of the lens, with a final addition power between 0.75 and 3.50 dioptres. The addition value prescribed depends on the level of presbyopia of the patient. In general the older the patient, the higher the addition; the first patent for a PAL was British Patent 15,735, granted to Owen Aves with a 1907 priority date. This patent included the manufacturing process and design, however never commercialized.
Unlike modern PALs, it consisted of a conical back surface and a cylindrical front with opposing axis in order to create a power progression. While there were several intermediate steps, there is evidence to suggest that Duke Elder in 1922 developed the world's first commercially available PAL sold by "Gowlland of Montreal"; this was based on an arrangement of aspherical surfaces. Irving Rips at Younger Optics developed the first commercially viable blended lens in 1955 called the Younger Seamless Bifocal; the Carl Zeiss AG & Varilux lenses were the first PAL of modern design. Bernard Maitenaz, patented Varilux in 1953, the product was introduced in 1959 by Société des Lunetiers; the first Varilux lenses' surface structure was however still close to a bifocal lens, with an upper, aberration-free half of the surface for far vision and a rather large "segment" for clear near vision. The breakthrough in user adaptation and comfort, as well as peripheral and dynamic vision however occurred in 1972 with the introduction of Varilux 2, for which Maitenaz created a aspheric design and manufacturing process.
Carl Zeiss AG developed freeform technology in 1983 with its own patented progressive series Gradal HSEarly progressive lenses were crude designs. Right and left were identical variable power lenses with distance and reading power centers in the upper and lower part of the lens, respectively; the glazing was made to accommodate eye position changes from distance viewing to reading. The point of reading is about 14 mm below and 2 mm to the nasal side in comparison to distance viewing. By tilting the reading power towards the nasal side in perfect symmetry, appropriate reading power was given to the wearer; the symmetric design, was difficult to accept for patients, because the eyes in general work asymmetrically. When you look right, your right eye view left nasal. Modern sophisticated progressive lenses are designed asymmetrically for greater patient acceptance and include special designs to cater to many separate types of wearer application: for example progressive addition lenses may be designed with distance to intermediate or intermediate to near prescriptions for use as an occupational lens, or to offer enlarged near and intermediate view areas.
The typical progressive lens is produced from a so-called semi-finished lens. The semi-finished lens is molded with an asymmetrical power pattern on the front. On the back side a custom surfacing is made to adjust the power for each patient; this method is however problematic for astigmatic prescriptions. The reason being. Freeform designs do not have this problem. Since the 1980s, manufacturers have been able to minimize unwanted aberrations by: Improvements in mathematical modeling of surfaces, allowing greater design control. Extensive wearer trials. Improved lens manufacturing and measurement technology. Today the complex surfaces of a progressive lens can be cut and polished on computer-controlled machines, allowing'freeform surfacing', as opposed to the earlier casting process, thus explaining the difference in price. In short, the price is based on the technology used and the year the lens came to market. Compared to single vision lenses, progressive lenses provide the correction required for a presbyopic patient to see at all viewing distances adjusted by tilting the head slightly.
Progressive addition lenses avoid the discontinuities sometimes found with bifocal and trifocal lenses Some people find them more cosmetically attractive. Because bifocals and related designs are associated with old age, proponents have suggested the lack of visible lines makes a progressive lens appear similar to the single vision lenses worn before the onset of presbyopia. Peripheral Distortion: Progressive lenses suffer regions of aberrations and geometric distortions in the periphery, leading to poor vision when turning the eyes down and to the sides. Different brands of progressive lenses have less of this distortion. Fitting: Progressive lenses require careful placement relative to the wearer's pupil centre for a distance-viewing reference position. Incorrect specification of the fitting location can cause problems for the wearer including narrow fields of view, clear vision in one eye only, on-axis blur, the need to alter the natural head position in order to see clearly. Cost: Progressive lenses are more expensive than bifocal and single-vision lenses due to higher manufacturing and fitting costs.
Some research has
Reform Judaism is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, a belief in a continuous revelation intertwined with human reason and intellect, not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai. A liberal strand of Judaism, it is characterized by a lesser stress on ritual and personal observance, regarding Jewish Law as non-binding and the individual Jew as autonomous, openness to external influences and progressive values; the origins of Reform Judaism lay in 19th-century Germany, where its early principles were formulated by Rabbi Abraham Geiger and his associates. It is identified with progressive political and social agendas under the traditional Jewish rubric Tikkun Olam, or "Repairing of the World". Tikkun Olam is a central motto of Reform Judaism, action for its sake is one of the main channels for adherents to express their affiliation; the movement's greatest center today is in North America.
The various regional branches sharing these beliefs, including the American Union for Reform Judaism, the Movement for Reform Judaism and Liberal Judaism in Britain, the Israel Movement for Reform and Progressive Judaism, are all united within the international World Union for Progressive Judaism. Founded in 1926, the WUPJ estimates it represents at least 1.8 million people in 50 countries: close to a million registered adult congregants, as well as numerous unaffiliated individuals who identify with it. This makes it the second-largest Jewish denomination worldwide, its inherent pluralism and great importance placed on individual autonomy impede any simplistic definition of Reform Judaism. They warrant and obligate further modification and reject any fixed, permanent set of beliefs, laws or practices. A clear description became challenging since the turn toward a policy favouring inclusiveness over a coherent theology in the 1970s; this overlapped with what researchers termed as the transition from "Classical" to "New" Reform in America, paralleled in the other, smaller branches across the world.
The movement ceased stressing principles and core beliefs, focusing more on the personal spiritual experience and communal participation. This shift was not accompanied by a distinct new doctrine or by the abandonment of the former, but rather with ambiguity; the leadership allowed and encouraged a wide variety of positions, from selective adoption of halakhic observance to elements approaching religious humanism. The declining importance of the theoretical foundation, in favour of pluralism and equivocalness, did draw large crowds of newcomers, it diversified Reform to a degree that made it hard to formulate a clear definition of it. Early and "Classical" Reform were characterized by a move away from traditional forms of Judaism combined with a coherent theology. Critics, like Rabbi Dana Evan Kaplan, warned that Reform became more of a Jewish activities club, a means to demonstrate some affinity to one's heritage in which rabbinical students do not have to believe in any specific theology or engage in any particular practice, rather than a defined belief system.
In regard to God, while some voices among the spiritual leadership approached religious and secular humanism – a tendency that grew from the mid-20th century, both among clergy and constituents, leading to broader, dimmer definitions of the concept – the movement had always maintained a theistic stance, affirming the belief in a personal God. Early Reform thinkers in Germany clung to this precept; the God-Idea as taught in our sacred Scripture" as consecrating the Jewish people to be its priests. It was grounded on a wholly theistic understanding, although the term "God-idea" was excoriated by outside critics. So was the 1937 Columbus Declaration of Principles, which spoke of "One, living God who rules the world"; the 1976 San Francisco Centenary Perspective, drafted at a time of great discord among Reform theologians, upheld "the affirmation of God... Challenges of modern culture have made steady belief difficult for some. We ground our lives and communally, on God's reality." The 1999 Pittsburgh Statement of Principles declared the "reality and oneness of God".
British Liberal Judaism affirms the "Jewish conception of God: One and indivisible and immanent, Creator and Sustainer". The basic tenet of Reform theology is a belief in a continuous, or progressive, occurring continuously and not limited to the theophany at Sinai, the defining event in traditional interpretation. According to this view, all holy scripture of Judaism, including the Pentateuch, were authored by human beings who, although under divine inspiration, inserted their understanding and reflected the spirit of their consecutive ages. All the People Israel are a further link in the chain of revelation, capable of reaching new insights: religion can be renewed without being dependent on past conventions; the chief promulgator of this concept was Abraham Geiger considered the founder of the movement. After critical research led him to regard scripture
Congressional Progressive Caucus
The Congressional Progressive Caucus is a caucus within the Democratic congressional caucus in the United States Congress. The CPC is a left-leaning organization that works to advance progressive and liberal issues and positions and represents the progressive faction of the Democratic Party, it was founded in 1991 and has grown since then. Entering the 116th United States Congress, the CPC has 98 members, making it the second largest caucus within the Democratic Party and the third largest caucus in Congress; the CPC is co-chaired by U. S. Representatives Mark Pocan and Pramila Jayapal; the CPC was established in 1991 by six members of the United States House of Representatives, namely U. S. Representatives Ron Dellums, Lane Evans, Thomas Andrews, Peter DeFazio, Maxine Waters and Bernie Sanders. Additional House Members joined soon thereafter, including Major Owens, Nydia Velázquez, David Bonior, Bob Filner, Barney Frank, Maurice Hinchey, Jim McDermott, Jerrold Nadler, Patsy Mink, George Miller, Pete Stark, John Olver, Lynn Woolsey and Nancy Pelosi.
Sanders was the convener and first CPC Chairman. Bill Goold served as Staff Coordinator for the Progressive Caucus in its early years until 1998; the founding CPC members were concerned about the economic hardship imposed by the deepening recession and the growing inequality brought about by the timidity of the Democratic Party response in the early 1990s. On January 3, 1995 at a standing room only news conference on Capitol Hill, they were the first group inside Congress to chart a detailed, comprehensive legislative alternative to U. S. Speaker Newt Gingrich and the Republican Contract with America, which they termed "the most regressive tax proposals and reactionary social legislation the Congress had before it in 70 years"; the CPC's ambitious agenda was framed as "The Progressive Promise: Fairness". In April 2011, the Congressional Progressive Caucus released a proposed "People's Budget" for fiscal year 2012. Two of its proponents stated: "By implementing a fair tax code, by building a resilient American economy, by bringing our troops home, we achieve a budget surplus of over $30 billion by 2021 and we end up with a debt, less than 65% of our GDP.
This is what sustainability looks like". The CPC advocates "universal access to affordable, high quality healthcare", fair trade agreements, living wage laws, the right of all workers to organize into labor unions and engage in collective bargaining, the abolition of the USA PATRIOT Act, the legalization of same-sex marriage, U. S. participation in international treaties such as the climate change related Kyoto Accords, responsible reductions in profligate military expenditure, strict campaign finance reform laws, a crackdown on corporate welfare and influence, an increase in income tax rates on upper-middle and upper class households, tax cuts for the poor and an increase in welfare spending by the federal government. All members are caucus with the Democratic Party. In the 116th Congress, there will be 98 declared Progressives, including 96 voting Representatives, one non-voting Delegate and one Senator. More than one-fifth of the caucus' members are representatives from California. Bernie Sanders Blue Collar Caucus Blue Dog Coalition Factions in the Democratic Party Democratic Socialists of America Freedom Caucus Liberty Caucus New Democrat Coalition Republican Main Street Partnership Republican Study Committee Tea Party Caucus Official website Official website of Progressive Caucus PACCPC in C-SPAN video library
The Progressive is an American magazine and website of politics and progressivism with a pronounced liberal perspective. Founded in 1909 by Senator Robert "Fighting Bob" La Follette, it was called La Follette's Weekly and simply La Follette's. In 1929, it had its name changed to The Progressive, its headquarters is in Wisconsin. The magazine is known for its strong pacifism, it devotes much coverage to combating war and corporate power. It supports civil rights and civil liberties, women's rights, LGBT rights, immigrant rights, labor rights, human rights, criminal justice reform, democratic reform, its current editor is Bill Lueders. Previous editors included Fighting Bob La Follette, his son Robert Jr. William Evjue, Morris Rubin, Erwin Knoll, Matthew Rothschild, Ruth Conniff. On the first page of its first issue, La Follette wrote this introduction to the magazine: In the course of every attempt to establish or develop free government, a struggle between Special Privilege and Equal Rights is inevitable.
Our great industrial organizations in control of politics and natural resources. They make platforms, dictate legislation, they rule through the men elected to represent them. The battle is just on, it is young yet. It will be the longest and hardest fought for Democracy. In other lands, the people have lost. Here we shall win, it is a glorious privilege to live in this time, have a free hand in this fight for government by the people. Some of the campaigns La Follette's Weekly waged include the fight to stay out of World War I, opposition to the Palmer Raids in the early 1920s and calling for action against unemployment during the Depression. La Follette's wife Belle edited the publication's women's section, wrote articles for the publication condemning racial segregation. During the 1940s, The Progressive adopted an anti-Stalinist view of the Soviet Union. During the early 1940s the magazine argued. Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor, The Progressive declared its support for the American war effort.
However, The Progressive condemned the dropping of the atom bomb on Hiroshima, in contrast to both The Nation and The New Republic's support for the bombing. The Progressive reprinted an essay from The Christian Science Monitor by Richard Lee Strout arguing that by using the bombs, "The United States has incurred a terrible responsibility to history which now can never be withdrawn". In 1947, The Progressive's editors announced. However, after readers raised $40,000 to save the magazine, The Progressive returned as a monthly magazine issued as a non-profit venture. In the 1950s, The Progressive dedicated itself to combating McCarthyism, although the magazine agreed that the U. S. government had the right to blacklist members of the Communist Party. The Progressive issued a special issue criticizing McCarthy, McCarthy: A Documented Record in 1954. S. Senate, it became the magazine's best-selling issue; the Progressive criticized U. S. nuclear policy and clandestine CIA activity in this period. In the 1960s, it was a platform for the American Civil Rights Movement, publishing the writing of Martin Luther King, Jr. five times, publishing James Baldwin's open letter "My Dungeon Shook - Letter to my Nephew on the One Hundredth Anniversary of Emancipation", the first section of The Fire Next Time.
The Progressive devoted much of its articles to denouncing U. S. involvement in Indochina.1984 saw The Progressive publish "Behind the Death Squads" by Allan Nairn, a critique of U. S. policy in El Salvador. The Progressive opposed the Persian Gulf War, accusing the George H. W. Bush Administration of rejecting any options for peaceful negotiation of the crisis. While condemning Saddam Hussein's government for its abuse of human rights, it accused the Bush administration of hypocrisy for not taking action against other governments which abused human rights; the magazine argued against the second Iraq War. In 1979, The Progressive gained national attention for its article by Howard Morland, "The H-bomb Secret: How we got it and why we're telling it", which the U. S. government suppressed for six months. The magazine prevailed in a landmark First Amendment case of prior restraint, United States v. Progressive, Inc.. Located a few blocks from the Wisconsin State Capitol, The Progressive covered the protests that began in February 2011 in response to Governor Scott Walker's Wisconsin budget repair bill.
Madison Magazine named The Progressive's political editor Ruth Conniff as one of its Editors' Choice in 2011 for her "frontline dispatches from inside and outside the State Capitol and the courtroom across the street". For its 100th year in print, the magazine published a book featuring "some of the best writing in The Progressive from 1909 to 2009" titled Democracy in Print, published by the University of Wisconsin Press. Although circulation had fallen to the level of 27,000 subscribers in 1999, by April 2004, following the Iraq War, circulation reached a record 65,000. By 2010, circulation had settled near 47,000. Throughout the years, The Progressive has published articles by Jane Addams, James Baldwin, Louis Brandeis, Noam Chomsky, Clarence Darrow, John Kenneth Galbraith, Charles V. Hamilton, Nat Hentoff, Seymour Hersh, Molly Ivins, June Jordan, Helen Keller, Martin Luther King, Jr. Sidney Lens, Jack London, Milton Mayer, A. J. Muste, George Orwell, Marcus Raskin, Bertrand Russell, Edward Said, Carl Sandburg, Upton
Progressivism in the United States
Progressivism in the United States is a broadly based reform movement that reached its height early in the 20th century. It was middle reformist in nature, it arose as a response to the vast changes brought by modernization, such as the growth of large corporations and fears of corruption in American politics. In the 21st century, progressives continue to embrace concepts such as environmentalism and social justice. Much of the movement has been energized by religion. Historian Alonzo Hamby defined American progressivism as the "political movement that addresses ideas and issues stemming from modernization of American society. Emerging at the end of the nineteenth century, it established much of the tone of American politics throughout the first half of the century." Historians debate the exact contours, but date the "Progressive Era" from the 1890s to either World War I or the onset of the Great Depression, in response to the perceived excesses of the Gilded Age. Many of the core principles of the Progressive Movement focused on the need for efficiency in all areas of society.
Purification to eliminate waste and corruption was a powerful element, as well as the Progressives' support of worker compensation, improved child labor laws, minimum wage legislation, a support for a maximum hours that workers could work for, graduated income tax and allowed women the right to vote. According to historian William Leuchtenburg: The Progressives believed in the Hamiltonian concept of positive government, of a national government directing the destinies of the nation at home and abroad, they had little but contempt for the strict construction of the Constitution by conservative judges, who would restrict the power of the national government to act against social evils and to extend the blessings of democracy to less favored lands. The real enemy was state rights, limited government. Progressives warned that illegal voting was corrupting the political system, they identified big-city bosses, working with saloon keepers and precinct workers, as the culprits who stuffed the ballot boxes.
The solution to purifying the vote included prohibition, voter registration requirements, literacy tests. All of the Southern states used devices to disenfranchise black voters during the Progressive Era; the progressive elements in those states pushed for disenfranchisement fighting against the conservatism of the Black Belt whites. A major reason given was that whites purchased black votes to control elections, it was easier to disenfranchise blacks than to go after powerful white men. In the North, Progressives such as William U'Ren and Robert La Follette argued that the average citizen should have more control over his government; the Oregon System of "Initiative and Recall" was exported to many states, including Idaho and Wisconsin. Many progressives, such as George M. Forbes, president of Rochester's Board of Education, hoped to make government in the U. S. more responsive to the direct voice of the American people when he said: e are now intensely occupied in forging the tools of democracy, the direct primary, the initiative, the referendum, the recall, the short ballot, commission government.
But in our enthusiasm we do not seem to be aware that these tools will be worthless unless they are used by those who are aflame with the sense of brotherhood... The idea to establish in each community an institution having a direct and vital relation to the welfare of the neighborhood, ward, or district, to the city as a whole Philip J. Ethington seconds this high view of direct democracy saying: initiatives and recalls, along with direct primaries and the direct election of US Senators, were the core achievements of'direct democracy' by the Progressive generation during the first two decades of the twentieth century. Progressives fought for women's suffrage to purify the elections using purer female voters. Progressives in the South supported the elimination of corrupt black voters from the election booth. Historian Michael Perman says that in both Texas and Georgia, "disfranchisement was the weapon as well as the rallying cry in the fight for reform". Democracy or elitism? Social justice or social control?
Small entrepreneurship or concentrated capitalism? And what was the impact of American foreign policy? Were the progressives isolationists or interventionists? Imperialists or advocates of national self-determination? And whatever they were, what was their motivation? Moralistic utopianism? Muddled relativistic pragmatism? Hegemonic capitalism? Not many battered scholars began to shout'no mas!' In 1970, Peter Filene declared. The Progressives concentrated on city and state government, looking for waste and better ways to provide services as the cities grew rapidly; these changes led to a more structured system, power, centralized within the legislature would now be more locally focused. The changes were made to the system to make legal processes, market transactions, bureaucratic administration, democracy easier to manage, thus putting them under the classification of "Municipal Administration". There was a change