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Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a rare and fatal viral disease characterized by progressive damage or inflammation of the white matter of the brain at multiple locations. It is caused by the JC virus, present and kept under control by the immune system; the JC virus is harmless except in cases of weakened immune systems. In general, PML has a mortality rate of 30–50% in the first few months, those who survive can be left with varying degrees of neurological disabilities. PML occurs exclusively in patients with severe immune deficiency, most among patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, but people on chronic immunosuppressive medications including chemotherapy are at increased risk of PML, such as patients with transplants, Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. Symptoms can develop over several weeks to months, they depend on location of damage in the brain and the degree of damage; the most prominent symptoms are "clumsiness, progressive weakness, visual and sometimes personality changes".

The lesions affecting the parietal and occipital lobes of the brain can lead to a phenomenon known as alien hand syndrome. The cause of PML is a type of polyomavirus called the JC virus, after the initials of the person from whose tissue the virus was first cultured. Recent publications indicate 39 to 58% of the general population are seropositive for antibodies to JCV, indicating current or previous infection with the virus. Other publications put the percentage at 70 to 90% of the general population. JCV causes persistent asymptomatic infection in about one-third of the adult population, based on viral shedding into the urine from the site of asymptomatic infection in the kidney; the virus causes disease only when the immune system has been weakened. PML is most common in people with HIV1 infection, it is unclear why PML occurs more in people with AIDS than in other immunosuppressive conditions. PML can still occur in people on immunosuppressive therapy, such as efalizumab and various transplant drugs, which are meant to weaken the immune system.

Natalizumab was approved in 2004 by the FDA for MS. It was subsequently withdrawn from the market by its manufacturer after it was linked with three cases of PML. All three initial cases were taking natalizumab in combination with interferon beta-1a. After a safety review, the drug was returned to the market in 2006 as a monotherapy for MS under a special prescription program; as of May 2011, over 130 cases of PML had been reported in MS patients, all in patients who had taken natalizumab for more than a year. While none of them had taken the drug in combination with other disease-modifying treatments, previous use of MS treatments increases the risk of PML between three and four-fold; the estimated prevalence of PML in MS is 1.5 cases per thousand natalizumab users. Around 20% of MS patients with PML die, most of the rest are disabled. One case study describes a MS patient who, during a 4-year course of dimethyl fumarate, developed PML and died. Fingolimod was approved in 2010 by the FDA for MS.

In 2015, the first case of PML, as well as a case of "probable PML" was reported by two Gilenya users that could not be tied to previous immunosuppressant therapies. These new cases are now being added to the drug information sheet included with every prescription. PML is a demyelinating disease, in which the myelin sheath covering the axons of nerve cells is destroyed, impairing the transmission of nerve impulses, it affects the subcortical white matter that of the parietal and occipital lobes. PML destroys produces intranuclear inclusions, it progresses much more quickly. The breakdown of myelin is commensurate with the degree of immunocompromise. PML is diagnosed in a patient with a progressive course of the disease, finding JC virus DNA in spinal fluid together with consistent white-matter lesions on brain magnetic resonance imaging. Characteristic evidence of PML on brain CT scan images are multifocal, noncontrast enhancing hypodense lesions without mass effect, but MRI is far more sensitive than CT.

The most common area of involvement is the cortical white matter of frontal and parietooccipital lobes, but lesions may occur anywhere in the brain, such as the basal ganglia, external capsule, posterior cranial fossa structures such as the brain stem and cerebellum. Although multifocal, natalizumab-associated PML is monofocal, predominantly in the frontal lobe. No drugs inhibit or cure the virus infection without toxicity. Therefore, treatment aims at reversing the immune deficiency to stop the disease progress. In patients on immunosuppression, this means stopping the drugs or using plasma exchange to accelerate the removal of the biologic agent that put the person at risk for PML. In HIV-infected people, this may mean starting active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS patients starting HAART after being diagnosed with PML tend to have a longer survival time than patients who were on HAART and de

Vanessa Goodwin

Vanessa Goodwin was an Australian politician. She was the Liberal Party member for the seat of Pembroke in the Tasmanian Legislative Council from the Pembroke by-election on 1 August 2009 until her resignation due to brain cancer on 2 October 2017. Goodwin was born in Tasmania, she received a Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Laws from the University of Tasmania, a Master of Philosophy from the University of Cambridge, a Doctor of Philosophy from the University of Tasmania. Goodwin was a criminologist and lawyer who had worked for the Department of Police and Public Safety, she had worked as an Associate to the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Tasmania, as the Public Affairs Officer for the local Australian Hotels Association branch and as a research assistant for the Tasmanian Governor. Goodwin unsuccessfully contested the state seat of Franklin at the 2006 Tasmanian election, the federal seat of Franklin at the 2007 federal election. In 2009, Tasmanian Legislative Council member for Pembroke, Allison Ritchie, causing a by-election.

Goodwin stood as the Liberal candidate, won by a large margin. She was re-elected in 2013. After the 2014 Tasmanian election, Goodwin was appointed Attorney-General, Minister for Justice, Minister for Corrections and Minister for the Arts, as well as Leader for the Government in the Legislative Council. Goodwin resigned on 2 October 2017 due to health reasons, her seat was filled in a by-election, won by Labor's Jo Siejka. On 25 March 2017, Goodwin was hospitalised with multiple brain tumours. On 6 April, Premier Will Hodgman informed the parliament, she died from brain cancer on 3 March 2018, aged 48, on the day of the 2018 Tasmanian state election. Official website

Szilvia Ábrahám

Szilvia Ábrahám is a Hungarian former professional handballer who played for the Hungarian national team. Ábrahám had swum competitively for years, when at the age of 12 her form master and her coach, Tibor Radványi invited her for a training of Ferencvárosi TC. She fell in love with handball but at first she found it hard to quit swimming and practiced both sports parallelly for a year, before deciding to concentrate on handball. For the age of 13 she was a signed player of Ferencváros, with them she spent four seasons, playing in the youth team, she moved to Budapesti Spartacus SC in 2000 and made her debut in the Hungarian top flight yet in that year. In 2002 Vasas SC offered her a contract she could not refuse and Ábrahám joined the Hungarian record champions, she stayed five years by the red and blues, where she worked together among others with legendary Hungarian handball coach Lajos Mocsai.Ábrahám left the financially struggling Vasas in 2007 and switched to Váci NKSE on a two-year deal.

In Vác she got more playing minutes than by any former teams and as a result, she developed into one of the most effective line players in the league. In the summer of 2009 she was close to reach an agreement over the extension of her contract, but when it was made clear that Lucia Uhráková is joining the club and therefore Ábrahám may lose her first team place, she rather chose newcomers Veszprém Barabás KC and the regular playing time, her decision was proved to be right, as she scored a career record 128 league goals in the following season and received her first senior international call-up from Eszter Mátéfi in September 2010, in preparation for the GF World Cup. She made it to the traveling squad and debuted in the Hungarian national team on 21 September 2010 against Germany. Three months she was selected into the national team for the European Championship as well, this spell was cut short as she was replaced by Tímea Tóth after the preliminary round, to widen the options on back positions.

The performances shown by Ábrahám have impressed Siófok KC, that secured her services for two years, starting from 1 July 2011. The deal was announced on 5 May 2011, when the ambitious club revealed that they signed Ábrahám along with other two Hungarian internationals, Bernadett Bódi and Renáta Mörtel. In June 2015 she announced her retirement from professional handball. Between 2015-2017 she played for a Hungarian second division team, Pilisvörösvári KSK. Since 2018 she plays for Esztergomi Vitézek RAFC in the Hungarian third division. Szilvia Ábrahám career statistics on


Hebei is a coastal province in Northern China. The modern province was established in 1911 as Chihli Province, its capital and largest city is Shijiazhuang. Its one-character abbreviation is "冀", named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province that included what is now southern Hebei; the name Hebei means "north of the river", referring to its location to the north of the Yellow River. The modern province "Chili Province" was formed in 1911, when the central government dissolved the central governed area of "Chihli", which means "Directly Ruled" until it was renamed as "Hebei" in 1928. A common alternate name for Hebei is Yānzhào, after the state of Yan and state of Zhao that existed here during the Warring States period of early Chinese history. Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities, which border each other, were carved out of Hebei; the province borders Liaoning to the northeast, Inner Mongolia to the north, Shanxi to the west, Henan to the south, Shandong to the southeast. Bohai Bay of the Bohai Sea is to the east.

A small part of Hebei, Sanhe Exclave, consisting of Sanhe, Dachang Hui Autonomous County, Xianghe County, an exclave disjointed from the rest of the province, is wedged between the municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin. With a population of over 74 million people, Hebei is China's sixth most populous province; the Han majority comprise 96% of the population, followed by a minority of Manchu and Mongol peoples. Plains in Hebei were the home of Peking man, a group of Homo erectus that lived in the area around 200,000 to 700,000 years ago. Neolithic findings at the prehistoric Beifudi site date back to 7000 and 8000 BC. During the Spring and Autumn period, Hebei was under the rule of the states of Yan in the north and Jin in the south. During this period, a nomadic people known as Dí invaded the plains of northern China and established Zhongshan in central Hebei. During the Warring States period, Jin was partitioned, much of its territory within Hebei went to Zhao; the Qin dynasty unified China in 221 BC.

The Han dynasty ruled the area under two provinces, You Prefecture in the north and Ji Province in the south. At the end of the Han dynasty, most of Hebei came under the control of warlords Gongsun Zan in the north and Yuan Shao further south. Hebei came under the rule of the Kingdom of Wei, established by the descendants of Cao Cao. After the invasions of northern nomadic peoples at the end of the Western Jin dynasty, the chaos of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Northern and Southern dynasties ensued. Hebei in North China and right at the northern frontier, changed hands many times, being controlled at various points in history by the Later Zhao, Former Yan, Former Qin, Later Yan; the Northern Wei reunified northern China in 440, but split in half in 534, with Hebei coming under the eastern half, which had its capital at Ye, near modern Linzhang, Hebei. The Sui dynasty again unified China in 589. During the Tang dynasty, the area was formally designated "Hebei" for the first time. During the earlier part of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hebei was fragmented among several regimes, though it was unified by Li Cunxu, who established the Later Tang.

The next dynasty, the Later Jin under Shi Jingtang, posthumously known as Emperor Gaozu of Later Jin, ceded much of modern-day northern Hebei to the Khitan Liao dynasty in the north. During the Northern Song dynasty, the sixteen ceded prefectures continued to be an area of hot contention between Song China and the Liao dynasty; the Southern Song dynasty that came after abandoned all of North China, including Hebei, to the Jurchen Jin dynasty after the Jingkang Incident in 1127 of the Jin–Song wars. The Mongol Yuan dynasty did not establish Hebei as a province. Rather, the area was directly administrated by the Secretariat at capital Dadu; the Ming dynasty ruled Hebei as "Beizhili", meaning "Northern Directly Ruled", because the area contained and was directly ruled by the imperial capital, Beijing. When the Manchu Qing dynasty came to power in 1644, they abolished the southern counterpart, Hebei became known as "Zhili", or "Directly Ruled". During the Qing dynasty, the northern borders of Zhili extended deep into what is now Inner Mongolia, overlapped in jurisdiction with the leagues of Inner Mongolia.

The Qing dynasty was replaced by the Republic of China. Within a few years, China descended with regional warlords vying for power. Since Zhili was so close to Peking, the capital, it was the site of frequent wars, including the Zhiwan War, the First Zhifeng War and the Second Zhifeng War. With the success of the Northern Expedition, a successful campaign by the Kuomintang to end the rule of the warlords, the capital was moved from Peking to Nanking; as a result, the name of Zhili was changed to Hebei to reflect the fact that it had a standard provincial administration, that the capital had been relocated elsewhere. During the Second World War, Heb

Yitzhak Artzi

Yitzhak Artzi was an Israeli politician who served as a member of the Knesset between 1984 and 1988. Artzi was born Izo Hertzig in Romania into a Hassidic family, he was educated at high schools in his hometown and Chernivtsi, before attending the Jewish College in Bucharest. A leading activist in the HaNoar HaTzioni youth movement, he was amongst the leadership of the Zionist underground in Romania during World War II, helping to rescue children from transit camps, as well as organising illegal immigration to Palestine and helping in the Cyprus internment camps, he made aliyah to Mandate Palestine himself in 1946, studied law and economics at Tel Aviv University, gaining certification as a lawyer. Between 1947 and 1950 he was a member of the Alonei Abba moshav. Whilst living there he had two children, Shlomo, a musician, Nava, a writer, he worked as an information and public relations officer for the State Income Administration. Having joined the Progressive Party, he served as its secretary general from 1959 until 1961 and was deputy editor of its Zmanim newspaper, where he headed its editorial board.

When the party merged into the Liberal Party, he served as its secretary general until 1965, when most former Progressive Party members left to establish the Independent Liberals, which he served as secretary general of for a year. From 1966 until 1969 he headed the Youth Aliyah department of the Jewish Agency for Israel, of which he was a member of the board of directors. From 1974 until 1979 he was vice mayor of Tel Aviv and deputy mayor between 1979 and 1983, he was elected to the Knesset in 1984 on the Alignment list. On 15 March 1988 he left the Alignment to join Shinui. However, he lost his seat in the elections that year, he died in 2003 at the age of 82. Yitzhak Artzi on the Knesset website

The Promiseland

The Promiseland is the thirty-fourth studio album by country singer Willie Nelson. It reached No. 1 on the US Country Albums chart. He was backed by Clint Strong Mark Yeary Dennis Hromek Biff Jimmy Belken of The Strangers. "Living in the Promiseland" – 3:18 "I'm Not Trying to Forget You" – 3:17 "Here in My Heart" – 3:50 "I've Got the Craziest Feeling" – 2:54 "No Place But Texas" – 3:22 "You're Only in My Arms" – 3:16 "Pass It On" – 3:10 "Do You Ever Think of Me" – 2:17 "Old Fashioned Love" – 2:47 "Basin Street Blues" – 4:09 "Bach Minuet in G" – 1:36 Willie Nelson - guitar, vocalsThe Strangers: Biff Adam - drums Jimmy Belken - fiddle Dennis Hromek - bass guitar Clint Strong - guitar Mark Yeary - keyboardsand Ritchie Albright - drums Johnny Gimble - fiddle Mickey Raphael - harmonica Bee Spears - bass guitar Bobby Arnold - engineer Paul Buskirk - guitar Bill Ginn - keyboards Larry Greenhill - engineer David Lynn Jones - guitar John Moran - assistant engineer Freddy Powers - guitar Denny Purcell - mastering Dean Reynolds - double bass Randee Saint Nicholas - photography Spencer Starnes - bass guitar Virginia Team - art direction