John George Diefenbaker was the 13th prime minister of Canada, serving from June 21, 1957 to April 22, 1963. He was the only Progressive Conservative party leader after 1930 and before 1979 to lead the party to an election victory, doing so three times, although only once with a majority of seats in the House of Commons of Canada. Diefenbaker was born in southwestern Ontario in the small town of Neustadt in 1895. In 1903, his family migrated west to the portion of the North-West Territories which would shortly thereafter become the province of Saskatchewan, he grew up in the province, was interested in politics from a young age. After brief service in World War I, Diefenbaker became a noted criminal defence lawyer, he contested elections through the 1920s and 1930s with little success until he was elected to the House of Commons in 1940. Diefenbaker was a candidate for the PC leadership, he gained that party position on his third attempt. In 1957, he led the Tories to their first electoral victory in 27 years.
Diefenbaker appointed the first female minister in Canadian history to his Cabinet, as well as the first aboriginal member of the Senate. During his six years as Prime Minister, his government obtained passage of the Canadian Bill of Rights and granted the vote to the First Nations and Inuit peoples. In foreign policy, his stance against apartheid helped secure the departure of South Africa from the Commonwealth of Nations, but his indecision on whether to accept Bomarc nuclear missiles from the United States led to his government's downfall. Diefenbaker is remembered for his role in the 1959 cancellation of the Avro Arrow project. Factionalism returned in full force as the Progressive Conservatives fell from power in 1963, while Diefenbaker's performance as Opposition Leader was heralded, his second loss at the polls prompted opponents within the party force him to a leadership convention in 1967. Diefenbaker stood for re-election as party leader at the last moment, but only attracted minimal support and withdrew.
He remained an MP until his death in 1979, two months after Joe Clark became the first Tory Prime Minister since Diefenbaker. Diefenbaker was born on September 18, 1895, in Neustadt, Ontario, to William Thomas Diefenbaker and the former Mary Florence Bannerman, his father was the son of German immigrants from Adersbach in Baden. The family moved to several locations in Ontario in John's early years. William Diefenbaker was a teacher, had deep interests in history and politics, which he sought to inculcate in his students, he had remarkable success doing so. The Diefenbaker family moved west in 1903, for William Diefenbaker to accept a position near Fort Carlton in the Northwest Territories. In 1906, William claimed 160 acres of undeveloped land near Borden, Saskatchewan. In February 1910, the Diefenbaker family moved to Saskatoon, the site of the University of Saskatchewan. William and Mary Diefenbaker felt that John and his brother Elmer would have greater educational opportunities in Saskatoon.
John Diefenbaker had been interested in politics from an early age, told his mother at the age of eight or nine that he would some day be Prime Minister. She told him that it was an impossible ambition for a boy living on the prairies, she would live to be proved wrong. John's first contact with politics came in 1910, when he sold a newspaper to Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier, in Saskatoon to lay the cornerstone for the University's first building; the present and future Prime Ministers conversed, when giving his speech that afternoon, Sir Wilfrid commented on the newsboy who had ended their conversation by saying, "I can't waste any more time on you, Prime Minister. I must get about my work." The authenticity of the meeting was questioned in the 21st century, with an author suggesting that it was invented by Diefenbaker during an election campaign. After graduating from high school in Saskatoon, in 1912, Diefenbaker entered the University of Saskatchewan, he received his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1915, his Master of Arts the following year.
Diefenbaker was commissioned a lieutenant into the 196th Battalion, CEF in May 1916. In September, Diefenbaker was part of a contingent of 300 junior officers sent to Britain for pre-deployment training. Diefenbaker related in his memoirs that he was hit by a shovel, the injury resulted in his being invalided home. Diefenbaker's recollections do not correspond with his army medical records, which show no contemporary account of such an injury, his biographer, Denis Smith, speculates that any injury was psychosomatic. After leaving the military in 1917, Diefenbaker returned to Saskatchewan where he resumed his work as an articling student in law, he received his law degree in 1919, the first student to secure three degrees from the University of Saskatchewan. On June 30, 1919, he was called to the bar, the following day, opened a small practice in the village of Wakaw, Saskatchewan. Although Wakaw had a population of only 400, it sat at the heart of a densely populated area of rural townships and had its own district court.
It was easily accessible to Saskatoon, Prince Albert and Humboldt, places where the Court of King's Bench sat. The local people were immigrants, Diefenbaker's research found them to be litigious. There was one barrister in
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed
New Democratic Party
The New Democratic Party is a social democratic federal political party in Canada. The party was founded in 1961 out of the merger of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation with the Canadian Labour Congress; the party sits to the left of the Liberal Party of Canada within the Canadian political spectrum. The current leader of the federal NDP is Jagmeet Singh; the NDP has been Canada's third- or fourth-largest party in Parliament. Following the 1993 federal election the NDP was reduced to fourth place behind the Bloc Québécois, a position it would maintain for the next 18 years. In the 2011 federal election under the leadership of Jack Layton, the NDP won the second largest number of seats in the House of Commons, gaining the position of Official Opposition for the first time in the party's history; the NDP lost 59 seats during the 2015 federal election and fell to third place in Parliament, though it is their second best seat count to date. The federal and provincial level NDPs are more integrated than other political parties in Canada, have shared membership.
In 1956, after the birth of the Canadian Labour Congress by a merger of two previous labour congresses, negotiations began between the CLC and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation to bring about an alliance between organized labour and the political left in Canada. In 1958 a joint CCF-CLC committee, the National Committee for the New Party, was formed to create a "new" social-democratic political party, with ten members from each group; the NCNP spent the next three years laying down the foundations of the New Party. During this process, a large number of New Party Clubs were established to allow like-minded Canadians to join in its founding, six representatives from New Party Clubs were added to the National Committee. In 1961, at the end of a five-day long Founding Convention which established its principles and structures, the New Democratic Party was born and Tommy Douglas, the long-time CCF Premier of Saskatchewan, was elected its first leader. In 1960, before the NDP was founded, one candidate, Walter Pitman, won a by-election under the New Party banner.
The influence of organized labour on the party is still reflected in the party's conventions as affiliated trade unions send delegates on a formula based on their number of members. Since one-quarter of the convention delegates have been from affiliated labour groups, after the party changed to an one member, one vote method of electing leaders in leadership races, labour delegate votes are scaled to 25% of the total number of ballots cast for leader. At the 1971 leadership convention, an activist group called The Waffle tried to take control of the party, but were defeated by David Lewis with the help of the union members; the following year, most of The Waffle formed their own party. The NDP itself supported the minority government formed by the Pierre Trudeau–led Liberals from 1972 to 1974, although the two parties never entered into a coalition. Together they succeeded in passing several progressive initiatives into law such as pension indexing and the creation of the crown corporation Petro-Canada.
In 1974, the NDP worked with the Progressive Conservatives to pass a motion of non-confidence, forcing an election. However, it backfired as Trudeau's Liberals regained a majority government at the expense of the NDP, which lost half its seats. Lewis resigned as leader the following year. Under the leadership of Ed Broadbent, the NDP attempted to find a more populist image to contrast with the governing parties, focusing on more pocketbook issues than on ideological fervor; the party played a critical role during Joe Clark's minority government of 1979–1980, moving the non-confidence motion on John Crosbie's budget that brought down the Progressive Conservative government, forced the election that brought Trudeau's Liberal Party back to power. The result in 1980 created two unexpected results for the party: The first was an offer by Trudeau to form a coalition government to allow for greater Western representation in Cabinet and a "united front" regarding the upcoming Quebec referendum. Broadbent, aware that the NDP would have no ability to hold the balance of power and thus no leverage in the government, declined out of fear the party would be subsumed.
The second was Trudeau's Canada Bill to patriate the Constitution of Canada unilaterally and to bring about what would become the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Broadbent endorsed the initiative, directly opposed by the NDP government of Saskatchewan and many of the party's Western parties and members, creating severe internal tension. Broadbent would act as a moderating influence on Trudeau during the debates, the eventual compromise that brought about the Constitution Act, 1982 was authored by Saskatchewan NDP Attorney General and future premier Roy Romanow. In the 1984 election, which saw the Progressive Conservatives win the most seats in Canadian history, the NDP won 30 seats, while the governing Liberals fell to 40 seats. Struggles within the governing Conservatives and opposition Liberals would see dramatic rise in the NDP's polling fortunes; the NDP set a then-record of 43 Members of Parliament elected to the house in the election of 1988. The Liberals, had reaped most of the benefits of opposing free trade to emerge as the dominant alternative to the ruling government.
In 1989, Broadbent stepped down after 14 years as federal leader of the NDP. At the party's leadership convention in 1989, former B. C. Premier Dave Barrett and Yukon MP Audrey McLaughlin
1984 Canadian federal election
The 1984 Canadian federal election was held on September 4 of that year to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 33rd Parliament of Canada. The Progressive Conservative Party, led by Brian Mulroney, won the largest landslide majority government in Canadian history, while the Liberals suffered what at that time was the worst defeat for a governing party at the federal level. Only the Progressive Conservatives faced a larger defeat, when cut to two seats in 1993; the election marked the end of the Liberals' long dominance of federal politics in Quebec, a province, the bedrock of Liberal support for a century. This election was the last time that the winning party received over 50% of the national popular vote; the 6.3 million votes won by the Conservatives remained a record until the Liberals' victory in 2015. The election was fought entirely on the record of the Liberals, in power for all but one year since 1963. Pierre Trudeau, Prime Minister from 1968 to 1979 and since 1980, retired from politics in early 1984 after polls indicated that the Liberals would certainly be defeated at the next election had he remained in office.
He was succeeded by a former Cabinet minister under both Trudeau and Lester Pearson. Turner had been out of politics since 1975. Upon assuming the leadership, he made immediate changes in an attempt to rebuild the Liberals' tattered reputation. For example, he announced that he would not run in a by-election to return to the House of Commons, but would instead run in the next general election as the Liberal candidate in Vancouver Quadra, British Columbia; this was a sharp departure from usual practice, in which the incumbent in a safe seat resigns to allow a newly elected party leader a chance to get into Parliament. The Liberal Party had lost favour with western Canadians, policies such as the National Energy Program only aggravated this sentiment. Turner's plans to run in a western Canada riding were in part an attempt to rebuild support in that region. Going into the election, the Liberals held only one seat west of Ontario—that of Lloyd Axworthy, from Winnipeg—Fort Garry, Manitoba. More there was great disaffection in Quebec with the Liberal government, despite their traditional support for the party.
Conflict between the provincial and federal parties, a series of scandals, the 1982 patriation of the Canadian constitution without the approval of the Quebec provincial government had damaged the Liberal brand in the province. Hope for success there led leader Joe Clark to begin courting soft nationalist voters in the province, was one of the main reasons businessman Brian Mulroney, a fluently bilingual Quebecker, was chosen as Clark's replacement. Although Turner was not required to call an election until 1985, internal polls showed that the Liberals had regained the lead in opinion polls. Turner and his advisers were mindful of the fact that Trudeau had missed an opportunity to take advantage of favourable opinion polls in the latter half of the 1970s, when he waited the full five years to call an election only to go down to an defeat; the new Prime Minister requested that Queen Elizabeth II delay her tour of Canada, asked Governor-General Jeanne Sauvé to dissolve Parliament on July 4. In accordance with Canadian constitutional practice, Sauvé granted the request and set an election for September 4.
The initial Liberal lead began to slip. In particular, he spoke of creating new "make work programs", a concept from earlier decades, replaced by the less patronizing sounding "job creation programs", he was caught on camera patting Liberal Party President Iona Campagnolo on her posterior. Turner defended this action as being a friendly gesture, but it was seen by many women as condescending. Other voters turned against the Liberals due to their mounting legacy of corruption. An important issue was Trudeau's recommendation that Sauvé appoint over 200 Liberals to patronage posts just before he left office; the appointments enraged Canadians on all sides. Although Turner had the right to advise that the appointments be withdrawn, he didn't do so. In fact, he himself appointed more than 70 Liberals to patronage posts despite a promise to bring a new way of politics to Ottawa, he cited a written agreement with Trudeau, claiming that if Trudeau had made the appointments, the Liberals would have certainly lost the election.
However, the fact that Turner dropped the writ a year early hurt his argument. Turner found out that Mulroney was setting up a patronage machine in anticipation of victory. At the English-language televised debate between Mulroney and New Democratic Party leader Ed Broadbent, Turner started to attack Mulroney on his patronage plans, comparing them to the patronage machine run by old Union Nationale in Quebec. However, Mulroney turned the tables by pointing to the raft of patronage appointments made on the advice of Trudeau and Turner. Claiming that he'd gone so far as to apologize for making light of "these horrible appointments," Mulroney demanded that Turner apologize to the country for not cancelling the appointments advised by Trudeau and for recommending his own appointments. Turner was visibly surprised, could only reply that "I had no option" except to let the appointments stand. Mulroney famously responded: You had an option, sir. You could have said,'I am not going to do it; this is wrong fo
Canadian National Exhibition
The Canadian National Exhibition known as The Exhibition or The Ex, is an annual event that takes place at Exhibition Place in Toronto, Canada, during the 18 days leading up to and including Canadian Labour Day, the first Monday in September. With 1.5 million visitors each year, the CNE is Canada's largest annual fair and the fifth largest in North America. The first Canadian National Exhibition took place in 1879 to promote agriculture and technology in Canada. Agriculturists and scientists exhibited their discoveries and inventions at the CNE to showcase the work and talent of the nation; as Canada has grown as a nation, the CNE has changed over time, reflecting the growth in diversity and innovation, though agriculture and technology remain a large part of the CNE today. To many people in the Greater Toronto Area and the surrounding communities, the CNE is an annual family tradition; the CNE is held at Exhibition Place, a 192 acres site located along Toronto's waterfront on the shores of Lake Ontario and just west of downtown Toronto.
The site features several buildings and structures, many of which have been named as significant under the Ontario Heritage Act. There are several outdoor live music venues on-site including the permanent CNE Bandshell. All of the roads are named after the Canadian territories; the site includes a football stadium, fountains, plazas, a rose garden and parking lots. The site was reserve lands for British and Canadian military and was the site of an 18th-century French fort; the area was cleared of forest in the early 19th century for use by the Toronto Garrison of Fort York. The Exhibition received permission to use part of the site in the 1870s and expanded to use the whole site by the 1920s. In the 1950s, the site was expanded south of Lake Shore Boulevard by landfill, reduced in size on its northern boundary by the construction of the Gardiner Expressway; the 18-day fair itself consists of a mix of shopping areas, live entertainment, agricultural displays, sports events, a large carnival midway with rides and food.
The Canadian International Air Show on Labour Day weekend has been a feature of the fair since 1949. Several buildings house exhibits and displays from vendors, government agencies and various industry associations; these include the International Pavilion of products from around the world, the Arts and Hobbies Building of crafts and unusual items. The Evercare Centre complex holds the international pavilion, a garden show, the SuperDogs performances and a sand-sculpting competition, it has exhibit space used for agricultural or industrial displays and a live stage. The Food Building houses a large number of vendors of food from many cultures, reflecting Toronto's multicultural population; the Better Living Centre building is used for a casino on one side, a farming display on the other. The CNE continues its tradition of agricultural produce competition and the winners are displayed in the Better Living Centre, along with a butter sculpting competition. Other exhibit areas are used differently in different years.
There are a large number of vendors outside along the streets of the fair offering discount and unusual products. Some exhibits are only held for a few days such as the cat show; the 1792 "Scadding Cabin" log cabin display dates back to the first year of the fair and is the only time the cabin is open for display. The carnival midway has a large children's area in the northwest corner of the park, with smaller rides suitable for children under 12; the main area is situated west of the EnerCare Centre and has several dozen rides, including thrill rides, roller coasters, swing rides and a log plume ride. Along several pathways of the midway area are games of "skill", games of chance and many carnival food vendors; the CNE operates a "sky ride", with chairs similar to ski-lift chairs, to carry riders from one end of the midway to the other. The Coliseum building is used for live shows; these have included high-wire acts, the RCMP Musical Ride in the past. Outdoors, the Bandshell is used for nightly headliners.
Additionally, areas are set up at various points around the fair for outdoor entertainment. These include such things as beer gardens, musical acts, acrobatic acts, parkour displays, circus acts, children's shows and educational displays. There are two major parades at the CNE, the Warrior's Day Parade of veterans and the Labour Day Parade of workers; every evening a "Mardi Gras" parade is held. The CNE is home to BMO Field, a large multi-purpose facility located in the centre of the fair grounds; the stadium is used by two professional sports teams based in Toronto, the Toronto Argonauts Canadian football team and the Toronto FC soccer team. In Coronation Park, located across Lake Shore Boulevard, opposite the Princes' Gates, the CNE holds a youth peewee baseball tournament and a women's fastball tournament; the 2013 and 2014 CNEs featured a zip line ride. Operated by Ziptrek Ecotours, the CNE zip line was the highest and longest temporary zip line in the world; the launch tower, positioned southeast of the Food Building, measured 180 ft high.
The landing tower, southwest of the Direct Energy Centre, was 60 ft. The zip line ride consisted of four lines, each measuring nearly 1,100 ft. Zip line riders travelled at 65 km/hour. Food is considered by many visitors to be a key part of the CNE experience. Many options are available across the 192-acre site during the 18 days of the fair. A major destination for CNE visitors, the Food Building offers a wide variety of food options ranging from classic fair favourites, such as Beaver Tail
Robert Keith Rae, is a Canadian lawyer, public speaker, former politician. He was the member of Parliament for Toronto Centre and was the interim leader of the Liberal Party of Canada from 2011 to 2013, he was leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party and the 21st Premier of Ontario, from 1990 until 1995. Between 1978 and 2013, he was elected 11 times to provincial parliaments. Rae was a New Democratic Party member of Parliament from 1978 to 1982, he moved to provincial politics, serving as leader of the Ontario NDP from February 7, 1982, to June 22, 1996. After leading his party to victory in the 1990 provincial election he served as the 21st Premier of Ontario from October 1, 1990, to June 26, 1995, was the first person to have led a provincial NDP government in the province of Ontario. While in office, he brought forward a number of initiatives that were unpopular with many traditional NDP supporters, such as the Social Contract. Rae's subsequent disagreement with the leftward direction of the NDP led him to resign his membership.
In 2006, he joined the Liberals. In 2006, he was a candidate for the leadership of the Liberals, finishing in third place on the third ballot, he had been a Liberal before joining the NDP in the 1970s. Rae returned to the House of Commons of Canada on March 31, 2008, as a Liberal MP after winning a March 17, 2008 by-election, holding the riding, held by Liberal Bill Graham, he was re-elected in the 2008 general election. Rae ran again as a candidate for the party leadership but withdrew on December 12, 2008, he was re-elected in the Toronto Centre riding in the 2011 general election and was named interim leader of the Liberal Party weeks replacing Michael Ignatieff. On June 19, 2013, Rae announced that he would resign from parliament in order to become chief negotiator for James Bay area First Nations in their negotiations with the provincial government, his resignation from parliament became effective July 31, 2013. Rae joined Olthuis Kleer Townshend LLP as a partner in February 2014. Rae sits as an advisor to Canada's Ecofiscal Commission.
He was appointed Canada's special envoy to Myanmar in October 2017 and advised Prime Minister Justin Trudeau on the Rohingya crisis. He is a Senior Fellow to the Raoul Wallenberg Centre for Human Rights. Rae was born in Ontario, his parents were Lois Esther and Saul Rae, an eminent Canadian career diplomat who had postings in Washington, New York and The Hague. Rae's paternal grandparents immigrated from Scotland, his mother had English ancestry. Rae was raised as an Anglican; as an adult, he found out that his paternal grandfather was Jewish, was from a family of Lithuanian immigrants to Scotland. Rae's elder brother John A. Rae was an Executive Vice-President and Director of Power Corporation and a prominent member of the Liberal Party, he was an adviser to Jean Chrétien when he was Indian Affairs Minister in 1968, again from 1993 until 2003 while Chrétien was Prime Minister. Rae's younger brother, was diagnosed with lymphatic cancer in 1987. Despite a bone marrow transplant from his brother, he died of leukemia in 1989 at age 32.
Rae's sister, worked for many years for the IMAX Corporation but has now retired. Rae learned of his family's Jewish origins in 1968; the revelation had a strong impact on him: he sought to explore his Jewish culture, dated Jewish girls and married a Jewish woman. Upon his marriage to Arlene Perly Rae, Rae agreed to raise his children in his wife's Jewish faith. Rae is a member of a Reform Jewish congregation in Toronto, his uncle, the late Jackie Rae was an entertainer and former host of The Jackie Rae Show on CBC and performed on British television. Rae attended Crichton Street Public School in Ottawa, Horace Mann Public School and Gordon Junior High School in Washington, D. C. and the International School of Geneva, Switzerland. His first job was a paper route delivering the Evening Star newspaper, which he described as "one of the worst newspapers in the history of modern journalism", his customers included Estes Kefauver. Rae joked that Kefauver gave him a $20 tip one Christmas, whereas Pat Nixon only gave him a quarter and made him more sympathetic to Democrats from that moment.
He graduated with honours from University College, University of Toronto, where he later received his law degree. Michael Ignatieff, who became Rae's rival for the Liberal Party leadership, was his roommate for a time, he first became involved in politics by volunteering on Trudeau's 1968 Liberal leadership campaign, worked on Liberal Charles Caccia's campaign in the 1968 federal election. Rae and Caccia have remained personal friends through their political careers. During his final year as an undergraduate, Rae was a student representative on the Bissell Commission on University Government; as a result of his strong student record, Rae was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship to the University of Oxford, where he studied at Balliol College, Oxford under Isaiah Berlin. His Bachelor of Philosophy thesis criticized the cultural imperialism of early Fabian socialists in the United Kingdom, such as Sidney and Beatrice Webb. During his period in Britain he became involved with social work, helping squatters find rental accommodation in London.
He attributes the experience with helping him develop a deepened commitment to social justice and, on his return to Canada in 1974 Rae joined the socia