1987 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1987 was held on September 10, 1987, to elect members of the 34th Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario, Canada. The governing Ontario Liberal Party, led by Premier David Peterson, was returned to power with their first majority government in half a century, the second-largest majority government in the province's history. Peterson had managed to govern with a minority in the Legislature by obtaining the co-operation of the Ontario New Democratic Party, led by Bob Rae, in a confidence and supply agreement, it was through the NDP's support that Peterson was able to form a government though the Progressive Conservative Party had won a larger number of seats in the previous election. The PC Party, led by Larry Grossman, campaigned on a platform of tax cuts to stimulate the economy, its support continued to slide, however, as voters opted for the change that the Liberal-NDP arrangement provided, with Grossman losing his own seat. The NDP was unable to convince voters that it should be given credit for the success of the Liberal government that it had supported.
Despite losing six seats, the party became the Official Opposition for the second time in the party's history. The PCs fell to 16 seats and third place in the legislature, their worst showing in an election in half a century. Marion Bryden 19948 Patricia Herdman 8519 John Beveridge 3022 Steve Thistle 533 Bob Callahan 17913 Frank Russell 6772 Paul Ledgister 5786 Don Best 2946 Jim Bridgewood 268 Garnet Brace 225 Malcolm Cook 158 Cam Jackson 12968 Bill Priestner 12363 Judy Worsley 4694 Don Pennell 1125 Dan Riga 228 Mike Farnan 11284 Claudette Millar 11183 Bill Barlow 8752 Anneliese Steden 1500 Gilles Morin 20706 Joan Gullen 6105 Roland Saumure 4572 Andre Lafrance 926 Maurice Bossy 13370 Brian Rice 7623 Ron Anderson 6669 Marcy Edwards 806 Don Carnegie 341 Murad Velshi 11083 David Lindsay 8666 Margery Ward 6424 David Smith 586 David Pengelly 475 Tony Lupusella 10634 Ross McClellan 9727 Norm Panziza, Jr. 926 D'Arcy Cain 342 Allan Furlong 12885 Sarah Kelly 9881 Stephanie Ball 8790 Harold Tauscah 378 Norah Stoner 16733 George Ashe 10890 Jim Wiseman 5779 Bert Vermeer 898 Bill Ballinger 12369 Ross Stevenson 11887 Donna Kelly 5549 Ken Canning 1070 Dianne Poole 15106 David McFadden 14411 Michael Lee 3789 Richard Lubbock 324 John Stifel 137 Marietta Roberts 13310 Ron McNeil 10873 Gord Campbell 7674 Ray Monteith 546 Jim McGuigan 12591 Pat Hayes 11478 John Ashton 2758 Tim McGuire 1229 Jim Henderson 21644 Avie Flaherty 8062 Peter Sutherland 4511 George Hartwell 1237 Ruth Grier 14821 Frank Sgarlata 12454 Al Kolyn 4760 Michael Doyle 1203 Linda LeBourdais 15757 Doug Holyday 9664 Phil Jones 5784 Judy Johnson 1890 Robert Dunk 498 Lyn McLeod 11168 Mickey Hennessy 9705 Don Smith 7861 John Maclennan 300 Bob Wong 9593 Joe Pantalone 9456 Tom Pang 2084 Paul “No Government” Barker 427 Andrew Scorer 243 Glen Magder 186 Bill Whelan 181 Ronald Rodgers 154 Larry South 11628 Bob Lucas 7407 Lars Thompson 4996 Ross Baker 667 Ron Lipsett 14298 Bill Murdoch 12364 Cathy Hird 5924 Tom Clark 1946 Rick Ferraro 18445 Derek Fletcher 9119 Bob Pierce 5383 Craig Sanderson 562 Walt Elliot 11644 Dave Whiting 6920 Fern Wolf 5796 Lily Oddie Munro 13636 Brian Hinkley 10333 Gerald Fruewith 2600 Bob Mackenzie 16421 David Bach 9890 Tommy Tarpos 1915 Bob Jaggard 673 Brian Charlton 14743 Jane Milanetti 13111 John Smith 6580 Richard Allen 13430 Mary Kiss 12336 Don Ross 5862 Jim Pollock 9910 Carman Metcalfe 8705 Elmer Buchanan 6579 David Fleet 9637 Yuri Shymko 8823 Elaine Ziemba 8764 Bob Cumming 660 Jack Riddell 16099 Nico Peters 6725 Paul Klopp 3841 Frank Miclash 7943 Doug Miranda 6845 Mark Duggan 4824 Ken Keyes 13141 Gary Wilson 6402 Tom Annis 5910 Steven Kaasgaard 511 David Cooke 15373 Sue Coulter 8379 Barbara Fraser 4226 John Meenan 1100 Ed Halbach 290 John Sweeney 18151 Mike Cooper 7503 Dorothy Angel 5218 Gilles Pouliot 8446 Herman Mannila 3606 Vic Fournel 1129 David Smith 11385 Bill Steadman 8826 Grant Reynolds 2914 Peter Westfall 2399 Douglas Wiseman 13902 Bob Pugh 13141 Don Page 5486 Joseph Cordiano 15332 Evelyn Nurialdo 8201 David Perry 5379 Bob Runciman 14787 Jim Jordan 14589 Geri Sheedy 4869 Harry Pelissero 12320 Philip Andrewes 11284 Ron Hansen 6207 David Peterson 18194 Marion Boyd 9266 Dennis McKaig 3864 Brenda Rowe 695 Lloyd Walker 589 Stunning Bentley 375 Ron Van Horne 22452 Diane Whiteside 7961 Lucky Clark 7177 Elvin Mizzau 611 Barry Malcolm 537 Joan Smith 20046 Vaughan Minor 7723 David Winninger 7074 Paul Picard 861 Robert Metz 430 Don Cousens 19224 Gail Newall 18543 Anne Swarbrick 4323 Rina Puleo 1403 Doug Reycraft 17600 Renie Long 7689 Michael Wyatt 5720 Bill Giesen 2664 Marc Emery 499 John Sola 16245 Bud Gregory 10372 Sal Manni 4864 Bill Frampton 761 Steve Offer 14604 John Moszynski 6153 Gabe Spolet
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Robert Keith Rae, is a Canadian lawyer, public speaker, former politician. He was the member of Parliament for Toronto Centre and was the interim leader of the Liberal Party of Canada from 2011 to 2013, he was leader of the Ontario New Democratic Party and the 21st Premier of Ontario, from 1990 until 1995. Between 1978 and 2013, he was elected 11 times to provincial parliaments. Rae was a New Democratic Party member of Parliament from 1978 to 1982, he moved to provincial politics, serving as leader of the Ontario NDP from February 7, 1982, to June 22, 1996. After leading his party to victory in the 1990 provincial election he served as the 21st Premier of Ontario from October 1, 1990, to June 26, 1995, was the first person to have led a provincial NDP government in the province of Ontario. While in office, he brought forward a number of initiatives that were unpopular with many traditional NDP supporters, such as the Social Contract. Rae's subsequent disagreement with the leftward direction of the NDP led him to resign his membership.
In 2006, he joined the Liberals. In 2006, he was a candidate for the leadership of the Liberals, finishing in third place on the third ballot, he had been a Liberal before joining the NDP in the 1970s. Rae returned to the House of Commons of Canada on March 31, 2008, as a Liberal MP after winning a March 17, 2008 by-election, holding the riding, held by Liberal Bill Graham, he was re-elected in the 2008 general election. Rae ran again as a candidate for the party leadership but withdrew on December 12, 2008, he was re-elected in the Toronto Centre riding in the 2011 general election and was named interim leader of the Liberal Party weeks replacing Michael Ignatieff. On June 19, 2013, Rae announced that he would resign from parliament in order to become chief negotiator for James Bay area First Nations in their negotiations with the provincial government, his resignation from parliament became effective July 31, 2013. Rae joined Olthuis Kleer Townshend LLP as a partner in February 2014. Rae sits as an advisor to Canada's Ecofiscal Commission.
He was appointed Canada's special envoy to Myanmar in October 2017 and advised Prime Minister Justin Trudeau on the Rohingya crisis. He is a Senior Fellow to the Raoul Wallenberg Centre for Human Rights. Rae was born in Ontario, his parents were Lois Esther and Saul Rae, an eminent Canadian career diplomat who had postings in Washington, New York and The Hague. Rae's paternal grandparents immigrated from Scotland, his mother had English ancestry. Rae was raised as an Anglican; as an adult, he found out that his paternal grandfather was Jewish, was from a family of Lithuanian immigrants to Scotland. Rae's elder brother John A. Rae was an Executive Vice-President and Director of Power Corporation and a prominent member of the Liberal Party, he was an adviser to Jean Chrétien when he was Indian Affairs Minister in 1968, again from 1993 until 2003 while Chrétien was Prime Minister. Rae's younger brother, was diagnosed with lymphatic cancer in 1987. Despite a bone marrow transplant from his brother, he died of leukemia in 1989 at age 32.
Rae's sister, worked for many years for the IMAX Corporation but has now retired. Rae learned of his family's Jewish origins in 1968; the revelation had a strong impact on him: he sought to explore his Jewish culture, dated Jewish girls and married a Jewish woman. Upon his marriage to Arlene Perly Rae, Rae agreed to raise his children in his wife's Jewish faith. Rae is a member of a Reform Jewish congregation in Toronto, his uncle, the late Jackie Rae was an entertainer and former host of The Jackie Rae Show on CBC and performed on British television. Rae attended Crichton Street Public School in Ottawa, Horace Mann Public School and Gordon Junior High School in Washington, D. C. and the International School of Geneva, Switzerland. His first job was a paper route delivering the Evening Star newspaper, which he described as "one of the worst newspapers in the history of modern journalism", his customers included Estes Kefauver. Rae joked that Kefauver gave him a $20 tip one Christmas, whereas Pat Nixon only gave him a quarter and made him more sympathetic to Democrats from that moment.
He graduated with honours from University College, University of Toronto, where he later received his law degree. Michael Ignatieff, who became Rae's rival for the Liberal Party leadership, was his roommate for a time, he first became involved in politics by volunteering on Trudeau's 1968 Liberal leadership campaign, worked on Liberal Charles Caccia's campaign in the 1968 federal election. Rae and Caccia have remained personal friends through their political careers. During his final year as an undergraduate, Rae was a student representative on the Bissell Commission on University Government; as a result of his strong student record, Rae was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship to the University of Oxford, where he studied at Balliol College, Oxford under Isaiah Berlin. His Bachelor of Philosophy thesis criticized the cultural imperialism of early Fabian socialists in the United Kingdom, such as Sidney and Beatrice Webb. During his period in Britain he became involved with social work, helping squatters find rental accommodation in London.
He attributes the experience with helping him develop a deepened commitment to social justice and, on his return to Canada in 1974 Rae joined the socia
Martin Brian Mulroney is a Canadian politician who served as the 18th prime minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993. His tenure as prime minister was marked by the introduction of major economic reforms, such as the Canada-U. S. Free Trade Agreement and the Goods and Services Tax, the rejection of constitutional reforms such as the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord. Prior to his political career, he was a prominent businessman in Montreal. Mulroney was born on March 20, 1939, in Baie-Comeau, Quebec, a remote and isolated town in the eastern part of the province, he is the son of Irish Canadian Catholic parents, Mary Irene and Benedict Martin Mulroney, a paper mill electrician. As there was no English-language Catholic high school in Baie-Comeau, Mulroney completed his high school education at a Roman Catholic boarding school in Chatham, New Brunswick, operated by St. Thomas University. Benedict Mulroney worked overtime and ran a repair business to earn extra money for his children's education, he encouraged his oldest son to attend university.
Mulroney would tell stories about newspaper publisher Robert R. McCormick, whose company had founded Baie-Comeau. Mulroney would sing Irish songs for McCormick, the publisher would slip him $50, he grew up speaking French fluently. On May 26, 1973, he married Mila Pivnički, the daughter of a Serbian doctor, Dimitrije Mita Pivnički, from Sarajevo; the Mulroneys have four children: Caroline, Benedict and Nicolas. His only daughter Caroline unsuccessfully ran for the 2018 Ontario PC leadership race and represents the party in York-Simcoe. Caroline is the Attorney General of Ontario. Ben is the host of CTV morning show Your Morning, while Mark and Nicolas both work in financial industry in Toronto. Mulroney is the grandfather of Lewis H. Lapham III, twins Pierce Lapham and Elizabeth Theodora Lapham, Miranda Brooke Lapham from daughter, Caroline; the twins served as page boys and train bearers at the wedding of Meghan Markle with Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex on 19 May 2018, which their parents attended, their sister was one of the bridesmaids.
Mulroney entered St. Francis Xavier University in the fall of 1955 as a 16-year-old freshman, his political life began when he was recruited to the campus Progressive Conservative group by Lowell Murray and others, early in his first year. Murray would become a close friend and adviser, appointed to the Senate of Canada in 1979. Other important, lasting friendships made there by Mulroney included Gerald Doucet, Fred Doucet, Sam Wakim, Patrick MacAdam. Mulroney enthusiastically embraced political organization, assisted the local PC candidate in his successful 1956 Nova Scotia provincial election campaign. Mulroney attended the 1956 leadership convention in Ottawa. While undecided, Mulroney was captivated by John Diefenbaker's powerful oratory and easy approachability. Mulroney joined the "Youth for Diefenbaker" committee, led by Ted Rogers, a future scion of Canadian business. Mulroney received telephone calls from him. Mulroney won several public speaking contests at St. Francis Xavier University, was a star member of the school's debating team, never lost an interuniversity debate.
He was very active in campus politics, serving with distinction in several Model Parliaments, was campus prime minister in a Maritimes-wide Model Parliament in 1958. Mulroney assisted with the 1958 national election campaign at the local level in Nova Scotia. After graduating from St. Francis Xavier with a degree in political science in 1959, Mulroney at first pursued a law degree from Dalhousie Law School in Halifax, it was around this time that Mulroney cultivated friendships with the Tory premier of Nova Scotia, Robert Stanfield, his chief adviser Dalton Camp. In his role as an'advance man', Mulroney assisted with Stanfield's successful 1960 re-election campaign. Mulroney neglected his studies fell ill during the winter term, was hospitalized, despite getting extensions for several courses because of his illness, left his program at Dalhousie after the first year, he applied to Université Laval in Quebec City, restarted first-year law there the next year. In Quebec City, Mulroney befriended future Quebec Premier Daniel Johnson, Sr, frequented the provincial legislature, making connections with politicians and journalists.
At Laval, Mulroney built a network of friends, including Lucien Bouchard, Bernard Roy, Michel Cogger, Michael Meighen, Jean Bazin, that would play a prominent role in Canadian politics for years to come. During this time, Mulroney was still involved in the Conservative youth wing and was acquainted with the President of the Student Federation, Joe Clark. Mulroney secured a plum temporary appointment in Ottawa during the summer of 1962, as the executive assistant to Alvin Hamilton, minister of agriculture. A federal election was called, Prime Minister Diefenbaker appointed Hamilton as the acting prime minister for the rest of the campaign. Hamilton took Mulroney with him on the campaign trail, where the young organizer gained valuable experience. After graduating from Laval in 1964, Mulroney joined the Montreal law firm now known as Norton Rose Fulbright, which at the
Japanese Canadians are Canadian citizens of Japanese ancestry. Japanese Canadians are concentrated in Western Canada in the province of British Columbia, which hosts the largest Japanese community in the country with the majority of them living in and around Vancouver. In 2016, there were 121,485 Japanese Canadians throughout Canada; the term Nikkei was coined by sociologists and encompasses all of the world's Japanese immigrants across generations. Japanese descendents living overseas have special names for each of their generations; these are formed by combining one of the Japanese numerals with the Japanese word for generation:ada: Issei – The first generation of immigrants, born in Japan before moving to Canada. Nisei – The second generation, born in Canada to Issei parents not born in Canada. Sansei – The third generation, born in Canada to Nisei parents born in Canada. Yonsei – The fourth generation, born in Canada to Sansei parents born in Canada. Gosei – The fifth generation, born in Canada to Yonsei parents born in Canada.
The first Japanese settler in Canada was Manzo Nagano, who lived in Victoria, British Columbia in 1877. The first generation, or Issei came to Vancouver Island, the Fraser Valley and Rivers Inlet from fishing villages on the islands of Kyūshū and Honshū between 1877 and 1928. Since 1967, the second wave of immigrants were highly educated and resided in urban areas; until 1948, Japanese-Canadians—both Issei and Canadian-born Nisei—were denied the right to vote. Those born in the 1950s and 1960s in Canada are Sansei, third generation. Sansei have little knowledge of the Japanese language. Over 75% of the Sansei have married non-Japanese. Nisei and Sansei do not identify themselves as Japanese, but as Canadians first, who happen to be of Japanese ancestry; the younger generation of Japanese-Canadians born in the late 20th century are Yonsei, fourth generation. Many Yonsei are of mixed racial descent. According to Statistics Canada's 2001 census of population information, Japanese-Canadians were the Canadian visible minority group most to marry or live common-law with a non-Japanese partner.
Out of the 25,100 couples in Canada in 2001 which had one Japanese person, only 30% had two partners of Japanese descent and 70% included one non-Japanese partner. As of 2001, 65% of Canada's Japanese population was born in Canada. In 1942, the federal government used the War Measures Act to brand Japanese Canadians enemy aliens and categorized them as security threats. There were 20,881 Japanese placed in internment camps and road camps in British Columbia. Three-quarters of them were Canadian. A parallel situation occurred in the United States; the property and homes of Japanese Canadians living in the province of British Columbia were seized and sold off without consent in 1943. The funds were used to pay for their internment, they had to "pay rent" for living in the internment shacks they were assigned. In 1945, after the war, as part of the continued effort to remove all Japanese Canadians from British Columbia, Prime Minister MacKenzie King's cabinet used Orders-in-Council to extend the powers of the War Measures Act and Japanese Canadians give two "options": to either be relocated to another province, i.e.
"East of the Rockies", or to go "back" to Japan. After organized protests by against their treatment, they were given the right to vote in 1949. Mobility restrictions were lifted in 1949. In the late 1970s and 1980s, documents on the Japanese Canadian internment were released, redress was sought by the National Association of Japanese Canadians, an organization representing Japanese Canadians nationally, headed by Art Miki from Winnipeg. In 1986, it was shown. There were 63 % of Canadians who supported 45 % who favoured individual compensation. On September 22, 1988, the National Association of Japanese Canadians succeeded in negotiating a redress settlement with the government at the time, under the leadership of Prime Minister Brian Mulroney; the settlement included $21,000 for each individual directly affected, that was, by 1993 18,000 survivors. The federal government provided a community endowment fund to assist in rebuilding the community, run by the National Association of Japanese Canadians.
In addition, to address the more systemic racism that led to the plan and justifications of the effort to remove "all people of Japanese racial origin" from Canadian territory, the redress settlement included the establishment of the Race Relations Foundation and challenges to the War Measures Act. The Prime Minister offered a formal apology in the House of Commons and the certificate of acknowledgement of injustices of the past, sent to each Japanese Canadian whose rights had been stripped, incarcerated and forcibly displaced. Hoshū jugyō kō for instruction of the Japanese language include those in Calgary, Halifax, Montreal, Saskatoon and Vancouver. With teachers from Japan: Toronto Japanese School Vancouver Japanese School - Established on April 7, 1973. Without teachers from Japan: Alberta Calgary Hoshuko Japanese School Association (カルガリー補習授業校 Karugarī Hos
Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario
The Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario shortened to Ontario PC Party, PC, or Conservatives, is a centre-right political party in Ontario, Canada. The party has been led by Premier Doug Ford since March 10, 2018, it has governed the province for 80 of the 151 years since Confederation, including an uninterrupted run from 1943 to 1985. It holds a majority government in the 42nd Parliament of Ontario; the first Conservative Party in Upper Canada was made up of United Empire Loyalists and supporters of the wealthy Family Compact that ruled the colony. Once responsible government was granted in response to the 1837 Rebellions, the Tories emerged as moderate reformers who opposed the radical policies of the Reformers and the Clear Grits; the modern Conservative Party originated in the Liberal-Conservative coalition founded by Sir John A. Macdonald and George-Étienne Cartier in 1854, it is a variant of this coalition that formed the first government in Ontario with John Sandfield Macdonald as Premier.
Until becoming the Progressive Conservatives in 1942, the party was known as the Liberal-Conservative Association of Ontario, reflecting its Liberal-Conservative origins, but became known as the Conservative Party. John Sandfield Macdonald was a Liberal and sat concurrently as a Liberal Party of Canada MP in the House of Commons of Canada but he was an ally of John A. Macdonald, his government was a true coalition of Liberals and Conservatives under his leadership but soon the more radical Reformers bolted to the opposition and Sandfield Macdonald was left leading what was a Conservative coalition that included some Liberals under the Liberal-Conservative banner. After losing power in 1871, this Conservative coalition began to dissolve. What was a party that included Catholics and Protestants became an exclusively English and Protestant party and more dependent on the Protestant Orange Order for support, for its leadership; the party became opposed to funding for separate schools, opposed to language rights for French-Canadians, distrustful of immigrants.
Paradoxically, an element of the party gained a reputation for being pro-labour as a result of links between the Orange Order and the labour movement. After 33 years in Opposition, the Tories returned to power under James P. Whitney, who led a progressive administration in its development of the province; the Whitney government initiated massive public works projects such as the creation of Ontario Hydro. It enacted reactionary legislation against the French-Canadian population in Ontario; the Tories were in power for all but five years from 1905 to 1934. After the death of Whitney in 1914, they lacked vision and became complacent; the Tories lost power to the United Farmers of Ontario in the 1919 election but were able to regain office in 1923 election due to the UFO's disintegration and divisions in the Ontario Liberal Party. They were defeated by Mitch Hepburn's Liberals in 1934 due to their inability to cope with the Great Depression. Late in the 1930s and early in the 1940s, the Conservatives developed new policies.
Rather than continue to oppose government spending and intervention, a policy which hurt the party politically in the time of the Great Depression, the Conservatives changed their policies to support government action where it would lead to economic growth. The party changed its name to the "Progressive Conservative" party after its federal counterpart changed its name to the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 1942 on the insistence of its new leader, John Bracken, whose roots were in the populist Progressive Party; the Conservatives took advantage of Liberal infighting to win a minority government in the 1943 provincial election, reducing the Liberals to third-party status. Drew called another election in 1945, only two years into his mandate; the Tories played up Cold War tensions to win a landslide majority, though it emerged several years that the Tory government had set up a secret department of the Ontario Provincial Police to spy on the opposition and the media. The party would dominate Ontario politics for the next four decades.
Under Drew and his successor, Leslie Frost, the Party was a strong champion of rural issues but invested in the development of civil works throughout the province, including the construction of the 400 series of highways, beginning with the 401 across Toronto. In 1961, John Robarts became the 17th premier of Ontario, he was one of the most popular premiers in years. Under Robarts' lead, the party epitomized power, he was an advocate of individual freedoms and promoted the rights of the provinces against what he saw as the centralizing initiatives of the federal government, while promoting national unity against Quebec separatism. He hosted the 1967 "Confederation of Tomorrow" conference in Toronto in an unsuccessful attempt to achieve an agreement for a new Constitution of Canada. Robarts opposed Canadian medicare when it was proposed, but endorsed it and the party implemented the public health care system that continues to this day, he led the party towards a civil libertarian movement. As a strong believer in the promotion of both official languages, he opened the door to French education in Ontario schools.
In 1971, Bill Davis became the 18th premier. Anti-Catholicism became an issue again in the 1971 election, when the Tories campaigned strenuously against a Liberal proposal to extend funding for Catholic separate schools until Grade 13. Davis reversed himself in 1985, enacted the funding extension as one of his last acts before l
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa