2006 Canadian federal election
The 2006 Canadian federal election was held on January 23, 2006, to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 39th Parliament of Canada. The Conservative Party of Canada won the greatest number of seats: 40.3% of seats, or 124 out of 308, up from 99 seats in 2004, 36.3% of votes: up from 29.6% in the 2004 election. The election resulted in a minority government led by the Conservative Party with Stephen Harper becoming the 22nd Prime Minister of Canada. By proportion of seats, this was Canada's smallest minority government since Confederation. Despite this it was the longest-serving minority government overall. Voter turnout was 64.7%. An investigation by Elections Canada into improper election spending by the Conservative Party became known as the In and Out scandal. Charges were dropped in a plea deal; this unusual winter general election was caused by a motion of no confidence passed by the House of Commons on November 28, 2005, with Canada's three opposition parties contending that the Liberal government of Prime Minister Paul Martin was corrupt.
The following morning Martin met with Governor General Michaëlle Jean, who dissolved parliament, summoned the next parliament, ordered the issuance of writs of election. The last February 13 as the date for return of the writs; the campaign was eight weeks in length, the longest in two decades, in order to allow time for the Christmas and New Year holidays. Recent political events, most notably testimony to the Gomery Commission investigating the sponsorship scandal weakened the Liberals by allegations of criminal corruption in the party; the first Gomery report, released November 1, 2005, had found a "culture of entitlement" to exist within the Government. Although the next election was not required until 2009, the opposition had enough votes to force the dissolution of Parliament earlier. While Prime Minister Martin had committed in April 2005 to dissolve Parliament within a month of the tabling of the second Gomery Report, all three opposition parties—the Conservatives, Bloc Québécois, New Democratic Party —and three of the four independents decided that the issue at hand was how to correct the Liberal corruption, the motion of non-confidence passed 171–133.
The election was held on January 23, 2006. The first polls closed at 7:00 p.m. ET. Harper was reelected in Calgary Southwest, which he has held since 2002, ensuring that he had a seat in the new parliament. Shortly after midnight that night, incumbent Prime Minister Paul Martin conceded defeat, announced that he would resign as leader of the Liberal Party, he continued to sit as a Member of Parliament representing LaSalle—Émard, the Montreal-area riding he had held since 1988, until his retirement in 2008. At 9:30 a.m. on January 24, Martin informed Governor General Michaëlle Jean that he would not form a government and intended to resign as Prime Minister. It was announced a month that there would be a Liberal leadership convention in the year, during which Stéphane Dion won the leadership of the Liberal Party; that day, at 6:45 p.m. Jean invited Harper to form a government. Martin formally resigned and Harper was formally appointed and sworn in as Prime Minister on February 6; the elections resulted in a Conservative minority government with 124 seats in parliament with a Liberal opposition and a strengthened NDP.
In his speech following the loss, Martin stated he would not lead the Liberal Party of Canada in another election. Preliminary results indicated that 64.9% of registered voters cast a ballot, a notable increase over 2004's 60.9%. The NDP won new seats in British Columbia and Ontario as their overall popular vote increased 2% from 2004; the Bloc managed to win as many seats as in 2004 despite losing a significant percentage of the vote. Most of the Conservatives' gains were in rural Ontario and Quebec as they took a net loss in the west, but won back the only remaining Liberal seat in Alberta; the popular vote of the Conservatives and Liberals were the mirror image of 2004, though the Conservatives were not able to translate this into as many seats as the Liberals did in 2004. A judicial recount was automatically scheduled in the Parry Sound—Muskoka riding, where early results showed Conservative Tony Clement only 21 votes ahead of Liberal Andy Mitchell, because the difference of votes cast between the two leading candidates was less than 0.1%.
Clement was confirmed as the winner by 28 votes. Conservative candidate Jeremy Harrison, narrowly defeated by Liberal Gary Merasty in the Saskatchewan riding of Desnethé—Missinippi—Churchill River by 72 votes, alleged electoral fraud but decided not to pursue the matter. A judicial recount was ordered in the riding, which certified Gary Merasty the winner by a reduced margin of 68 votes. ^ David Emerson, elected on January 23 as a Liberal in the British Columbia riding of Vancouver Kingsway, changed parties on February 6 to join the Conservatives before the new Parliament had taken office. He is reflected here as a Liberal. ^ André Arthur was elected as an independent candidate in the Quebec riding of Portneuf—Jacques-Cartier. Parry Sound—Muskoka, ON: Tony Clement def. Andy Mitchell by 28 votes Desnethé SK: Gary Merasty def. Jeremy Harrison by 73 votes MB: Rod Bruinooge def. Reg Alcock by 111 votes Glengarry—Prescott—Russell, ON: Pierre Lemieux def. René Berthiaume b
Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903; the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors, it has joint-ventures in China, Thailand and Russia. The company is controlled by the Ford family. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
Ford is the second-largest U. S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe; the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability. Ford was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. Henry Ford's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name; the Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge.
The first president was not Ford, but local banker John S. Gray, chosen to assuage investors' fears that Ford would leave the new company the way he had left its predecessor. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept, Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era. Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz.
More efficient production methods were needed to make automobiles affordable for the middle class, to which Ford contributed by, for instance, introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913 at the Ford factory in Highland Park. Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year. In 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors' mid-priced Pontiac and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion car to Ford. Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. In 1929, Ford was contracted by the government of the Soviet Union to set up the Gorky Automobile Plant in Russia producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby playing an important role in the industrialisation of that country.
The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research, led to Ford's unlikely involvement in superconductivity research. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference device or SQUID. Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and, in the same year, offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxury car division; this division was responsible for the manufacture and sale of the famous Continental Mark II. At the same time, the Edsel division was created to design and market that car starting with the 1958 model year. Due to limited sales of the Continental and the Edsel disaster, Ford merged Lincoln and Edsel into "M
Trinity—Spadina was a federal electoral district in Ontario, represented in the House of Commons of Canada from 1988 to 2015. It encompassed the western portion of Downtown Toronto, its federal Member of Parliament was Olivia Chow of the New Democratic Party. She defeated Tony Ianno of the Liberal Party of Canada in the January 2006 election. On March 12, 2014, Chow resigned from her seat in order to run for the 2014 Toronto mayoral election, the seat was won by Adam Vaughan, in a by-election; the riding has long been a battle ground between the NDP and the Liberals, with the Liberals winning both federally and provincially. Major landmarks within the riding included the western portion of the University of Toronto, the CN Tower, Rogers Centre, Air Canada Centre, the Canadian Broadcasting Centre, 299 Queen Street West, the Toronto Eaton Centre, the Metro Toronto Convention Centre, Toronto City Hall, Kensington Market, Christie Pits, Trinity Bellwoods Park, the southern portion of Bay Street and Palmerston Boulevard.
The riding contained Toronto's Chinatown, Little Italy, Little Portugal. The northern section of the riding was the Annex district, while the eastern edge contained part of the University of Toronto and thousands of students. According to the Canada 2011 Census Average household income: $86,895 Median household income: $60,659 Median income: $34,761 Unemployment: 7.3% Language, mother tongue: English 61.2%, Chinese 13.0%, Portuguese 4.4%, French 2.8%, Spanish 2.1%, Italian 1.8%, Korean 1.4%, Arabic 1.4% Religion: Christian 42.9%, Muslim 4.2%, Jewish 4.1%, Buddhist 3.4%, Hindu 1.8%, No religion 42.5%. Ethnic groups: White 61.8%, Chinese 16.0%, South Asian 5.1%, Black 3.6%, Korean 1.8%, Filipino 1.8%, Latin American 1.7%, Southeast Asian 1.7%, Arab 1.6%, West Asian 1.1% It consists of the Toronto Islands and the part of the City of Toronto bounded on the south by Toronto Harbour, on the west and east by a line drawn from the harbour north on Spencer Avenue, east along the Gardiner Expressway, north on Dufferin, east on Queen Street West, southeast along the Canadian Pacific Railway line, north along Dovercourt Road, east along Dundas Street West, north along Ossington Avenue, east along the Canadian Pacific Railway situated north of Dupont Street, south along Avenue Road and Queens Park Crescent West, east along College Street and south along Yonge Street to the Harbour.
These borders were somewhat changed in the 2004 redistribution. The northwestern corner, a somewhat pro-NDP area was lost to Davenport. A large, but business area of Toronto Centre—Rosedale between University Avenue and Yonge St. was given to the riding. This region tends to support the Liberals; the Toronto Islands were added to the riding from Toronto Centre—Rosedale. This area is strongly NDP and has a activist population that provides many campaign workers for the New Democrats; the riding was created in 1987 from Trinity and Spadina, smaller parts of Toronto Centre—Rosedale and Parkdale—High Park. It consisted of the part of the City of Toronto bounded on the south by Toronto Harbour, on the east by Avenue Road, Queen's Park Crescent West, University Avenue and York Street, on the west and north by a line drawn from the harbour north along Spencer Avenue, east along the Gardiner Expressway, north along Atlantic Avenue, southeast along the Canadian National Railway line, north along Dovercourt Road, east along Bloor Street West, north along Ossington Avenue, east along the Canadian Pacific Railway line to Avenue Road.
In 2003, it was given its current boundaries. As per 2012 federal electoral boundaries redistribution and the 2013 representation order, Trinity—Spadina will be dissolved following the conclusion of the next general election to be called after May 1, 2014; the area south of Dundas Street will be transferred to the new electoral district of Spadina—Fort York, the area north of Dundas and west of a line following Bay Street and Front Street will be transferred to the new electoral district of University—Rosedale while the area east of Bay Street and north of Front Street will be transferred to Toronto Centre. This riding has elected the following members of the House of Commons of Canada: The seat became vacant on March 12, 2014 when Olivia Chow resigned in order to run in the Toronto mayoral election; the 2011 election was not the expected close race between the incumbent NDP MP Olivia Chow and Liberal candidate, Toronto lawyer Christine Innes, that some observers predicted. The Liberals did not make gains here, which were anticipated by those who believed that the number of condominiums along the Toronto waterfront would bring in more centrist and right leaning voters.
A third battle between NDP challenger Olivia Chow and longtime Liberal incumbent Tony Ianno took place in the 2006 election. Ianno's narrow victory over Chow in 2004 had surprised most observers. After the writ was dropped for the federal election, Chow resigned her City Hall seat and vowed not to return to her previous job as municipal councillor. Chow ran a more disciplined campaign than in 2004, focusing on winning her own seat rather than lending her support to the national campaign of her husband, NDP leader Jack Layton. Ianno suffered from the broader decline in Liberal fortunes across Canada losing to Chow by nearly six percentage points, the largest margin of victory in any of their three electoral encounters; the strongest areas for the NDP were the Annex, Seaton Village, the University of Toronto area, Sussex-Ulster and Kensington Market. T
Windsor is a city in Southwestern Ontario, situated on the south bank of the Detroit River directly across from Detroit, Michigan. Located in Essex County, it is the southernmost city in Canada and marks the southwestern end of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor; the city's population was 217,188 at the 2016 census, making it the third-most populated city in Southwestern Ontario after London and Kitchener. The Detroit–Windsor urban area is North America's most populous transborder conurbation, the Ambassador Bridge border crossing is the busiest commercial crossing on the Canada–United States border. Windsor is a major contributor to Canada's automotive industry and has a storied history and a diverse culture. Known as the "Automotive Capital of Canada", Windsor's industrial and manufacturing heritage is responsible for how the city has developed through the years. At the time when the first Europeans arrived in the 17th century, the Detroit River region was inhabited by the Huron, Odawa and Iroquois First Nations.
A French agricultural settlement was established at the site of Windsor in 1749. It is the oldest continually inhabited European-founded settlement in Canada west of Montreal; the area was first named la Petite Côte. It was called La Côte de Misère because of the sandy soils near LaSalle. Windsor's French-Canadian heritage is reflected in French street names such as Ouellette, François, Langlois and Lauzon; the current street system reflects the Canadien method of agricultural land division, where the farms were long and narrow, fronting along the river. Today, the north–south street name indicates the name of the family that once farmed the land where the street is now located; the street system of outlying areas is consistent with the British system for granting land concessions. There is a significant French-speaking minority in Windsor and the surrounding area in the Lakeshore, Tecumseh and LaSalle areas. In 1797, after the American Revolution, the settlement of "Sandwich" was established, it was renamed Windsor, after the town in Berkshire, England.
The Sandwich neighbourhood on Windsor's west side is home to some of the city's oldest buildings, including Mackenzie Hall built as the Essex County Courthouse in 1855. Today, this building is a community centre; the oldest building in the city is the Duff-Baby House built in 1792. It is owned by houses government offices; the François Baby House in downtown Windsor was built in 1812 and houses Windsor's Community Museum, dedicated to local history. Windsor was the site of a battle during the Upper Canada Rebellion in 1838, it was attacked by a band of rebels from Detroit. Windsor served as a theatre for the Patriot War that year. In 1846, Windsor had a population of about 300. Two steamboats offered service to Detroit; the barracks were still manned. There were various types of a bank agency and a post office; the city's access to the Canada–US border made it a key stop for refugee slaves gaining freedom in the northern United States along the Underground Railroad. Many went across the Detroit River to Windsor to escape pursuit by slave catchers.
There were estimated to be 20,000 to 30,000 African-American refugees who settled in Canada, with many settling in Essex County, Ontario. Windsor was incorporated as a village in 1854 became a town in 1858, gained city status in 1892; the Windsor Police Service was established on July 1, 1867. A fire consumed much of Windsor's downtown core on October 12, 1871, destroying more than 100 buildings. Sandwich, Ford City and Walkerville were separate legal entities until 1935, they are now historic neighbourhoods of Windsor. Ford City was incorporated as a village in 1912. Walkerville was incorporated as a town in 1890. Sandwich was established in 1817 as a town with no municipal status, it was incorporated as a town in 1858. These three towns were annexed by Windsor in 1935; the nearby villages of Ojibway and Riverside were incorporated in 1921 respectively. Both were annexed by Windsor in 1966. During the 1920s, alcohol prohibition was enforced in Michigan. Rum-running in Windsor was a common practice during that time.
On October 25, 1960, a massive gas explosion destroyed the building housing the Metropolitan Store on Ouellette Avenue. Ten people were at least one hundred injured; the 45th anniversary of the event was commemorated by the Windsor Star on October 25, 2005. It was featured on History Television's Disasters of the Century; the Windsor Star Centennial Edition in 1992 covered the city's past, its success as a railway centre, its contributions to World War I and World War II fighting efforts. It recalled the naming controversy in 1892 when Windsor aimed to become a city; the most popular names listed in the naming controversy were "South Detroit", "The Ferry", Richmond. Windsor was chosen to promote the heritage of new English settlers in the city and to recognize Windsor Castle in Berkshire, England. However, Richmond was a popular name used until World War II by the local post office. Windsor has a humid continental climate with four distinct seasons; the mean annual temperature
Attorney General of Ontario
The Attorney General of Ontario is the chief legal adviser to Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Ontario and, by extension, the Government of Ontario. The Attorney General is a senior member of the Executive Council of Ontario and oversees the Ministry of the Attorney General – the department responsible for the oversight of the justice system in the province of Ontario; the Attorney General is an elected Member of Provincial Parliament, appointed by the Lieutenant Governor of Ontario on the constitutional advice of the Premier of Ontario. The goal of the Ministry of the Attorney General is to provide a fair and accessible justice system which reflects the needs of the diverse communities it serves across government and the province; the Ministry represents the largest justice system in Canada and one of the largest in North America. It strives to manage the justice system in an equitable and accessible way throughout the province; as of June 29, 2018, the Attorney General of Ontario is Caroline Mulroney and is assisted by Lindsey Park as Parliamentary Assistant to the Attorney General.
The Attorney General has the authority to represent the provincial government in court but this task is always delegated to crown attorneys, or to crown counsel in civil cases. Ian Scott, a prominent courtroom lawyer prior to entering politics, chose to plead the crown's case in court for several cases related to constitutional law. Most holders of the office had legal training. Marion Boyd was the only Attorney General, not a lawyer until Caroline Mulroney appointment. Although Mulroney studied and practiced law in the United States, she is not able to practice law in Canada; the Ministry of the Attorney General delivers and administers a wide range of justice services, including: administering 115 statutes. The Ontario Crown Attorney's Office, the Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee, the Children's Lawyer, the Special Investigations Unit all fall within the Ministry's responsibilities; the Ministry funds Legal Aid Ontario, administered by an independent board. In 2008, Office of the Independent Police Review Director was established under the authority of the AG, as a civilian body with powers invested through Public Inquiries Act to investigate complaints about municipal police forces and the Ontario Provincial Police.
Following the 2013 release of former Supreme Court judge Frank Iacobucci's report on the relationship between Aboriginal peoples and the Ontario justice system, a position of deputy attorney general with responsibility for Aboriginal issues was created. 1. John White 1791–1800 2. Robert Isaac Dey Gray 1800–1801 3. Thomas Scott 1801–1806 4. William Firth 1807–1812 5. G. D'Arcy Boulton 1814–1818 6. Sir John Robinson, 1st Baronet, of Toronto 1818–1829, acting AG 1812–1814 7. Henry John Boulton 1829–1832 8. Robert Sympson Jameson 1833–1837, last British-appointed AG 9. Christopher Alexander Hagerman 1837–1840, first Canadian-born AG of Upper Canada 10. William Henry Draper 1840–1841, last AG of Upper Canada In 1841, the Province of Upper Canada became the Province of Canada 11. William Henry Draper 1841–1843 12. Robert Baldwin 1843–1848 13. William Buell Richards 1848–1854 14. John A. Macdonald 1854–1862, 1864–1867 15. John Sandfield Macdonald 1862–1864 After 1867, the Attorney General position was split into federal and provincial counterparts: Attorney General of OntarioAttorney General of Quebec Attorney General of Canada Government of Ontario Ministry of the Attorney General website
1995 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1995 was held on June 8, 1995, to elect members of the 36th Legislative Assembly of the province of Ontario, Canada. The writs for the election were dropped on April 28, 1995; the governing New Democratic Party, led by Premier Bob Rae, was defeated by voters, who were angry with the actions of the Rae government such as the Social Contract legislation in 1993. The Social Contract caused the NDP to lose much of their base in organized labour, further reducing support for the party. At the 1993 federal election, the NDP tumbled to just six percent support, lost all 11 of its federal seats in Ontario. By the time the writs were dropped for the 1995 provincial election, it was obvious that the NDP would not be reelected; the Liberal Party under Lyn McLeod had been leading in the polls for most of the period from 1992 to 1995, were favoured to benefit from the swing in support away from the NDP. However, the party hurt its credibility through a series of high-profile policy reversals in the period leading up to the election.
The most notable of these occurred when McLeod withdrew Liberal support from the Equality Rights Statute Amendment Act introduced by the NDP government in 1994, which would have provided same-sex couples with rights and obligations equal to those of opposite-sex common law couples and introduced a form of civil unions. Her decision was seen as cynical and opportunistic in light of the Liberals' earlier rural by-election loss in the conservative riding of Victoria—Haliburton; this gave the McLeod Liberals a reputation for "flip-flopping" and inconsistency while offending its progressive supporters. The Progressive Conservative Party, led by Mike Harris, found success with its Common Sense Revolution campaign to cut personal income taxes, social assistance rates, government spending dramatically. Half of his party's seats came from the more affluent regions of the Greater Toronto Area the suburban belt surrounding Metro Toronto called the'905' for its telephone area code. In addition, by presenting himself as a populist, representing "ordinary Ontarians" over "special interests", Harris was able to build Tory support among working-class voters.
Although there were regional variations, many working-class voters shifted directly from the NDP to the Tories during the election, enabling the latter to win NDP ridings such as Cambridge and Oshawa. The televised party leaders' debate is regarded as the turning point of the campaign. During the event, McLeod further alienated many voters with an overly aggressive performance. Harris used his time to speak directly to the camera to convey his party's Common Sense Revolution platform ignoring all questions asked of him by Rae and McLeod and avoiding getting caught up in their debate. Since Liberal support was regarded by many political insiders as soft and unsteady, many voters who were leaning to the Liberals shifted to the Progressive Conservatives after the debate. Due to the above factors, voters gave the Tories a majority while the Liberals finished with less support than they had in the 1990 election; the NDP, despite improving their standing in some Northern Ontario ridings, were defeated, falling to 17 seats and third party status.
The New Democrats would remain the third party until 2018 when they returned to Official Opposition status. McLeod and Rae resigned their party leadership posts not long after the campaign, it was the worst result for an incumbent Ontario governing party up to that time and would remain so until 2018 when the NDP surpassed the then-governing Liberals. One independent candidate was elected: Peter North in the riding of Elgin. North had been elected in 1990 as a New Democrat, but left the NDP and declared his intention to run as a Progressive Conservative; the PC Party did not accept him as a candidate, however. Notes: At least five unregistered parties fielded candidates in this election; the Reform Association of Ontario ran fifteen candidates. Their leader was Kimble Ainslie. An article of The Globe and Mail for August 19, 1995 indicates. John Steele campaigned as a candidate of the Communist League; the Ontario Renewal Party ran a number of candidates under the leadership of Diane Johnston. This was the Marxist-Leninist party under a different name.
Amani Oakley and Joe Flexer ran as "Independent Labour" candidates in Toronto with the support of dissident or former members of the Ontario New Democratic Party and with the support of OPSEU in the case of Oakley and the Canadian Auto Workers in the case of Flexer. John Turmel's Abolitionist Party ran at least two candidates. Candidates from the aforementioned parties appeared on the ballot as independents, it is possible that some candidates listed below as independents belonged to these or other parties. Due to resignations, five by-elections were held between the 1995 and 1999 elections. Politics of Ontario List of Ontario political parties Premier of Ontario Leader of the Opposition