1977 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1977 was held on June 9, 1977, to elect the 125 members of the 31st Legislative Assembly of Ontario of the Province of Ontario, Canada. The Progressive Conservative Party, led by Premier Bill Davis, was re-elected for an eleventh consecutive term in office, again with a minority in the legislature; the PCs were not able to win a majority. The Liberal Party, led by Dr. Stuart Smith, lost one seat compared to its result in the previous election, but formed the Official Opposition because the NDP lost more seats; the New Democratic Party, led by Stephen Lewis, lost five seats, therefore lost the position of "Official Opposition" to the Liberals. Sheila Copps, future federal cabinet minister and Deputy Prime Minister of Canada, made her political debut in this election finishing second in the riding of Hamilton Centre; this was the first election in which a recent long-serving MPP in Ontario, was elected. 1 Includes T. Patrick Reid, a Liberal MPP, re-elected in 1977 as a Liberal-Labour candidate.
A number of unregistered parties contested this election. The North American Labour Party, consisting of Lyndon LaRouche supporters, ran three candidates in Toronto and three elsewhere in the province; the Revolutionary Marxist Group and League for Socialist Action fielded one candidate apiece. Some members of the Social Credit Party ran in the election, although it is not clear if they were formally endorsed by the party. Politics of Ontario List of Ontario political parties Premier of Ontario Leader of the Opposition Independent candidates, 1977 Ontario provincial election
Brock University is a public research university in St. Catharines, Canada, it is the only university in Canada in a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve, at the centre of Canada's Niagara Peninsula on the Niagara Escarpment. The university bears the name of Maj.-General Sir Isaac Brock, responsible for defending Upper Canada against the United States during the War of 1812. Brock offers a wide range of programs at the undergraduate and graduate levels, including professional degrees. Brock was ranked third among Canadian universities in the undergraduate category for research publication output and impact indicators in 2008. Brock University is the only school in Canada and internationally to offer the MICA program. Brock University's Department of Health Sciences offers the only undergraduate degree in Public Health in Canada. At the graduate level, Brock offers 49 programs, including nine PhD programs. Brock's co-op program is Canada's fifth-largest, the third largest in Ontario as of 2011. Graduates enjoy one of the highest employment rates of all Ontario universities at 97.2 percent.
Brock has 12 Canada Research Chairs and nine faculty members who have received the 3M Teaching Fellowship Award, the only national award that recognizes teaching excellence and educational leadership. In 1963 the Brock University Founders' Committee, chaired by Arthur Schmon, offered Dr. James A. Gibson the invitation to become the founding president. Brock University was established by the passage of the Brock University Act by the Legislative Assembly of Ontario in 1964; when the university first opened in September 1964, classes were held at the St. Paul Street United Church in downtown St. Catharines for 13 weeks until the Glenridge Campus was renovated. Brock's Glenridge campus was opened on October 19, 1964 with Gibson as the university's founding president. In 1996 Brock University honoured Gibson by naming the university library in his honour. Richard L. Hearn was appointed the university's inaugural chancellor in 1967. Brock University is named after Major-General Sir Isaac Brock, who commanded the British and Canadian forces during the War of 1812.
Although the British and Canadian forces went on to win, Brock lost his life during the Battle of Queenston Heights in 1812, fought 20 km from the present-day site of the campus. His last words are said to have been Surgite! — now used as the university's motto. For his contribution to Canada, Brock was voted the 28th Greatest Canadian in a 2004 poll, conducted by the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Gervan Fearon became the school's president on August 1, 2017; the university's current chancellor is actress Shirley Cheechoo. The Arthur Schmon Tower houses the administrative offices for the university. Schmon was the primary force behind getting a university established in the Niagara peninsula and was the chairman of the Brock University Founders' Committee, formed in 1962; the Schmon Tower, along with the surrounding Thistle Complex, are characterized by their distinctive brutalist architecture. The Schmon Tower houses the James A. Gibson Library, named for founding president of the university James Alexander Gibson, which serves as the academic library for the university and is a member of the Canadian Association of Research Libraries.
The main floor of the library consists of the Matheson Learning Commons which includes computer workstations, study rooms, multimedia classrooms, the library's circulation and information desk. Welch Hall is home to Brock's Faculty of Education, the Instructional Resource Centre, as well as the David S. Howes Theatre, it underwent an expansion, designed by Diamond and Schmitt Architects and costing in excess of $8 million, which added additional lecture halls and administrative offices as well as upgrades to Welch Hall's facilities. Designed by Canadian architect Raymond Moriyama, who served as Chancellor of Brock, the Mackenzie Chown Complex contains seminar rooms and science laboratories; the Mackenzie Chown Complex houses the Pond Inlet convention space and the Map, Data & GIS Library. It was named for Mackenzie Chown, a former mayor of St. Catharines who served as chairman of the Brock Board of Trustees and chairman of the fundraising committee for a new science laboratory building to be added to the Complex.
Taro Hall is home to Brock's Goodman School of Business. It was opened in 1990 and was designed by Moriyama & Teshima Architects, of which Raymond Moriyama is a partner. Taro Hall is used for Faculty offices, including the Dean of the Goodman School of Business, lecture halls, it contains six lecture halls for undergraduate students, three lecture halls for graduate students, a number of break-out rooms. It includes a student lounge and computer commons for graduate business students. In December 2007, Taro Hall underwent an extensive renovation to upgrade the entire facility. Completed in 2007, designed by MacKay-Lyons Sweetapple Architects, the Plaza Building contains the Faculty of Social Sciences, as well as computer facilities, seminar rooms, the new Brock Campus Bookstore; the Campus Store occupies the first floor. The third floor houses seminar rooms and computer labs, as well as the Department of Political Science and its offices; the fourth floor houses additional seminar and computer rooms, as well as the Department of Economics and its offices.
The fifth and sixth floors of this building are restricted access and can be entered only via security card verification. These two restricted floo
Jim Bradley (politician)
James J. Bradley is a politician in Ontario, Canada, he was a long-serving Liberal member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, sitting as an MPP from 1977 until 2018. He represented the riding of St. Catharines and served in the provincial cabinets of David Peterson, Dalton McGuinty and Kathleen Wynne, he was elected as a regional councillor in the St. Catharines municipal election of 2018, he is the Chair of the Regional Municipality of Niagara. His 41 year term as an MPP is the second longest tenure behind only Harry Nixon. Before entering politics, Bradley was a teacher with the Lincoln County Board of Education, he was elected as a city councillor to the St. Catharines city council in 1970, but remained in the classroom until 1977. After failed bids in the elections of 1967 and 1971, Bradley was elected to the Ontario legislature in the 1977 election in the riding of St. Catharines, served as MPP for that riding until the 2018 election, he fended off strong challenges from the New Democratic Party in the 1990 election and the Progressive Conservative Party in 1995 election.
On all other occasions until 2018, he was re-elected. When the Liberals came to power under David Peterson following the 1985 election, Bradley became Minister of the Environment and held that position until the Liberals were defeated in the 1990 election, he is regarded as Ontario's most effective Environment Minister, although some believe that his ambitions for the portfolio were undermined by Peterson and Finance Minister Robert Nixon. As Environment Minister, Bradley expanded Blue Box Recycling, making it a province-wide initiative, as well as instituting tough new penalties for polluters, enforced by a strengthened investigation and enforcement branch. Bradley was a vocal opponent of Peterson's plans to call an election in 1990, preferring that the party wait until 1992 before going to the polls. While the Liberals were defeated, Bradley was re-elected and had a prominent position in the Opposition benches; when Nixon, the interim leader of the Liberals, left Queen's Park to accept an appointment, he was replaced by Murray Elston.
Elston resigned as interim leader to run in the 1992 leadership convention, Bradley became interim leader of the party and interim Leader of the Opposition from November 1991 until the election of Lyn McLeod in February 1992. He remained an opposition stalwart. There was some speculation that Bradley would be re-appointed Minister of the Environment in McGuinty's government, but this did not occur. Instead, he was named Minister of Tourism and Recreation on October 23, 2003, he was given ministerial responsibility for Seniors on June 29, 2005. On October 11, 2005, Bradley was appointed to replace Dwight Duncan as Government House Leader, following Duncan's appointment as Minister of Finance. Bradley is the province's wine secretary, as well as the minister responsible for the Greenbelt. On October 30, 2007, Bradley was sworn in as Minister of Transportation in McGuinty's new cabinet; as Transportation Minister, Bradley supervised the introduction of an Ontario Enhanced driver's licenses to be used at Canada/US border crossings.
He introduced legislation to merge GO Metrolinx. Enacted tougher penalties for drivers who have a BAC of.05 or higher. Mandated that all commercial trucks that operate in Ontario be equipped with speed limiters to ensure heavy trucks don't exceed 105 km/h, and in April 2009, it was announced that GO Transit would be expanded to the Niagara region, with bus service to Burlington in September and with weekend rail service to Toronto starting at the end of June. On January 18, 2010, Bradley moved to the position of Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housing. In August he was moved to the Ministry of Community Correctional Services. On October 20, 2011, Bradley moved to become Minister of Environment once again in the wake of the 2011 election that saw the previous Minister of Environment, John Wilkinson, defeated. Bradley continued as Environment Minister in Kathleen Wynne's first cabinet after she won the leadership of the Liberal Party. Following the 2014 provincial election, the 69-year-old Bradley became a minister without portfolio with the title of Chair of Cabinet and was appointed Deputy Government House Leader.
He left cabinet in June 2016 as part of a cabinet shuffle, served as Chief Government Whip and Deputy Government House Leader. In the 2018 election, Bradley lost his seat as the Liberal Party was defeated, losing official party status and suffering the greatest loss for any governing party in provincial history, he had served as St. Catharines MPP for 41 years. On July 27 2018, the last day registration was open, Bradley registered to run for Niagara Regional Council.. Bradley was elected on October 2018, finishing first out of 23 candidates with 18,954 votes. On December 6, 2018, Bradley was selected as the Niagara Regional Chair, being elected on the first ballot receiving 19 out of 31 votes against two other candidates. Source: The 1999, 2003 and 2007 expenditure entries are taken from official candidate reports as listed by Elections Ontario; the figures cited are the Total Candidate's Campaign Expenses Subject to Limitation, include transfers from constituency associations. The 1995 expenditures are taken from an official listing of election expenses published by Elections Ontario.
Ontario Legislative Assembly parliamentary history
St. Catharines is the largest city in Canada's Niagara Region and the sixth largest urban area in Ontario, with 96.13 square kilometres of land and 133,113 residents in 2016. It lies in Southern Ontario, 51 kilometres south of Toronto across Lake Ontario, is 19 kilometres inland from the international boundary with the United States along the Niagara River, it is the northern entrance of the Welland Canal. Residents of St. Catharines are known as St. Cathariners. St. Catharines carries the official nickname "The Garden City" due to its 1,000 acres of parks and trails. St. Catharines is between the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area and the Canada–U. S. Border at Fort Erie. Manufacturing is the city's dominant industry, as noted by the heraldic motto, "Industry and Liberality". General Motors of Canada, Ltd. the Canadian subsidiary of General Motors, was the city's largest employer, a distinction now held by the District School Board of Niagara. THK Rhythm Automotive TRW, operates a plant in the city, though in recent years employment there has shifted from heavy industry and manufacturing to services.
St. Catharines lies on one of the main telecommunications backbones between Canada and the United States, as a result a number of call centres operate in the city, it is designated an Urban Growth Centre by the Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe, intended to achieve a minimum density target of 150 jobs and residents combined per hectare by 2031 or earlier. The city was first settled by Loyalists in the 1780s; the Crown granted them land in compensation for losses in the United States. Early histories credit Serjeant Jacob Dittrick and Private John Hainer of Butler's Rangers, as among the first to come to the area, they took their Crown Patents where Dick's Creek and 12 Mile Creek merge, now the city centre of St. Catharines. Although never documented, some local St. Catharines historians speculate that Dick's Creek was named after Richard Pierpoint, a Black Loyalist and former American slave. Secondary to water routes, native trails provided transportation networks, resulting in the present-day radial road pattern from the City centre.
The surrounding land was surveyed and Townships created between 1787 and 1789. After the Butler's Rangers disbanded in 1784 and settled the area, Duncan Murray as a former Quartermaster in the 84th Regiment of Foot was appointed by the Crown to distribute free Government supplies for 2 years to the resettled Loyalists, he did this from his mill, built on the 12 Mile Creek in Power Glen. After his death in 1786, his holdings were forfeited to merchant Robert Hamilton of Queenston. Hamilton tried to operate for profit the well-established Murray's Distribution Centre and Mill under the management of his cousin. Among other ventures, Hamilton became land wealthy, expropriating lands from subsistence Loyalist settlers who were incapable of settling their debts. Murray's distribution centre Hamilton's warehouse, its location have long been a mystery. Hamilton's major profits were derived from transhipping supplies for the military and civic establishments from his Queenston enterprise, not from charitably supplying the subsistence Loyalist settlers.
Hamilton lacked interest in social development and sold his business to Jesse Thompson before the turn of the 18th century. The small settlement was known as "The Twelve" and as "Murray's District" to military and civic officials, but the local residents in 1796 and earlier referred to it as St. Catharines; this is confirmed in St. Catharines’ first history, written by J. P. Merritt: "to be accurate the name St. Catharines preceded all of these..."The Merritt family arrived after this time, among the Loyalists to relocate following the American Revolution. They were from New York state and New Brunswick. In 1796, Thomas Merritt arrived to build on his relationship with his former Commander and Queen's Ranger, John Graves Simcoe, now the Lieutenant Governor of Upper Canada. At an unknown early date, an inn was built by Thomas Adams on the east side of what is now Ontario Street, it became a community meeting place, election centre, stagecoach stop, mail delivery deposit. This was preceded by the church and a log school house completed before 1797, all on the east bank of the 12 Mile Creek at the extreme west end of what was known at that time as Main Street.
This was an extension of the old Iroquois Trail and was renamed St. Paul Street by the settlers and descendant by the mid-19th century. Several mills, salt works, numerous retail outlets, a ship building yard and various other businesses were developed next; the first Welland Canal was constructed from 1824 to 1833 behind what is now known as St. Paul Street, using Twelve Mile and Dick's Creek. William Hamilton Merritt worked to promote the ambitious venture, both by raising funds and by enlisting government support; the canal established St. Catharines as the hub of industry for the Niagara Peninsula. Incorporated as a village in 1845, St. Catharines had a population of about 3500 in 1846; the primary industry was flour milling. Other industry included ship repairs, four grist mills, a brewery, three distilleries, a tannery, a foundry, a machine and pump factory. There were tradesmen of many types, three bank agencies, eight taverns; the train had not yet arrived but stage coaches offered service to other towns and villages.
There were six churches or chapels, a post office that received mail daily, a grammar school and a weekly newspaper. William Hamilton Merritt played a role in making St. Catharines a centre of abolitionist activity. In 1855, the British Methodist Episcopal Church, Salem Chapel was established at the
Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario
The Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario shortened to Ontario PC Party, PC, or Conservatives, is a centre-right political party in Ontario, Canada. The party has been led by Premier Doug Ford since March 10, 2018, it has governed the province for 80 of the 151 years since Confederation, including an uninterrupted run from 1943 to 1985. It holds a majority government in the 42nd Parliament of Ontario; the first Conservative Party in Upper Canada was made up of United Empire Loyalists and supporters of the wealthy Family Compact that ruled the colony. Once responsible government was granted in response to the 1837 Rebellions, the Tories emerged as moderate reformers who opposed the radical policies of the Reformers and the Clear Grits; the modern Conservative Party originated in the Liberal-Conservative coalition founded by Sir John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier in 1854, it is a variant of this coalition that formed the first government in Ontario with John Sandfield Macdonald as Premier.
Until becoming the Progressive Conservatives in 1942, the party was known as the Liberal-Conservative Association of Ontario, reflecting its Liberal-Conservative origins, but became known as the Conservative Party. John Sandfield Macdonald was a Liberal and sat concurrently as a Liberal Party of Canada MP in the House of Commons of Canada but he was an ally of John A. Macdonald, his government was a true coalition of Liberals and Conservatives under his leadership but soon the more radical Reformers bolted to the opposition and Sandfield Macdonald was left leading what was a Conservative coalition that included some Liberals under the Liberal-Conservative banner. After losing power in 1871, this Conservative coalition began to dissolve. What was a party that included Catholics and Protestants became an exclusively English and Protestant party and more dependent on the Protestant Orange Order for support, for its leadership; the party became opposed to funding for separate schools, opposed to language rights for French-Canadians, distrustful of immigrants.
Paradoxically, an element of the party gained a reputation for being pro-labour as a result of links between the Orange Order and the labour movement. After 33 years in Opposition, the Tories returned to power under James P. Whitney, who led a progressive administration in its development of the province; the Whitney government initiated massive public works projects such as the creation of Ontario Hydro. It enacted reactionary legislation against the French-Canadian population in Ontario; the Tories were in power for all but five years from 1905 to 1934. After the death of Whitney in 1914, they lacked vision and became complacent; the Tories lost power to the United Farmers of Ontario in the 1919 election but were able to regain office in 1923 election due to the UFO's disintegration and divisions in the Ontario Liberal Party. They were defeated by Mitch Hepburn's Liberals in 1934 due to their inability to cope with the Great Depression. Late in the 1930s and early in the 1940s, the Conservatives developed new policies.
Rather than continue to oppose government spending and intervention, a policy which hurt the party politically in the time of the Great Depression, the Conservatives changed their policies to support government action where it would lead to economic growth. The party changed its name to the "Progressive Conservative" party after its federal counterpart changed its name to the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 1942 on the insistence of its new leader, John Bracken, whose roots were in the populist Progressive Party; the Conservatives took advantage of Liberal infighting to win a minority government in the 1943 provincial election, reducing the Liberals to third-party status. Drew called another election in 1945, only two years into his mandate; the Tories played up Cold War tensions to win a landslide majority, though it emerged several years that the Tory government had set up a secret department of the Ontario Provincial Police to spy on the opposition and the media. The party would dominate Ontario politics for the next four decades.
Under Drew and his successor, Leslie Frost, the Party was a strong champion of rural issues but invested in the development of civil works throughout the province, including the construction of the 400 series of highways, beginning with the 401 across Toronto. In 1961, John Robarts became the 17th premier of Ontario, he was one of the most popular premiers in years. Under Robarts' lead, the party epitomized power, he was an advocate of individual freedoms and promoted the rights of the provinces against what he saw as the centralizing initiatives of the federal government, while promoting national unity against Quebec separatism. He hosted the 1967 "Confederation of Tomorrow" conference in Toronto in an unsuccessful attempt to achieve an agreement for a new Constitution of Canada. Robarts opposed Canadian medicare when it was proposed, but endorsed it and the party implemented the public health care system that continues to this day, he led the party towards a civil libertarian movement. As a strong believer in the promotion of both official languages, he opened the door to French education in Ontario schools.
In 1971, Bill Davis became the 18th premier. Anti-Catholicism became an issue again in the 1971 election, when the Tories campaigned strenuously against a Liberal proposal to extend funding for Catholic separate schools until Grade 13. Davis reversed himself in 1985, enacted the funding extension as one of his last acts before l
The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper. Based on 2015 statistics, it is Canada's highest-circulation newspaper on overall weekly circulation; the Toronto Star is owned by Toronto Star Newspapers Limited, a subsidiary of Torstar Corporation and part of Torstar's Daily News Brands division. The Star was created in 1892 by striking Toronto News printers and writers, led by future Mayor of Toronto and social reformer Horatio Clarence Hocken, who became the newspaper's founder, along with another future mayor, Jimmy Simpson; the Star was first printed on Toronto World presses, at its formation, The World owned a 51% interest in it as a silent partner. That arrangement only lasted for two months, during which time it was rumoured that William Findlay "Billy" Maclean, the World's proprietor, was considering selling the Star to the Riordon family. After an extensive fundraising campaign among the Star staff, Maclean agreed to sell his interest to Hocken; the paper did poorly in its first few years.
Hocken sold out within the year, several owners followed in succession until railway entrepreneur Sir William Mackenzie bought it in 1896. Its new editors, Edmund E. Sheppard and Frederic Thomas Nicholls, moved the entire Star operation into the same building used by the magazine Saturday Night; this would continue until Joseph E. "Holy Joe" Atkinson, backed by funds raised by supporters of Sir Wilfrid Laurier, bought the paper. The supporters included William Mulock, Peter Charles Larkin and Timothy Eaton. Atkinson was the Star's editor from 1899 until his death in 1948; the newspaper's early opposition and criticism of the Nazi regime saw it become one of the first North American papers to be banned in Germany. Atkinson had a social conscience, he championed many causes that would come to be associated with the modern welfare state: old age pensions, unemployment insurance, health care. The Government of Canada Digital Collections website describes Atkinson asa "radical" in the best sense of that term....
The Star was unique among North American newspapers in its consistent, ongoing advocacy of the interests of ordinary people. The friendship of Atkinson, the publisher, with Mackenzie King, the prime minister, was a major influence on the development of Canadian social policy. Atkinson became the controlling shareholder of the Star; the Star was criticized for practising the yellow journalism of its era. For decades, the paper included heavy doses of crime and sensationalism, along with advocating social change. From 1910 to 1973, the Star published the Star Weekly. Shortly before his death in 1948, Joseph E. Atkinson transferred ownership of the paper to a charitable organization given the mandate of continuing the paper's liberal tradition. In 1949, the Province of Ontario passed the Charitable Gifts Act, barring charitable organizations from owning large parts of profit-making businesses, that required the Star to be sold. Atkinson's will had directed that profits from the paper's operations were "for the promotion and maintenance of social and economic reforms which are charitable in nature, for the benefit of the people of the province of Ontario" and it stipulated that the paper could be sold only to people who shared his social views.
The five trustees of the charitable organization circumvented the Act by buying the paper themselves and swearing before the Supreme Court of Ontario to continue what became known as the "Atkinson Principles": A strong and independent Canada Social justice Individual and civil liberties Community and civic engagement The rights of working people The necessary role of governmentDescendants of the original owners, known as "the five families", still control the voting shares of Torstar, the Atkinson Principles continue to guide the paper to this day. In February 2006, Star media columnist Antonia Zerbisias wrote on her blog: Besides, we are the Star which means we all have the Atkinson Principles—and its multi-culti values—tattooed on our butts. Fine with me. At least we are upfront about our values, they always work in favour of building a better Canada. From 1922 to 1933, the Star was a radio broadcaster on its station CFCA, broadcasting on a wavelength of 400 metres, whose coverage was complementary to the paper's reporting.
The station was closed following the establishment of the Canadian Radio Broadcasting Commission and the introduction of a government policy that, in essence, restricted private stations to an effective radiated power of 100 watts. The Star would continue to supply sponsored content to the CRBC's CRCT station, an arrangement that lasted until 1946. In 1971, the newspaper was renamed The Toronto Star and moved to a modern office tower at One Yonge Street by Queens Quay; the original Star Building at 80 King Street West was demolished to make room for First Canadian Place. The new building housed the paper's presses. In 1992, the printing plant was moved to the Toronto Star Press Centre at the Highway 407 & 400 interchange in Vaughan. In September 2002, the logo was changed, "The" was dropped from the papers. During the 2003 Northeast blackout, the Star printed the paper at a press in Ontario; until the mid-2000s, the front page of the Toronto Star had no advertising aside from lottery jackpot estimates from the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation.
On May 28, 2007, the Star unveiled a redesigned paper that features larger type, narrower pages and shorter articles, renamed
The Globe and Mail
The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada. With a weekly readership of 2,018,923 in 2015, it is Canada's most read newspaper on weekdays and Saturdays, although it falls behind the Toronto Star in overall weekly circulation because the Star publishes a Sunday edition while the Globe does not; the Globe and Mail is regarded by some as Canada's "newspaper of record". The newspaper is owned based in Toronto; the predecessor to The Globe and Mail was called The Globe. Brown's liberal politics led him to court the support of the Clear Grits, precursor to the modern Liberal Party of Canada; the Globe began in Toronto as a weekly party organ for Brown's Reform Party, but seeing the economic gains that he could make in the newspaper business, Brown soon targeted a wide audience of liberal minded freeholders. He selected as the motto for the editorial page a quotation from Junius, "The subject, loyal to the Chief Magistrate will neither advise nor submit to arbitrary measures."
The quotation is carried on the editorial page to this day. By the 1850s, The Globe had become an well-regarded daily newspaper, it began distribution by railway to other cities in Ontario shortly after Confederation. At the dawn of the twentieth century, The Globe added photography, a women's section, the slogan "Canada's National Newspaper", which remains on its front-page banner, it began opening bureaus and offering subscriptions across Canada. On 23 November 1936, The Globe merged with The Mail and Empire, itself formed through the 1895 merger of two conservative newspapers, The Toronto Mail and Toronto Empire. Press reports at the time stated, "the minnow swallowed the whale" because The Globe's circulation was smaller than The Mail and Empire's; the merger was arranged by George McCullagh, who fronted for mining magnate William Henry Wright and became the first publisher of The Globe and Mail. McCullagh committed suicide in 1952, the newspaper was sold to the Webster family of Montreal.
As the paper lost ground to The Toronto Star in the local Toronto market, it began to expand its national circulation. The newspaper was unionised under the banner of the American Newspaper Guild. From 1937 until 1974, the newspaper was produced at the William H. Wright Building, located at 140 King Street West on the northeast corner of King Street and York Street, close to the homes of the Toronto Daily Star at Old Toronto Star Building at 80 King West and the Old Toronto Telegram Building at Bay and Melinda; the building at 130 King Street West was demolished in 1974 to make way for First Canadian Place, the newspaper moved to 444 Front Street West, the headquarters of the Toronto Telegram newspaper, built in 1963. In 1965, the paper was bought by Winnipeg-based FP Publications, controlled by Bryan Maheswary, which owned a chain of local Canadian newspapers. FP put a strong emphasis on the Report on Business section, launched in 1962, thereby building the paper's reputation as the voice of Toronto's business community.
FP Publications and The Globe and Mail were sold in 1980 to The Thomson Corporation, a company run by the family of Kenneth Thomson. After the acquisition there were few changes made in news policy. However, there was more attention paid to national and international news on the editorial, op-ed, front pages in contrast to its previous policy of stressing Toronto and Ontario material; the Globe and Mail has always been a morning newspaper. Since the 1980s, it has been printed in separate editions in six Canadian cities: Montreal, Winnipeg and Vancouver. Southern Ontario Newspaper Guild employees took their first strike vote at The Globe in 1982 marking a new era in relations with the company; those negotiations ended without a strike, the Globe unit of SONG still has a strike-free record. SONG members voted in 1994 to sever ties with the American-focused Newspaper Guild. Shortly afterwards, SONG affiliated with the Communications and Paperworkers Union of Canada. Under the editorship of William Thorsell in the 1980s and 1990s, the paper endorsed the free trade policies of Progressive Conservative Prime Minister Brian Mulroney.
The paper became an outspoken proponent of the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord, with their editorial the day of the 1995 Quebec Referendum quoting a Mulroney speech in favour of the Accord. During this period, the paper continued to favour such liberal policies as decriminalizing drugs and expanding gay rights. In 1995, the paper launched globeandmail.com. Since the launch of the National Post as another English-language national paper in 1998, some industry analysts had proclaimed a "national newspaper war" between The Globe and Mail and the National Post; as a response to this threat, in 2001, The Globe and Mail was combined with broadcast assets held by Bell Canada to form the joint venture Bell Globemedia. In 2004, access to some features of globeandmail.com became restricted to paid subscribers only. The subscription service was reduced a few years to include an electronic edition of the newspaper, access to its archives, membership to a premium investment site