SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Progressive Party of Manitoba

The Progressive Party of Manitoba, was a political party that developed from the United Farmers of Manitoba, an agrarian movement that became politically active following World War I. A successor to the Manitoba Grain Growers' Association, the UFM represented the interests of farmers frustrated with traditional political parties. Unlike the United Farmers, the Progressive Party of Manitoba never made any serious effort to cooperate with the labour politicians; the Winnipeg General Strike was unpopular among farmers, the Progressive Party of Manitoba was not regarded as friendly to labour. A number of "farmer candidates" ran in Manitoba's provincial election of 1920, they were not an organized group, had no pretensions of forming government. Had the UFM run a united campaign, it would have won the election; the Independent-Farmers group was formed to represent the victorious candidates in the parliament which followed. This was never intended to be a permanent political organization, dissolved when parliament broke up in 1922.

The group's leader was William Robson. The United Farmers of Manitoba entered electoral politics in 1921, ran an organized campaign in the 1922 election. However, expectations were still low, they had no leader and a shoestring campaign budget, only ran candidates in two-thirds of the province's ridings. Despite this, they won 28 out of 55 seats for a strong majority government. Faced with the task of selecting a leader who would become the province's new premier, the UFM asked John Bracken, president of the Manitoba Agricultural College, to become party leader and premier-designate. Once in government, Bracken's followers identified themselves as the Progressive Party of Manitoba, maintaining an affiliation with the UFM. Bracken was a political outsider, gave the party the technocratic credentials that it desired; the UFM supported the fading away of older political parties, to be replaced by a more "management-centred" approach to government. In years, the Progressive Party would advocate "non-partisan government" for the province, via a series of alliances with other parties.

In 1928, the UFM decided to withdraw from politics and concentrate on being a service and lobbying organization. It became the Manitoba Federation of Agriculture. Part of the reason for separating the Progressive Party from the UFM was the perception that the government had a narrow base representing only farmers, rather than all Manitobans. Prior to the 1932 elections, Bracken's Progressives formed an alliance with the Manitoba Liberal Party; this occurred on the urging of federal Liberal leader William Lyon Mackenzie King, concerned that the Conservatives could form government in the province. The "Liberal-Progressives" were able to win a majority, maintained their alliance after the election, they would become a single party. The Liberal-Progressive government was reduced to a minority in the 1936 elections; when early plans to bring the Conservatives into government failed, Bracken required support from the province's five Social Credit MLAs to continue. In government, the Progressives were fiscally cautious.

With the onset of the Great Depression, the government attempted to deal with unemployment by fostering a'back to the land' movement, giving resettlement grants to move the unemployed from cities and town to the countryside. In 1940, Bracken formed a wartime coalition government which included the Liberal-Progressives, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, Social Credit, Conservatives. In 1942, Bracken left provincial politics to take over the leadership of what became the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. Stuart S. Garson took over as leader of the party and premier, was himself replaced by Douglas Lloyd Campbell in 1948; the Manitoba CCF left the coalition in 1943. The Conservatives had renamed their party the Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba due to the change in name of the federal party, despite not having any link with the Progressives; the Conservatives left the coalition in 1950 due to dissatisfaction with Campbell's leadership. Although the leadership of the party remained dominated by Progressives, the government was referred to as "Liberal" during the 1940s and 1950s.

Dufferin Roblin's Progressive Conservatives swept to victory of 1958. The Liberal-Progressives the party formally became known as the Manitoba Liberal Party in 1961. List of political parties in Canada Progressive Party of Canada

Misunderstanding Cults

Misunderstanding Cults: Searching for Objectivity in a Controversial Field was edited by Benjamin Zablocki and Thomas Robbins. The book was published by University of Toronto Press, on December 1, 2001 and includes contributions from ten religious and psychological scholars; the book is unique in that it includes contributions from scholars who have been labeled as "anti-cult", as well as those who have been labeled as "cult apologists." The book features a section which discusses the need for scholarly objectivity when researching cults, as well as emphasizing the danger of partisanship while researching these controversial groups. Other topics discussed include brainwashing, cult violence, the conflict that exists between new religious movements and their critics, as well as the ramifications of raising children in controversial religious movements; the book includes contributions from researchers with varied viewpoints on the subject of cults. Dick Anthony Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi David Bromley Lorne L. Dawson Jeffrey Kaplan Stephen A.

Kent Janja Lalich Susan J. Palmer Thomas Robbins Julius H. Rubin Amy B. Siskind Benjamin Zablocki William Sims Bainbridge frames the book as part of the debate whether sociology of religion is scientific, he notes that a lot of the debate in the book is centered on the validity of brainwashing as a concept. He writes that "In many respects this is an excellent book, containing insightful essays written from a variety of perspectives," noting however that "Not a single paper in the collection makes use of quantitative data or conducts any other kind of formal theory testing," and decrying the scarcity of connections to research on group influence from social psychology or sociology in general. Bainbridge writes that "Some contributors use harsh language in describing writers who disagree with them, each faction accusing the other of selling out and forsaking intellectual integrity for material gain either from the families who turn in desperation to the anti-cult movement for help with lost relatives, or from the cults themselves.

It is a telling fact that several of the more polite writers refer to their colleagues as scholars rather than scientists, the implication being that they all operate outside any framework of precise measurement and hypothesis testing." List of cult and new religious movement researchers ReviewsReview, Massimo Introvigne, CESNUR

Phosphazene

Phosphazenes refer to classes of organophosphorus compounds featuring phosphorus with a double bond between P and N. One class of phosphazenes have the formula RN=P3; these phosphazenes are known as iminophosphoranes and phosphine imides. They are superbases. Another class of compounds called phosphazenes are represented with the formula n, where X = halide, amide. One example is hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene. Bisiminium chloride is referred to as a phosphazene; this article focuses on those phosphazenes with the formula RN=P3. Phosphazene bases are strong non-metallic low-nucleophilic bases, they are stronger bases than regular amidine bases. Protonation takes place at a doubly bonded nitrogen atom. Related to phosphazene bases are the Verkade bases, which feature P with three amido substituents and a transannular amine; the pKa's of + (R = Me, pyrrolide are 42.7 and 44, respectively. These are the highest pKa measured for the conjugate acid of charge-neutral molecular base. Phosphazene bases are established reagents in organic synthesis.

The best known phosphazene bases are BEMP with an acetonitrile pKa of the conjugate acid of 27.6 and the phosphorimidic triamide t-Bu-P4 known as Schwesinger base after one of its inventors. In one application t-Bu-P4 is employed in a nucleophilic addition converting the pivaldehyde to the alcohol: The active nucleophile is believed to be a reactive phosphazenium species with full negative charge on the arene sp2 carbon. Besides organic synthesis, phosphazene bases are used as basic titrants in non-aqueous acid-base titration, their advantages for this are: they are strong bases in many solvents and their conjugate acids are inert and non-HBD cations. Cyclodiphosphazane Hexachlorophosphazene Polyphosphazene