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Progressive education

Progressive education is a pedagogical movement that began in the late nineteenth century. The term progressive was engaged to distinguish this education from the traditional Euro-American curricula of the 19th century, rooted in classical preparation for the university and differentiated by social class. By contrast, progressive education finds its roots in present experience. Most progressive education programs have these qualities in common: Emphasis on learning by doing – hands-on projects, expeditionary learning, experiential learning Integrated curriculum focused on thematic units Integration of entrepreneurship into education Strong emphasis on problem solving and critical thinking Group work and development of social skills Understanding and action as the goals of learning as opposed to rote knowledge Collaborative and cooperative learning projects Education for social responsibility and democracy Highly personalized learning accounting for each individual's personal goals Integration of community service and service learning projects into the daily curriculum Selection of subject content by looking forward to ask what skills will be needed in future society De-emphasis on textbooks in favor of varied learning resources Emphasis on lifelong learning and social skills Assessment by evaluation of child's projects and productions Progressive education can be traced back to the works of John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, both of whom are known as forerunners of ideas that would be developed by theorists such as John Dewey.

Considered one of the first of the British empiricists, Locke believed that "truth and knowledge… arise out of observation and experience rather than manipulation of accepted or given ideas". He further discussed the need for children to have concrete experiences. Rousseau deepened this line of thinking in Emile, or On Education, where he argued that subordination of students to teachers and memorization of facts would not lead to an education. In Germany, Johann Bernhard Basedow established the Philanthropinum at Dessau in 1774, he developed new teaching methods based on conversation and play with the child, a program of physical development. Such was his success that he wrote a treatise on his methods, "On the best and hitherto unknown method of teaching children of noblemen". Christian Gotthilf Salzmann was the founder of the Schnepfenthal institution, a school dedicated to new modes of education, he wrote Elements of Morality, for the Use of Children, one of the first books translated into English by Mary Wollstonecraft.

Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi was a Swiss pedagogue and educational reformer who exemplified Romanticism in his approach. He founded several educational institutions both in German- and French-speaking regions of Switzerland and wrote many works explaining his revolutionary modern principles of education, his motto was "Learning by head and heart". His research and theories resemble those outlined by Rousseau in Emile, he is further considered by many to be the "father of modern educational science" His psychological theories pertain to education as they focus on the development of object teaching, that is, he felt that individuals best learned through experiences and through a direct manipulation and experience of objects. He further speculated that children learn through their own internal motivation rather than through compulsion.. A teacher's task will be to help guide their students as individuals through their learning and allow it to unfold naturally. Friedrich Wilhelm August Fröbel was a student of Pestalozzi who laid the foundation for modern education based on the recognition that children have unique needs and capabilities.

He believed in "self-activity" and play as essential factors in child education. The teacher's role was not to indoctrinate but to encourage self-expression through play, both individually and in group activities, he created the concept of kindergarten. Johann Friedrich Herbart emphasized the connection between individual development and the resulting societal contribution; the five key ideas which composed his concept of individual maturation were Inner Freedom, Benevolence and Equity or Recompense. According to Herbart, abilities were not innate but could be instilled, so a thorough education could provide the framework for moral and intellectual development. In order to develop a child to lead to a consciousness of social responsibility, Herbart advocated that teachers utilize a methodology with five formal steps: "Using this structure a teacher prepared a topic of interest to the children, presented that topic, questioned them inductively, so that they reached new knowledge based on what they had known, looked back, deductively summed up the lesson's achievements related them to moral precepts for daily living".

John Melchior Bosco was concerned about the education of street children who had left their villages to find work in the industrialized city of Turin, Italy. Exploited as cheap labor or imprisoned for unruly behavior, Bosco saw the need of creating a space where they would feel at home, he called it an'Oratory' where they could play, share friendships, express themselves, develop their creative talents and pick up skills for gainful self-employment. With those who had found work, he set up a mutual-fund society to teach them the benefits of saving and self-reliance; the principles underlying his educational method that won over the hearts and minds of thousands of youth who flocked to his oratory were:'be reasonable','be kind','

Ralph T. Jope Cup

The Ralph T. Jope Cup is a rowing award presented to the Eastern Association of Rowing Colleges in 1963, by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is awarded annually at the Eastern Sprints to the member college whose lightweight crews score the highest total points in the varsity, junior varsity and first freshman races under a scoring formula developed by the EARC coaches. In 2015, the points from the freshman race were replaced with the third varsity race. A graduate of MIT in the class of 1928, Ralph T. Jope served as Secretary to the Institute's Advisory Council on Athletics for many years. A long-time supporter of the sport of rowing, Mr. Jope died in 1965. Harvard University has won the Jope Cup a record 22 times, with Princeton University having 15 wins, Yale University having nine; the most recent winner is Yale, despite losing the varsity final to the University of Pennsylvania. Eastern Sprints Regatta Results

The Forty Days of Musa Dagh (film)

The Forty Days of Musa Dagh is a 1982 American film produced by John Kurkjian, written by Alex Hakobian, directed by Sarky Mouradian. It is an adaptation of the novel The Forty Days of Musa Dagh, about the resistance to the Armenian Genocide at Musa Dagh in modern Hatay Province, Turkey. Edward Minasian wrote in "The Forty Years of Musa Dagh" that the movie is "a modest memorial to the heroes of Musa Dagh and to the innocent victims of man’s inhumanity to man." There were attempts beginning in the 1930s to produce a film adaptation of the novel but the Turkish government used diplomatic and financial pressure to convince MGM to not make the film. Turkish Ambassador to the U. S. Münir Ertegün was afraid that the production of the film would damage Turkey-United States relations. Kukjian, a real estate developer, did not have a lot of experience with filming when he received the rights. Kabir Bedi as Gabriel Bagradian James Reidel of The New York Review of Books wrote that Bedi's "acting skills could not make up for" deficiencies in the script and the other actors.

Ronnie Carol as Juliette Bagradian Carol was an Eileen Ford model. Paul King as Steven Bagradian Guy Stockwell as Simon Tomassian Peter Haskell as Maris Durand Michael Constantine as Talaat Pasha David Mauro as Enver Pasha David Opatoshu as Henry Morgenthau, Sr. Gilbert Greene as Johannes Lepsius John Hoyt as General Waggenheim MGM sold the rights to the film to Kurkjian. Kurkjian hoped a studio would make an offer for the filming rights, but chose to begin production himself in 1982 because his rights would contractually expire six weeks later. Kurkjian asked Hakobian to incorporate the best elements of various Musa Dagh scripts into this production. Reidel wrote that the resulting script "bore only a thin resemblance to the novel."Minasian wrote that the film produced by Kurkjian differed from the envisioned large budget film that MGM had planned to make. The budget of the film was $1 million though the producers hoped for $8-10 million. In addition labor costs used up much of the budget. Filming locations included Malibu and hill areas around Los Angeles.

The bulk of screenings were for ethnic Armenian audiences, commercial theaters did not air it. David Welky, author of "Global Hollywood Versus National Pride: The Battle to Film The Forty Days of Musa Dagh," wrote that not many film critics watched the film, the few that did "savaged" it. Welky stated that Forty Days of Musa Dagh was "a slapped-together farce that lacked cohesiveness" and that it "never had a chance of meeting the grand expectations MGM once had for." According to a review by Variety, The Forty Days of Musa Dagh was "a dreary little film that does no justice to its weighty subject." Reidel wrote that "the end result was not a real film, not a B-picture."George S. Harris, author of "Cementing Turkish-American Relations: The Ambassadorship of Münir Ertegün", stated that the lack of exposure of the film meant that Turkey-United States relations would remain unharmed. Minasian, Edward. "The Forty Years of Musa Dagh: The Film That Was Denied." Journal of Armenian Studies, National Association for Armenian Studies and Research.

Volume III, Numbers 1 & 2: 1986-1987 Identity and Assimilation: The Armenian Experience in America. Profile; the Forty Days of Musa Dagh on IMDb

Irving Moskowitz

Irving Moskowitz was an American physician and philanthropist. His philanthropy, in part, sought to create a Jewish majority in Arab neighborhoods of East Jerusalem by purchasing land. Irving Moskowitz was the ninth of thirteen children born to Jewish immigrants from Poland. 120 of his relatives died in the Holocaust. He grew up in Milwaukee and received a medical degree from the University of Wisconsin, he moved to California where he started his medical practice building and managing hospitals. He started the foundation in 1968. At the time of his death Moskowitz resided in Florida. Moskowitz was married to Cherna with whom he had 8 children, over 50 grandchildren and over 20 great grandchildren. Among his notable Zionist activities was establishing a foundation to help Shinlung immigration to Israel; the family established the Moskowitz Prize for Zionism in 2008. He built a business running legal gambling in California, he was the founder of the Moskowitz Foundation, created "to help people in need regardless of race, politics or religion."

The foundation raises funds for Jewish housing projects in East Jerusalem through its charity bingo hall in Hawaiian Gardens, California. The funding is channeled through two settler organizations El'ad and Ateret Cohanim that work to create a Jewish majority in Arab neighborhoods of East Jerusalem. Moskowitz died on June 16, 2016 at the age of 88. In 2007, Moskowitz worked toward resettling Jews in Arab neighborhoods in East Jerusalem vis a vis initiating plans to build 122 apartments on the site of the Shepherd Hotel in the Sheikh Jarrah neighborhood; the plan was downsized in 2009. Final approval was given for 20 apartments on March 23, 2010, hours before Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu met with President Barack Obama at the White House; the historic Shepherd Hotel was torn down to make room for the housing units. A three-story parking garage and an access road was planned for the site. Moskowitz was the founder and chair of the Irving I. Moskowitz Foundation, which donated $1.5 million to Hawaiian Gardens, California for the construction of the Fedde Middle School Sports Complex, the first state-of-the-art sports facility in the city.

He donated to Karl Rove's American Crossroads, the Center for Security Policy and the Western Center for Journalism. The Irving Moskowitz Foundation donated $100,000 on March 17, 2011, to the American Red Cross for the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami relief efforts. On June 26, 2013, The Irving Moskowitz Foundation donated $100,000 to the American Red Cross for Oklahoma relief efforts. On November 21, 2013, the Irving I. Moskowitz Foundation presented a check for $100,000 to the American Red Cross Long Beach Chapter to aid the victims of Typhoon Haiyan in the Philippines. Moskowitz Foundation Home Page Irving Moskowitz Home Page Irving I Moskowitz Foundation on GuideStar The Moskowitz Prize for Zionism


The galah known as the pink and grey cockatoo, is one of the most common and widespread cockatoos, it can be found in open country in all parts of mainland Australia. It is endemic on the mainland and was introduced to Tasmania, where its distinctive pink and grey plumage and its bold and loud behaviour make it a familiar sight in the bush, in urban areas, it appears to have benefited from the change in the landscape since European colonisation and may be replacing the Major Mitchell's cockatoo in parts of its range. The term galah is derived from gilaa, a word found in Yuwaalaraay and neighbouring Aboriginal languages. Galahs weigh 270 -- 350 g, they have a pale silver to mid-grey back, a pale grey rump, a pink face and chest, a light pink mobile crest. They have a bone-coloured beak, the bare skin of the eye rings is carunculated, they have grey legs. The sexes appear similar; the colours of the juveniles are duller than the adults. Juveniles have greyish chests and crests, they have brown irises and whitish bare eye rings, which are not carunculated.

Galahs are found in all Australian states, are absent only from the driest areas and the far north of Cape York Peninsula. It is still uncertain whether they are native to Tasmania, though there are records from as early as the 1840s, they are locally common today in urban areas, they are common in some metropolitan areas, for example Adelaide and Melbourne, common to abundant in open habitats which offer at least some scattered trees for shelter. The changes brought by European settlement, a disaster for many species, have been beneficial for the galah because of the clearing of forests in fertile areas and the provision of stock watering points in arid zones. Flocks of galahs will congregate and forage on foot for food in open grassy areas; the classification of the galah was difficult. It was separated in the monotypic genus Eolophus. There are obvious morphological similarities between the galah and the white cockatoos that make up the genus Cacatua and indeed the galah was described as Cacatua roseicapilla.

Early DNA studies allied the galah with the cockatiel or placed it close to some Cacatua species of different appearance. In consequence, it was thought that the ancestors of the galah, the cockatiel and Major Mitchell's cockatoo diverged from the main white cockatoo line at some stage prior to that group's main radiation. Ignorance of this fact, led to attempts to resolve the evolutionary history and prehistoric biogeography of the cockatoos, which proved fruitless because they were based on invalid assumptions to start with, it fell to the study of Brown & Toft to compare the available data with their mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequence research and resolve the issue. Today, the galah is seen, along with Major Mitchell's cockatoo, as an early divergence from the white cockatoo lineage which has not lost its ability to produce an overall pink or pink and grey body plumage, while being light in colour and non-sexually dimorphic; the significance of these two characteristics shared by the Cacatuinae had been explained away in earlier studies by strict application of parsimony on misinterpreted data.

Three subspecies are recognised. There is slight variation in the colours of the plumage and in the extent of the carunculation of the eye rings among the three subspecies; the south-eastern form, E. r. albiceps, is distinct from the paler-bodied Western Australian nominate subspecies, E. r. roseicapilla, although the extent and nature of the central hybrid zone remains undefined. Most pet birds outside Australia are the south-eastern form; the third form, E. r. kuhli, found right across the northern part of the continent, tends to be a little smaller and is distinguished by differences in the shape and colour of the crest, although its status as a valid subspecies is uncertain. The galah nests in tree cavities; the eggs are white and there are two or five in a clutch. The eggs are incubated for about 25 days, the male and female share the incubation; the chicks leave the nest about 49 days after hatching. Living in captivity galahs can reach up to 70 to 80 years of age when a good quality diet is followed.

The galah socialises adequately and can engage playfully in entertainment activities to support the overall intelligent nature of the bird. In their natural habitat the galah is unlikely to reach the age of 20 years, falling victim to traffic, predators such as little eagle and peregrine falcons, human persecution in some agricultural areas; the average lifespan of all galahs is about 40 years of age. Like most other cockatoos, galahs create strong lifelong bonds with their partners. Aviary-bred crosses of galahs and Major Mitchell's cockatoos have been bred in Sydney, with the tapered wings of the galah and the crest and colours of the Major Mitchell's, as well as its plaintive cry; the galah has been shown to be capable of hybridising with the cockatiel, producing offspring described by the media as'galatiels'. Galahs are known to join flocks of little corellas, are known to breed with them also.. A galah/sulphur-crested cockatoo hybrid, hatched in 1920 was still living in the Adelaide zoo in the late 1970s, being displayed in a small cage alone near the entrance to an on-site cottage.


Jeno's Pizza (Colombia)

Jeno's Pizza is a pizzeria chain based on Colombia. It was acquired by Telepizza in 2010. Jeno's Pizza was established on 1 October 1973 in Bogotá. A second location opened in 1976; the original restaurants catered to families. They created Jeno's Club on December 11, 1992, which are locations with play areas for children. In June 2010 the chain was acquired by the multinational Telepizza, adding to their more than 900 restaurants worldwide. By December 2010, the company completed the refurbishment of 15 of its 80 outlets continuing this work in 2011 to modernize its existing infrastructure. Jeno's Pizza additionally implemented an expansion plan for 2011, planning to open 30 new locations for a total of 110 outlets; the opening of new locations of Jeno's Pizza were held in Bogota, Medellin, Barranquilla and Bucaramanga. Pereira and Armenia added Jeno's Pizza locations in 2011. Jeno's Pizza