The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper. Based on 2015 statistics, it is Canada's highest-circulation newspaper on overall weekly circulation; the Toronto Star is owned by Toronto Star Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary of Torstar Corporation and part of Torstar's Daily News Brands division. The Star was created in 1892 by striking Toronto News printers and writers, led by future Mayor of Toronto and social reformer Horatio Clarence Hocken, who became the newspaper's founder, along with another future mayor, Jimmy Simpson; the Star was first printed on Toronto World presses, at its formation, The World owned a 51% interest in it as a silent partner. That arrangement only lasted for two months, during which time it was rumoured that William Findlay "Billy" Maclean, the World's proprietor, was considering selling the Star to the Riordon family. After an extensive fundraising campaign among the Star staff, Maclean agreed to sell his interest to Hocken; the paper did poorly in its first few years.
Hocken sold out within the year, several owners followed in succession until railway entrepreneur Sir William Mackenzie bought it in 1896. Its new editors, Edmund E. Sheppard and Frederic Thomas Nicholls, moved the entire Star operation into the same building used by the magazine Saturday Night; this would continue until Joseph E. "Holy Joe" Atkinson, backed by funds raised by supporters of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, bought the paper. The supporters included William Mulock, Peter Charles Larkin and Timothy Eaton. Atkinson was the Star's editor from 1899 until his death in 1948; the newspaper's early opposition and criticism of the Nazi regime saw it become one of the first North American papers to be banned in Germany. Atkinson had a social conscience, he championed many causes that would come to be associated with the modern welfare state: old age pensions, unemployment insurance, health care. The Government of Canada Digital Collections website describes Atkinson asa "radical" in the best sense of that term....
The Star was unique among North American newspapers in its consistent, ongoing advocacy of the interests of ordinary people. The friendship of Atkinson, the publisher, with Mackenzie King, the prime minister, was a major influence on the development of Canadian social policy. Atkinson became the controlling shareholder of the Star; the Star was criticized for practising the yellow journalism of its era. For decades, the paper included heavy doses of crime and sensationalism, along with advocating social change. From 1910 to 1973, the Star published the Star Weekly. Shortly before his death in 1948, Joseph E. Atkinson transferred ownership of the paper to a charitable organization given the mandate of continuing the paper's liberal tradition. In 1949, the Province of Ontario passed the Charitable Gifts Act, barring charitable organizations from owning large parts of profit-making businesses, that required the Star to be sold. Atkinson's will had directed that profits from the paper's operations were "for the promotion and maintenance of social and economic reforms which are charitable in nature, for the benefit of the people of the province of Ontario" and it stipulated that the paper could be sold only to people who shared his social views.
The five trustees of the charitable organization circumvented the Act by buying the paper themselves and swearing before the Supreme Court of Ontario to continue what became known as the "Atkinson Principles": A strong and independent Canada Social justice Individual and civil liberties Community and civic engagement The rights of working people The necessary role of governmentDescendants of the original owners, known as "the five families", still control the voting shares of Torstar, the Atkinson Principles continue to guide the paper to this day. In February 2006, Star media columnist Antonia Zerbisias wrote on her blog: Besides, we are the Star which means we all have the Atkinson Principles—and its multi-culti values—tattooed on our butts. Fine with me. At least we are upfront about our values, they always work in favour of building a better Canada. From 1922 to 1933, the Star was a radio broadcaster on its station CFCA, broadcasting on a wavelength of 400 metres, whose coverage was complementary to the paper's reporting.
The station was closed following the establishment of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission and the introduction of a government policy that, in essence, restricted private stations to an effective radiated power of 100 watts. The Star would continue to supply sponsored content to the CRBC's CRCT station, an arrangement that lasted until 1946. In 1971, the newspaper was renamed The Toronto Star and moved to a modern office tower at One Yonge Street by Queens Quay; the original Star Building at 80 King Street West was demolished to make room for First Canadian Place. The new building housed the paper's presses. In 1992, the printing plant was moved to the Toronto Star Press Centre at the Highway 407 & 400 interchange in Vaughan. In September 2002, the logo was changed, "The" was dropped from the papers. During the 2003 Northeast blackout, the Star printed the paper at a press in Ontario; until the mid-2000s, the front page of the Toronto Star had no advertising aside from lottery jackpot estimates from the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation.
On May 28, 2007, the Star unveiled a redesigned paper that features larger type, narrower pages and shorter articles, renamed
Bermuda is a British Overseas Territory in the North Atlantic Ocean. It is 1,070 km east-southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina; the capital city is Hamilton. Bermuda is self-governing, with its own constitution and its own government, which enacts local laws, while the United Kingdom retains responsibility for defence and foreign relations; as of July 2018, its population is the highest of the British overseas territories. Bermuda's two largest economic sectors are offshore insurance and reinsurance, tourism. Bermuda had one of the world's highest GDP per capita for most of the 20th century; the islands have a subtropical climate and lies in the hurricane belt and thus is prone to related severe weather. The first European known to have reached Bermuda was the Spanish sea captain Juan de Bermúdez in 1505, after whom the islands are named, he claimed the islands for the Spanish Empire. Unusually, Bermuda had no indigenous population at the time of its discovery, nor at the time of the initial British settlement a century later.
Bermúdez never landed on the islands, but made two visits to the archipelago, of which he created a recognisable map. Shipwrecked Portuguese mariners are now thought to have been responsible for the 1543 inscription on Portuguese Rock. Subsequent Spanish or other European parties are believed to have released pigs there, which had become feral and abundant on the island by the time European settlement began. In 1609, the English Virginia Company permanently settled Bermuda in the aftermath of a hurricane, when the crew and passengers of the Sea Venture steered the ship onto the surrounding reef to prevent its sinking landed ashore; the island was administered as an extension of Virginia by the Company until 1614. Its spin-off, the Somers Isles Company, took over in 1615 and managed the colony until 1684. At that time, the company's charter was revoked, the English Crown took over administration; the islands became a British colony following the 1707 unification of the parliaments of Scotland and England, which created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
After 1949, when Newfoundland became part of Canada, Bermuda became the oldest remaining British overseas territory. After the return of Hong Kong to China in 1997, Bermuda became the most populous remaining dependent territory, its first capital, St. George's, was established in 1612. Bermuda was discovered in 1505 by Spanish explorer Juan de Bermúdez, it is mentioned in Legatio Babylonica, published in 1511 by historian Pedro Mártir de Anglería, was included on Spanish charts of that year. Both Spanish and Portuguese ships used the islands as a replenishment spot to take on fresh meat and water. Legends arose of spirits and devils, now thought to have stemmed from the calls of raucous birds and the loud noise heard at night from wild hogs. Combined with the frequent storm-wracked conditions and the dangerous reefs, the archipelago became known as the Isle of Devils. Neither Spain nor Portugal attempted to settle it. For the next century, the island is believed to have been visited but not settled.
After the failure of the first two English colonies in Virginia, a more determined effort was initiated by King James I of England, who granted a Royal Charter to the Virginia Company. It established a colony at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. Two years a flotilla of seven ships left England under the Company's Admiral, Sir George Somers, the new Governor of Jamestown, Sir Thomas Gates, with several hundred settlers and supplies to relieve the colony of Jamestown. Somers had previous experience sailing with both Sir Francis Sir Walter Raleigh; the flotilla was broken up by a storm. As the flagship, Sea Venture, was taking on water, Somers drove it onto Bermuda's reef and gained the shores safely with smaller boats – all 150 passengers and a dog survived, they stayed ten months, building two small ships to sail to Jamestown. The group of islands were claimed for the English Crown, the charter of the Virginia Company was extended to include them. In 1610, all but three of the survivors of Sea Venture sailed on to Jamestown.
Among them was John Rolfe, whose wife and child died and were buried in Bermuda. In Jamestown he married Pocahontas, a daughter of the powerful Powhatan, leader of a large confederation of about 30 Algonquian-speaking tribes in coastal Virginia. In 1612, the English began intentional settlement of Bermuda with the arrival of the ship Plough. St. George's was designated as Bermuda's first capital, it is the oldest continually inhabited English town in the New World. In 1615, the colony was passed to a new company, the Somers Isles Company, named after the admiral who saved his passengers from Sea Venture. Many Virginian place names refer to the archipelago, such as Bermuda City, Bermuda Hundred; the first English coins to circulate in North America were struck in Bermuda. The archipelago's limited land area and resources led to the creation of what may be the earliest conservation laws of the New World. In 1616 and 1620 acts were passed banning the hunting of young tortoises. In 1
Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity. The use of the term "racism" does not fall under a single definition; the ideology underlying racism includes the idea that humans can be subdivided into distinct groups that are different due to their social behavior and their innate capacities, as well as the idea that they can be ranked as inferior or superior. Historical examples of institutional racism include the Holocaust, the apartheid regime in South Africa and segregation in the United States, slavery in Latin America. Racism was an aspect of the social organization of many colonial states and empires. While the concepts of race and ethnicity are considered to be separate in contemporary social science, the two terms have a long history of equivalence in both popular usage and older social science literature. "Ethnicity" is used in a sense close to one traditionally attributed to "race": the division of human groups based on qualities assumed to be essential or innate to the group.
Therefore and racial discrimination are used to describe discrimination on an ethnic or cultural basis, independent of whether these differences are described as racial. According to a United Nations convention on racial discrimination, there is no distinction between the terms "racial" and "ethnic" discrimination; the UN convention further concludes that superiority based on racial differentiation is scientifically false, morally condemnable unjust and dangerous. It declared that there is no justification for racial discrimination, anywhere, in theory or in practice. Racist ideology can manifest in many aspects of social life. Racism can be present in social actions, practices, or political systems that support the expression of prejudice or aversion in discriminatory practices or laws. Associated social actions may include nativism, otherness, hierarchical ranking and related social phenomena. In the 19th century, many scientists subscribed to the belief that the human population can be divided into races.
The term racism is a noun describing the state of being racist, i.e. subscribing to the belief that the human population can or should be classified into races with differential abilities and dispositions, which in turn may motivate a political ideology in which rights and privileges are differentially distributed based on racial categories. The origin of the root word "race" is not clear. Linguists agree that it came to the English language from Middle French, but there is no such agreement on how it came into Latin-based languages. A recent proposal is that it derives from the Arabic ra's, which means "head, origin" or the Hebrew rosh, which has a similar meaning. Early race theorists held the view that some races were inferior to others and they believed that the differential treatment of races was justified; these early theories guided pseudo-scientific research assumptions. Today, most biologists and sociologists reject a taxonomy of races in favor of more specific and/or empirically verifiable criteria, such as geography, ethnicity, or a history of endogamy.
To date, there is little evidence in human genome research which indicates that race can be defined in such a way as to be useful in determining a genetic classification of humans. An entry in the Oxford English Dictionary defines racialism as "n earlier term than racism, but now superseded by it", cites it in a 1902 quote; the revised Oxford English Dictionary cites the shortened term "racism" in a quote from the following year, 1903. It was first defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "he theory that distinctive human characteristics and abilities are determined by race". By the end of World War II, racism had acquired the same supremacist connotations associated with racialism: racism now implied racial discrimination, racial supremacism, a harmful intent; as its history indicates, the popular use of the word racism is recent. The word came into widespread usage in the Western world in the 1930s, when it was used to describe the social and political ideology of Nazism, which saw "race" as a given political unit.
It is agreed that racism existed before the coinage of the word, but there is not a wide agreement on a single definition of what racism is and what it is not. Today, some scholars of racism prefer to use the concept in the plural racisms, in order to emphasize its many different forms that do not fall under a single definition, they argue that different forms of racism have characterized different historical periods and geographical areas. Garner summarizes different existing definitions of racism and identifies three common elements contained in those definitions of racism. First, a historical, hierarchical power relationship between groups. Though many countries around the globe have passed laws related to race and discrimination, the first significant international human rights instrument developed by the United Nations
Michael Deane "Mike" Harris is a Canadian politician who served as the 22nd Premier of Ontario from June 26, 1995 to April 14, 2002. He is most noted for the "Common Sense Revolution", his Progressive Conservative government's program of deficit reduction in combination with lower taxes and cuts to government spending. Harris was born in Toronto, the son of Hope Gooding and Sidney Deane Harris, he grew up in North Bay. Harris left after a year. At the age of 21, following his father's purchase of a ski-hill, Harris moved to Sainte-Adèle, Quebec where he became a ski instructor over the course of two years. After the end of his first marriage, he enrolled at Laurentian University and North Bay Teacher's College where he received his teaching certificate, he was employed as an elementary school teacher at W. J. Fricker Public School in North Bay where he taught grade seven and eight mathematics for several years in a new open-concept class of 120 students, he continued in his previous occupation as a ski-instructor at Nipissing Ridge on weekends as well as working at his father's fishing camp during the summer season.
He left the teaching profession as the success of the ski resort escalated. After his father sold his ski-hill operation, Harris was hired to manage North Bay's Pinewood Golf Club. Harris was elected to public office as a school board trustee in 1974, he entered provincial politics in the 1981 election, defeated the incumbent Liberal Member of Provincial Parliament in Nipissing, Mike Bolan. Harris suggested that he was motivated to enter politics by an opposition to the policies of Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, he sat as a backbencher in Bill Davis's Progressive Conservative government from 1981 to 1985. He supported Frank Miller's successful bid to succeed Davis as party leader in 1985, took the role of rival candidate Dennis Timbrell to prepare Miller for the party's all-candidate debates. Miller was sworn in as Premier of Ontario on February 8, 1985, appointed Harris as his Minister of Natural Resources; the Tories were reduced to a minority government in the 1985 provincial election, although Harris was re-elected without difficulty.
He kept the Natural Resources portfolio after the election, was named Minister of Energy on May 17, 1985. Time limitations prevented Harris from making many notable contributions in these portfolios, as the Miller government was soon defeated on a motion of no confidence by David Peterson's Liberals and Bob Rae's New Democratic Party. An agreement between the Liberals and the NDP allowed a Liberal minority government to govern for two years in exchange for the implementation of certain NDP policies; this decision consigned the Tories to opposition for the first time in 42 years. Miller resigned and was replaced by Larry Grossman, who led the party to a disastrous showing in the 1987 election and announced his resignation shortly thereafter. Harris was again re-elected in Nipissing without difficulty; the party was not ready to hold a leadership convention in 1987. Grossman, who had lost his legislative seat, remained the official leader of the party until 1990 while Sarnia MPP Andy Brandt served as "interim leader" in the legislature.
Harris was chosen as PC house leader, had become the party's dominant voice in the legislature by 1989. Harris entered the 1990 leadership race, defeated Dianne Cunningham in a province-wide vote to replace Grossman as the party's official leader; the 1990 provincial election was called soon. With help from past leader Larry Grossman, Harris managed to rally his party's core supporters with pledges of tax cuts and spending reductions. Due to his teaching background, Harris was endorsed by several local members of the Ontario Secondary School Teachers' Federation; the election was won by Bob Rae's NDP. The Conservatives increased their seat total from 17 to 20 out of 130. Despite some early concerns, Harris was again able to retain his own seat. On 3 May 1994, Harris unveiled his "Common Sense Revolution" platform, it called for significant spending and tax cuts, as well as elimination of the province's record $11 billion deficit. By 1995, the governing New Democratic Party and incumbent Premier Bob Rae had become unpopular with the electorate due to the state of the Ontario economy and its record debt and deficit amidst a Canada-wide recession.
Lyn McLeod's Liberals were leading in pre-election polls and were expected to benefit from the swing in support away from the NDP, but they began losing support due to several controversial policy reversals and what was regarded as an uninspiring campaign. The turning point in the election is considered to be Harris's performance in the televised leaders' debate. Harris used his camera time to speak directly to the camera to convey his party's Common Sense Revolution platform, he was elected with a large majority government in the 1995 election. Half of his party's seats came from the suburban belt surrounding Metro Toronto called the'905' for its telephone area code; the Rae government had lost much of its base in organized labour, due in part to the unpopularity of its "Social Contract" legislation in 1993. Harris's opposition to Rae's affirmative action measures helped him to capture some unionized-worker support during the election among male workers. Although there were regional variations, many union voters shifted from the NDP to the Tories in 1995, enabling the Tories to win a
Roland "Roy" McMurtry, is a lawyer and former judge in Ontario, Canada. He was a Progressive Conservative member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1975 to 1985, he served in the cabinet of Bill Davis as Solicitor General. After leaving politics he served as High Commissioner of Canada to the United Kingdom between 1985 and 1988. McMurtry became Chief Justice of Ontario. McMurtry was born in Toronto, son of lawyer Roy McMurtry, educated at St. Andrew's College, graduating in 1950, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Toronto, Trinity College in 1954, a Bachelor of Laws degree from Osgoode Hall Law School in 1958. While attending university, he was admitted to the Zeta Psi fraternity and became a close friend of future Premier of Ontario William Davis, his Canadian football teammate. While studying he was hired to teach football at Upper Canada College, he taught in adult literacy classes at Frontier College, working through the day on construction projects and teaching at night.
He was a trial lawyer for seventeen years before entering politics. He wrote a weekly column in the Toronto Sun in the early seventies. In the 1960s, he worked with Dalton Camp and Norman Atkins to remove John Diefenbaker as leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. McMurtry suffered a back injury during the 1971 Ontario Progressive Conservative leadership convention, was able to exempt himself from choosing between Davis and rival candidate Allan Lawrence, whose campaign was managed by Atkins. Davis defeated Lawrence by 44 votes on the final ballot. A few weeks McMurtry organized a meeting which brought together the Davis and Lawrence leadership teams; the resulting alliance, known as the Big Blue Machine, dominated the Progressive Conservative Party into the 1980s. Allan Lawrence resigned his St. George constituency in late 1972 to move to federal politics, McMurtry was recruited by Davis as the Progressive Conservative candidate for a March 1973 by-election, he was unexpectedly defeated by Liberal Party candidate Margaret Campbell, a well-known municipal politician.
He was first elected to the Legislative Assembly of Ontario two years in the 1975 provincial election, defeating Liberal candidate Frank Judge in the Eglinton constituency. Davis won a minority government in the 1975 election, McMurtry was appointed to cabinet as Attorney-General, he held this position until 1985 and served as Solicitor-General from 1978 to 1982. He introduced a large number of law reform bills, was responsible for family law reform in Ontario. In 1978, he took the first steps to make Ontario's legal system bilingual and to start the process of translating Ontario's statutes into French, he was a major advocate for improved race relations. McMurtry was the provincial minister responsible for emergency planning. During the 1979 Mississauga train derailment, he deferred to Mayor Hazel McCallion, the public face of the crisis handling. McMurtry was a Red Tory, was one of Davis's closest advisers in government; as Attorney-General, he had been a primary negotiator for Ontario in the Trudeau era constitutional negotiations.
He appeared as counsel for Ontario in the Patriation Reference before the Supreme Court of Canada. In November 1981, he played a major role in brokering the deal that achieved patriation of the Canadian Constitution and the creation of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. A late night "kitchen accord" between McMurtry, Jean Chrétien and Roy Romanow on 6 November 1981 broke a deadlock in negotiations, resulted in the governments of all provinces except Quebec agreeing to the proposed reforms to the Constitution, which came into law the following year. One of McMurtry's lowest points was his role in the prosecution of nurse Susan Nelles, charged with the murder of a number of infants at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto; the charges were dropped following a preliminary hearing and Nelles was exonerated by the Grange Commission, a royal commission called upon to examine the deaths. McMurtry was criticized for his Ministry's role in her wrongful prosecution. In a 2007 interview, McMurtry, looking back at the incident, said "I can remember that I had been away with my family on a school break, when I came back and saw the headlines, I brought in my deputy attorney-general, said:'What the hell is going on here?
You've had a nurse arrested at one of the world's most famous hospitals?' " McMurtry said that local prosecutors failed to consult the ministry before consenting to the charges and that examining the case McMurtry had doubts that Nelles had exclusive access to all of the children. He was Attorney-General at the time of the 1981 Toronto bathhouse raids which were denounced as one of the most regressive acts in the province's history. At the time it was believed that the raids were approved by McMurtry. In a 2007 interview, however, McMurtry said. "The irony of the whole thing was. The whole thing looked terrible. Without a doubt, one of my most frustrating experiences," said McMurtry; when Davis resigned as Progressive Conservative leader and premier in 1985, McMurtry sought the party's leadership at the party's January 1985 leadership convention. He started as the underdog in the campaign, but impressed many delegates through his performance in candidates' debates and polling data showing him as the preferred choice of Ontario voters.
During the contest, McMurtry was sometimes criticized for remaining too long in one portfolio. While his opponents all had diverse ministerial experience
Toronto City Council
The Toronto City Council is the governing body of the City of Toronto in Ontario, Canada. Members represent wards throughout the city, are known as councillors; the passage of provincial legislation in the summer of 2018 established that the number of wards be reduced from 44 to 25 and that they be based upon the city's federal electoral districts as of the year 2000. While the federal districts have been redistributed since the ward boundaries remain the same; the city council had at its peak 45 members: 44 ward councillors plus the mayor. On September 19, 2018 an Ontario Court of appeals granted a stay order of a previous court decision that would have prevented this reduction, thus re-establishing the move to 25 wards; the actual court appeal of Bill 5 has yet to be scheduled, but was heard subsequent to the municipal election on October 22, 2018. The current decision-making framework and committee structure at the City of Toronto was established by the City of Toronto Act and came into force January 1, 2007.
The decision-making process at the City of Toronto involves committees. Committees propose and debate policies and recommendations before their arrival at City Council for debate. Citizens and residents can only make deputations on policy at committees, citizens cannot make public presentations to City Council; each City Councillor sits on one committee. The Mayor is entitled to one vote. There are three types of committees at the City of Toronto: the Executive Committee, Standing Committees and other Committees of Council; the City posts agendas for council and committee meetings on its website. The Executive Committee is an advisory body; the Executive Committee is composed of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, the chairs of the seven standing committees who are appointed by the Mayor and four "at-large" members appointed by City Council. The role of the Executive Committee is to set the City of Toronto's priorities, manage financial planning and budgeting, labour relations, human resources, the operation of City Council.
The Executive Committee makes recommendations to city council on: strategic policy and priorities governance policy and structure financial planning and budgeting fiscal policy intergovernmental and international relations Council operations Human resources and labour relationsSeveral committees report to the Executive Committee: Budget Committee, Affordable Housing Committee, Employee and Labour Relations Committee. Source: City of Toronto Following the sudden decision by the Provincial government to reduce the size of City Council in summer 2018, the committee structure is under review. There were eleven other committees; the seven standing policy committees were: There are four other committees that report to Council: Source: City of Toronto All members of Toronto city council serve on a community council. Community Councils report to City Council but they have final decision-making power on certain items, such as front yard parking and appointments to local boards and Business Improvement Areas.
The city is divided into four community councils. Their meeting locations are as follows: Etobicoke York – Etobicoke Civic Centre North York – North York Civic Centre Scarborough – Scarborough Civic Centre Toronto and East York – Toronto City Hall The current council term began on December 1, 2018. In 2014, the Mayor's salary was $177,499 and Councillors was $105,397. Starting January 1, 2017, the Mayor's salary was increased to $188,544 and Councillors to $111,955, a 2.1 per cent change. The Office of the Mayor is located on the second floor at Toronto City Hall; the general public and media can access it via stairs. The current staff of the office consists of: Chief of Staff - Luke Robertson Deputy Chief of Staff - Courtney Glen Principal Secretary - Vince Gasparro Executive Assistant to the Mayor - Dee Dee Heywood Executive Assistant to the Chief - Karen Cooper Executive Director of Communications & Strategic Issues Management - Don Peat Executive Director of Budget & Finance - Sophia Arvanitis Director, Legislative Affairs - Edward Birnbaum Senior Advisor, Legislative Affairs - Daniela Magisano Senior Advisor, Legislative Affairs - Matt Buckman Senior Advisor, Tour - Emily Hillstrom Advisor, Constituency Affairs - Farnaz Patel Advisor, Communications - Avi Yufest Advisor, Communications & Tour - Louise Brunet Special Assistant, Outreach - Kema Joseph Special Assistant, Constituency Affairs & Tour - Abinaya Chandrabalan Special Assistant, Constituency Affairs & Outreach - Cindy Lee Special Assistant, Communications & Tour - Gabe Ciufo Assistant, Constituent Affairs - Steevan Sritharan Current members of the Committee: Paul Ainslie Ana Bailão Gary Crawford Denzil Minnan-Wong Frances Nunziata James Pasternak Michael Thompson John Tory The committee existed in the old City of Toronto beginning in 1969.
Before that Toronto had a Board of Control, as did former cities North Etobicoke. Vacancies in a council seat may be filled in one of two ways, either by the holding of a by-election or through direct appointment of an interim councillor chosen by the council in an internal vote; the council is allowed to decide which process to follow in each individual case. The process results in public debate, however; the by-election process is seen as more democratic, while the appointment process is seen as less expensive for the city t
Attorney General of Ontario
The Attorney General of Ontario is the chief legal adviser to Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Ontario and, by extension, the Government of Ontario. The Attorney General is a senior member of the Executive Council of Ontario and oversees the Ministry of the Attorney General – the department responsible for the oversight of the justice system in the province of Ontario; the Attorney General is an elected Member of Provincial Parliament, appointed by the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario on the constitutional advice of the Premier of Ontario. The goal of the Ministry of the Attorney General is to provide a fair and accessible justice system which reflects the needs of the diverse communities it serves across government and the province; the Ministry represents the largest justice system in Canada and one of the largest in North America. It strives to manage the justice system in an equitable and accessible way throughout the province; as of June 29, 2018, the Attorney General of Ontario is Caroline Mulroney and is assisted by Lindsey Park as Parliamentary Assistant to the Attorney General.
The Attorney General has the authority to represent the provincial government in court but this task is always delegated to crown attorneys, or to crown counsel in civil cases. Ian Scott, a prominent courtroom lawyer prior to entering politics, chose to plead the crown's case in court for several cases related to constitutional law. Most holders of the office had legal training. Marion Boyd was the only Attorney General, not a lawyer until Caroline Mulroney appointment. Although Mulroney studied and practiced law in the United States, she is not able to practice law in Canada; the Ministry of the Attorney General delivers and administers a wide range of justice services, including: administering 115 statutes. The Ontario Crown Attorney's Office, the Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee, the Children's Lawyer, the Special Investigations Unit all fall within the Ministry's responsibilities; the Ministry funds Legal Aid Ontario, administered by an independent board. In 2008, Office of the Independent Police Review Director was established under the authority of the AG, as a civilian body with powers invested through Public Inquiries Act to investigate complaints about municipal police forces and the Ontario Provincial Police.
Following the 2013 release of former Supreme Court judge Frank Iacobucci's report on the relationship between Aboriginal peoples and the Ontario justice system, a position of deputy attorney general with responsibility for Aboriginal issues was created. 1. John White 1791–1800 2. Robert Isaac Dey Gray 1800–1801 3. Thomas Scott 1801–1806 4. William Firth 1807–1812 5. G. D'Arcy Boulton 1814–1818 6. Sir John Robinson, 1st Baronet, of Toronto 1818–1829, acting AG 1812–1814 7. Henry John Boulton 1829–1832 8. Robert Sympson Jameson 1833–1837, last British-appointed AG 9. Christopher Alexander Hagerman 1837–1840, first Canadian-born AG of Upper Canada 10. William Henry Draper 1840–1841, last AG of Upper Canada In 1841, the Province of Upper Canada became the Province of Canada 11. William Henry Draper 1841–1843 12. Robert Baldwin 1843–1848 13. William Buell Richards 1848–1854 14. John A. Macdonald 1854–1862, 1864–1867 15. John Sandfield Macdonald 1862–1864 After 1867, the Attorney General position was split into federal and provincial counterparts: Attorney General of OntarioAttorney General of Quebec Attorney General of Canada Government of Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General website