A rum row was a Prohibition-era term referring to a line of ships loaded with liquor anchored beyond the maritime limit of the United States. The maritime limit was three miles prior to April 21, 1924, 12 miles thereafter; these lines became established near major U. S. ports so that rum runners could load cargoes of alcoholic beverages from these freight ships and sneak them into port. This lucrative but dangerous business was punctuated by murder and other violent crimes. There are accounts of a Greek merchant turned rum runner, tied to an anchor and thrown overboard by his crew who wanted the rum for themselves; the cities were in Florida at first and the product was rum from the Caribbean. However, as the importation of whiskey from Canada increased, rum rows became established in locations along all the coastlines of the U. S. Notable rum-row locations included the New Jersey coast, San Francisco, Virginia and New Orleans. Twenty American navy destroyers were turned over to the Coast Guard to fight rum runners.
American Whiskey Trail Free State of Galveston Malahat Rocky Springs Segment of the Whoop-Up Trail Coulombe, Charles A.. Rum: The Epic Story of the Drink That Conquered the World. Kensington Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8065-2583-9. Haley, James L.. Passionate nation: the epic history of Texas. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 978-0-684-86291-0
Woman's Christian Temperance Union
The Woman's Christian Temperance Union is an active international temperance organization, among the first organizations of women devoted to social reform with a program that "linked the religious and the secular through concerted and far-reaching reform strategies based on applied Christianity." It was influential in the temperance movement, supported the 18th Amendment. It was influential in social reform issues that came to prominence in the progressive era; the WCTU was organized on December 23, 1873, in Hillsboro and declared at a national convention in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1874. It operated at an international level and in the context of religion and reform, including missionary work and woman's suffrage. Two years after its founding, the American WCTU sponsored an international conference at which the International Women's Christian Temperance Union was formed; the World's Woman's Christian Temperance Union was founded in 1883 and became the international arm of the organization, which has now affiliates in Australia, Germany, India, New Zealand, South Korea, United Kingdom, the United States, among others.
At its founding in 1874, the stated purpose of the WCTU was to create a "sober and pure world" by abstinence and evangelical Christianity. Annie Wittenmyer was its first president; the constitution of the WCTU called for "the entire prohibition of the manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors as a beverage."Frances Willard, a noted feminist, was elected the WCTU's second president in 1879 and Willard grew the organization to be the largest organization of women in the world by 1890. She remained president until her death in 1898, its members were inspired by the Greek writer Xenophon, who defined temperance as "moderation in all things healthful. In other words, should something be good, it should not be indulged in to excess; the WCTU perceived alcohol as a cause and consequence of larger social problems rather than as a personal weakness or failing. The WCTU agitated against tobacco; the American WCTU formed a "Department for the Overthrow of the Tobacco Habit" as early as 1885 and published anti-tobacco articles in the 1880s.
Agitation against tobacco continued through to the 1950s. As a consequence of its stated purposes, the WCTU was very interested in a number of social reform issues, including labor, public health and international peace; as the movement grew in numbers and strength, members of the WCTU focused on suffrage. The WCTU was instrumental in organizing woman's suffrage leaders and in helping more women become involved in American politics. Local chapters, known as "unions", were autonomous, though linked to state and national headquarters. Willard pushed for the "Home Protection" ballot, arguing that women, being the morally superior sex, needed the vote in order to act as "citizen-mothers" and protect their homes and cure society's ills. At a time when suffragists were viewed as radicals and alienated most American women, the WCTU offered a more traditionally feminine and "appropriate" organization for women to join. Although the WCTU had chapters throughout North America with hundreds of thousands of members, the "Christian" in its title was limited to those with an evangelical Protestant conviction and the importance of their role has been noted.
The goal of evangelizing the world, according to this model, meant that few Catholics, Muslims, Buddhists or Hindus were attracted to it, "even though the last three had a pronounced cultural and religious preference for abstinence". As the WCTU grew internationally, it developed various approaches that helped with the inclusion of women of religions other than Christianity. But, it was always and still is, a Christian women's organization; the WCTU's work extended across a range of efforts to bring about social moral reform. In the 1880s it worked on creating legislation to protect working girls from the exploitation of men, including raising Age of Consent laws, it focused on keeping Sundays as Sabbath days and restrict frivolous activities. In 1901 the WCTU said; the WCTU wanted to aid immigrants coming into the United States through "Americanization" activities. Between 1900 and 1920, much of their budget was given to their center on Ellis Island, which helped to start the Americanization process.
The WCTU promoted the idea that immigrants were more prone to alcoholism than Native Americans, focusing on Irish and German immigrant communities as the source of the problem. The WCTU was concerned about trying to alleviate poverty, through abstinence from alcohol. Through journal articles, the WCTU tried to prove. A fictional story in one of their journal articles illustrates this fact: Ned has applied for a job, but he is not chosen, he finds. Jack is a kindly man but he spends his money on drink and cigarettes. Ned has been seen drinking and smoking; the employer thinks that Ned Fisher lacks the necessary traits of industriousness which he associates with abstinence and self-control. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union grew rapidly; the WCTU adopted Willard's "Do Everything" philosophy, which meant that the "W. C. T. U. Campaigned for local and national prohibition, woman suffrage, protective purity legislation, scientific temperance instruction in the schools, better working conditions for labor, anti-polygamy
Charles "Lucky" Luciano was an influential Italian-born mobster, criminal mastermind, crime lord who operated in the United States. Luciano is considered the father of modern organized crime in the United States for the establishment of the first Commission, he was the first official boss of the modern Genovese crime family. He was, along with his associates, instrumental in the development of the National Crime Syndicate. Luciano was tried and convicted for compulsory prostitution and running a prostitution racket in 1936 after years of investigation by District Attorney Thomas E. Dewey, he was given a thirty-year prison sentence, but during World War II an agreement was struck with the Department of the Navy through his associate Meyer Lansky in order to protect New York's harbors from Axis U-boats. Dewey failed to keep his end of the bargain, it took months to come up with a solution to release Luciano, he was deported to live his life outside the U. S. Salvatore Lucania was born on November 24, 1897, in Lercara Friddi, Italy.
Luciano's parents and Rosalia Capporelli-Lucania, had four other children: Bartolomeo, Giuseppe and Concetta. Luciano's father worked in a sulfur mine in Sicily, his father was ambitious and persistent in moving to America. Luciano recounts in his semi-autobiography The Last Testament of Lucky Luciano: The Mafia Story in His Own Words that his father always had a new Palermo-based steamship company calendar each year and would save money for the boat trip by keeping a jar under his bed, he mentions in the book that his father was too proud to ask for money so instead his mother was given money by Luciano's cousin in secret, named Rotolo who lived in Lercara Friddi. In April 1906, when Luciano was nine years old, the family emigrated to the United States, they settled in New York City in the borough of Manhattan on its Lower East Side, a popular destination for Italian immigrants. At age 14, Luciano started a job delivering hats, earning $7 per week. However, after winning $244 in a dice game, Luciano quit his job and went to earning money on the street.
That same year, Luciano's parents sent him to the Brooklyn Truant School. As a teenager, Luciano was a member of the old Five Points Gang. Unlike other street gangs, whose business was petty crime, Luciano offered protection to Jewish youngsters from Italian and Irish gangs for 10 cents per week, he was learning the pimping trade in the years around World War I. Around this time, Luciano met Meyer Lansky, his future business partner and close friend, it is not clear how Luciano earned the nickname "Lucky". It may have come from surviving a severe beating by three men in 1929, as well as a throat slashing; this was. The nickname may be attributed to his gambling luck, or to a simple mispronunciation of his last name. From 1916 to 1936, Luciano was arrested 25 times on charges including assault, illegal gambling and robbery, but spent no time in prison, it is not clear how his surname came to be rendered "Luciano." This too may have been the result of persistent misspellings by newspapers, he is not known to have used it.
On January 17, 1920, the Eighteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution took effect and Prohibition lasted until the amendment was repealed in 1933; the amendment prohibited the manufacture and transportation of alcoholic beverages. As there was still a substantial demand for alcohol, this provided criminals with an added source of income. By 1920, Luciano had met many future Mafia leaders, including Vito Genovese and Frank Costello, his longtime friend and future business partner through the Five Points Gang; that same year, Lower Manhattan gang boss Joe Masseria recruited Luciano as one of his gunmen. Around that same time and his close associates started working for gambler Arnold "The Brain" Rothstein, who saw the potential windfall from Prohibition and educated Luciano on running bootleg alcohol as a business. Luciano and Genovese started their own bootlegging operation with financing from Rothstein. Rothstein served as a mentor for Luciano. In 1923, Luciano was caught in a sting selling heroin to undercover agents.
Although he saw no jail time, being outed as a drug peddler damaged his reputation among his high-class associates and customers. To salvage his reputation, Luciano bought 200 expensive seats to the Jack Dempsey–Luis Firpo boxing match in the Bronx and distributed them to top gangsters and politicians. Rothstein took Luciano on a shopping trip to Wanamaker's Department Store in Manhattan to buy expensive clothes for the fight; the strategy worked, Luciano's reputation was saved. By 1925, Luciano was grossing over $12 million a year, he had a net income of around $4 million each year after the costs of bribing politicians and police. Luciano and his partners ran the largest bootlegging operation in New York, one that extended into Philadelphia, he imported Scotch whisky from Scotland, rum from the Caribbean, whisky from Canada. Luciano was involved in illegal gambling. Luciano soon became a top aide in Masseria's criminal organization. In contrast to Rothstein, Masseria was uneducated, with limited managerial skills.
By the late 1920s, Masseria's main rival was boss Salvatore Maranzano, who had come from Sicily to run the Castellammarese clan. Maranzano refused to pay commissions to Masseria, their rivalry escalated into the bloody Cas
Medicinal Liquor Prescriptions Act of 1933
Medicinal Liquor Prescriptions Act of 1933 is a United States federal statute establishing prescription limitations for physicians possessing a permit to dispense medicinal liquor. The public law seek to abolish the use of the medicinal liquor prescription form introducing medicinal liquor revenue stamps as a substitution for official prescription blanks; the Act of Congress amended Title II - Prohibition of Intoxicating Beverages as enacted by the National Prohibition Act of 1919. The alcohol prohibition law, better known as the Volstead Act, was amended twelve years before by the 67th United States Congress authorizing dispensary restrictions of ethyl alcohol by druggists or physicians; the public law was entitled the National Prohibition Supplemental Act of 1921. The 72nd United States Congress pursued passage of a medicinal liquor regulatory bill ahead of the March 4, 1933 Congressional session expiration. House bill 14395 went before the United States House of Representatives on February 25, 1933 resulting in a one hundred and sixty-eight to one hundred and sixty narrow margin vote.
Senate bill 562 was passed by the 73rd U. S. Congress and enacted into law by the 32nd President of the United States Franklin Roosevelt on March 31, 1933. Absinthe Denatured alcohol Distilled beverage Elixir Emory Buckner Excise tax in the United States History of alcoholic drinks History of medicine in the United States History of pharmacy in the United States Mint julep Moonshine Rectified spirit "Internal Revenue Commissioner Outlines Regulations on Druggists and Physicians". New York Times. July 1, 1919. "Revenue Collector Tells How Prescriptions May Be Filled Under Treasury Decision". New York Times. July 30, 1919. "Roping the Doctor with Red Tape". New York Times. January 11, 1920. "Physicians Endorse Whisky as Medicine". New York Times. May 23, 1922. "Liquor Fraud Laid to 27 Physicians". New York Times. March 17, 1926. "Warrants are Issued for 15 More Doctors". New York Times. March 26, 1926. "Distilling of Whisky to be Authorized Soon to Add 1,500,000 Gallons to Medicinal Stock". New York Times. July 16, 1929.
Gordon, Ernest. The Wrecking of the Eighteenth Amendment. Internet Archive. Francestown, N. H.: The Alcohol Information Press. ISBN 978-1258409807. OCLC 949392. Jones, Bartlett C.. "A Prohibition Problem: Liquor as Medicine 1920–1933". Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. XVIII. Oxford University Press: 353–369. Doi:10.1093/jhmas/XVIII.4.353. Gambino, Megan. "During Prohibition, Your Doctor Could Write You a Prescription for Booze". Smithsonian.com. Rourke, Steven. "Drink Up! Alcohol as Medicine Through History". Medscape. Konstantinovsky, Michelle. "Ridiculous History: When Doctors'Prescribed' Alcohol During Prohibition". How Stuff Works. "Medicinal Alcohol". American Prohibition in the 1920s. Ohio State University
Michael "Mickey" Duffy -- known as John Murphy and George McEwen -- was a Polish-American mobster and rival of Maxie "Boo Boo" Hoff during Prohibition. He became one of the most powerful beer bootleggers in Philadelphia. Born William Michael Cusick to Polish immigrants in Grays Ferry, Pennsylvania, he changed his name to fit in well with the Irish gangs in Philadelphia. Duffy became involved in petty theft and other misdemeanors during his youth before more serious crimes during his teenage years, including armed robbery and hijacking prior to entering bootlegging during Prohibition. In May 1919, Duffy was arrested for assault and battery with intent to kill serving two years and eleven months at the Eastern State Penitentiary, Philadelphia. Upon his release, Prohibition was law and organized crime syndicates began smuggling and selling illegal alcohol, he married Edith Craig shortly after his release. By the early 1920s, Duffy had become one of the most dominant bootleggers in the Delaware Valley possessing breweries in Philadelphia and South Jersey.
His associates included former rival Max Hassel, Harry Green, James Richardson, Charles Bodine and Nicholas Delmore although he would be in frequent battle against rivals such as Hoff and the Bailey brothers throughout the decade. During this time, Duffy expanded into legitimate businesses including owning several prominent clubs, including the Perkin and the fashionable Club Cadix at 23rd and Chestnut streets in Philadelphia in 1924, he ran his bootlegging and numbers businesses from the old Ritz-Carlton hotel. Duffy was shot three times leaving the Club Cadix late on the night of February 25, 1927 by Francis Bailey and Peter Ford, his bodyguard, John Bricker, was killed, Earl Brown, the club's doorman, was wounded. This shooting was the first instance of a Thompson submachine gun being used in Philadelphia's underworld. Duffy was returned to his bootlegging business. In the mid-1920s, Duffy's violent methods brought him into conflict with Reading-based bootlegger Max Hassel. Along with Waxey Gordon, Hassel controlled a number of breweries in Pennsylvania and Northern New Jersey.
The aggressive Duffy forced his way into the lucrative Jersey territory forcing Hassel to hand over a brewery to him. Duffy earned such great profits from both beer and numbers businesses that by 1930 he had built a mansion for himself and his wife Edith in Penn Wynne, Pennsylvania. Duffy's home was on the Penn Wynne side of City Line across from 77th Street. Built by McWilliams & Maloney in the style of a Mediterranean villa, the structure had white with green satyrs on the sides and black palm trees painted on the facade. Following the death of John Finiello, an agent of the Bureau of Prohibition killed during a September 19, 1930 raid on one of Duffy's breweries in Elizabethtown, New Jersey, local authorities began cracking down of Duffy's criminal operations causing some animosity among his partners including his bodyguard and chauffeur Joseph Beatty. While staying at the Ambassador Hotel in Atlantic City, Duffy was shot to death by unknown assailants on August 31, 1931. Although the case remained unsolved, it was suspected by authorities at the time that the alleged assailants may have been associates, disgruntled with Duffy and had conspired to seize control of Duffy's bootlegging operations.
Mafia mobster and future boxing promoter Frankie Carbo of the Lucchese crime family was charged with Duffy's murder, but was not prosecuted after furnishing an alibi, due to a lack of evidence. Within several months, two individuals alleged to have been involved, Samuel E. Grossman and Albert Skale, were gunned down at a club on Watts Street and Girard Avenue in December 1931 beginning a wave of violence among various factions among the Philadelphia underworld. Duffy's funeral was an event. Thousands of people flocked to the cemetery but a police line kept them outside the entrance gate. Friends and family of Duffy required a special pass to enter. In the HBO TV series Boardwalk Empire, a fictional character Mickey Doyle is based on Mickey Duffy, played by Paul Sparks
The Prohibition Party is a political party in the United States best known for its historic opposition to the sale or consumption of alcoholic beverages. It is the oldest existing third party in the US; the party is an integral part of the temperance movement. While never one of the leading parties in the United States, it was once an important force in the Third Party System during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it declined after the repeal of Prohibition in 1933. The party's candidate received 518 votes in the 2012 presidential election and 5,617 votes in the 2016 presidential election; the platform of the party is liberal in that it supports environmental stewardship, women's rights and free education, but is conservative on social issues, such as supporting temperance and advocating for a pro-life stance. The Prohibition Party was founded in 1869, its first National Committee Chairman was John Russell of Michigan. It succeeded in getting communities and many counties in the states to outlaw the production and sale of intoxicating beverages.
At the same time, its ideology broadened to include aspects of progressivism. The party contributed to the third-party discussions of the 1910s and sent Charles H. Randall to the 64th, 65th and 66th Congresses as the representative of California's 9th congressional district. Democrat Sidney J. Catts of Florida, after losing a close Democratic primary, used the Prohibition line to win election as Governor of Florida in 1916; the Prohibition Party's proudest moment came in 1919, with the passage of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution, which outlawed the production, transportation and export of alcohol. The era during which alcohol was illegal in the United States is known as "Prohibition". During the Prohibition era, the Prohibition Party pressed for stricter enforcement of the prohibition laws. During the 1928 election, for example, it considered endorsing Republican Herbert Hoover rather than running its own candidate. However, by a 3/4 vote, its national executive committee voted to nominate its own candidate, William F. Varney, instead.
They did this. The Prohibition Party became more critical of Hoover after he was elected President. By the 1932 election, party chairman David Leigh Colvin thundered that "The Republican wet plank means that Mr. Hoover is the most conspicuous turncoat since Benedict Arnold." Hoover lost the election, but national prohibition was repealed anyway in 1933, with the 21st Amendment during the Roosevelt administration. The 19th Amendment, which gave women the right to vote, did not pass until 1920. Yet, in 1869, the Prohibition Party became the first to accept women as party members and gave women who attended its first national convention full delegate rights; this was the first time. These women "spoke from the floor, entered debates, introduced resolutions, voted on the party platform". Women's suffrage appeared on the Prohibition Party platform in 1872. In 1892, the platform included the idea of equal pay for equal work. Delia L. Weatherby was an alternate delegate from the 4th congressional district of Kansas to the National Prohibition Convention in 1892, secured, the same year, for the second time by the same party, the nomination for the office of superintendent of public instruction in her own county.
By contrast, women’s suffrage did not appear on the platform of either the Democratic or Republican platform until 1916. The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, which became instrumental in the passage of the 18th Amendment, started out as the women’s branch of the Prohibition Party, it went on to become more influential than the party itself. It was "the largest women’s organization of the nineteenth century and the heart of the organized demand for prohibition and women’s rights as well as for prison and labor reform, for public support for neglected children, for peace – in short for a transformed society dedicated to social justice"; some of the most important women involved in this movement were: Marie C. Brehm – Vice Presidential candidate in 1924 – first unambiguously qualified woman to be nominated for this position Rachel Bubar Kelly – Vice Presidential candidate in 1996 Susanna Madora Salter – First female mayor in the United States. Elected in Argonia, Kansas in 1887 Eliza Stewart – Her successes in the courtroom were one reason why the Prohibition Party began to embrace lawsuits as a means to get their message across.
Part of the Woman's Crusade. She went on to hold important positions within the party as well as help guide WCTU development, along with women such as Mattie McClellan Brown, Harriet Goff, Amanda Way. C. Augusta Morse – In regards to the Woman's Crusade, she claimed it was "'the dawn of a new era in women's relation to reform. Never again can women be silenced by the ghost of the old dogma that her voice is not to be heard in public." Frances Willard – One of the founders of the WCTU. It is forgotten that Willard made great advances before her involvement in the temperance movement. In 1871 she became the first female president of a college that granted degrees to women: Evanston College, she helped found the Association for the Advancement of Women in 1873 before she began her work in the temperance movement in 1874. After founding the WCTU, she became the first corresponding secretary. In 1879, she became the second president of the WCTU. During her 19 years as president, the WCTU became the largest organization of women in the United States.
In 1883, she helped. Under h
Prohibition is the act or practice of forbidding something by law. The word is used to refer to a period of time during which such bans are enforced; some kind of limitation on the trade in alcohol can be seen in the Code of Hammurabi banning the selling of beer for money. It could only be bartered for barley: "If a beer seller do not receive barley as the price for beer, but if she receive money or make the beer a measure smaller than the barley measure received, they shall throw her into the water."In the Western world, one of the great moral issues of the nineteenth century was slavery, but once that battle was won, social moralists turned to their next targets, one of, prohibition. In the early twentieth century, much of the impetus for the prohibition movement in the Nordic countries and North America came from moralistic convictions of pietistic Protestants. Prohibition movements in the West coincided with the advent of women's suffrage, with newly empowered women as part of the political process supporting policies that curbed alcohol consumption.
The first half of the 20th century saw periods of prohibition of alcoholic beverages in several countries: 1907 to 1948 in Prince Edward Island, for shorter periods in other provinces in Canada 1907 to 1992 in the Faroe Islands. Rum-running or bootlegging became widespread, organized crime took control of the distribution of alcohol. Distilleries and breweries in Canada and the Caribbean flourished as their products were either consumed by visiting Americans or illegally exported to the United States. Chicago became notorious as a haven for prohibition dodgers during the time known as the Roaring Twenties. Prohibition came to an end in the late 1920s or early 1930s in most of North America and Europe, although a few locations continued prohibition for many more years. In some countries where the dominant religion forbids the use of alcohol, the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages is prohibited or restricted today. For example, in Saudi Arabia and Libya alcohol is banned. Sale of alcohol is banned in Afghanistan.
In Bangladesh, alcohol is somewhat prohibited due to its proscription in the Islamic faith. However, the purchase and consumption is allowed in the country; the Garo tribe consume a type of rice beer, Christians in this country drink and purchase wine for their holy communion. In Brunei, alcohol consumption and sale is banned in public. Non-Muslims are allowed to purchase a limited amount of alcohol from their point of embarcation overseas for their own private consumption, non-Muslims who are at least the age of 18 are allowed to bring in not more than two bottles of liquor and twelve cans of beer per person into the country. In India alcohol is a state subject and individual states can legislate prohibition, but most states do not have prohibition and sale/consumption is available in 25 out of 29 states. Prohibition is in force in the states of Gujarat and Nagaland, parts of Manipur, the union territory of Lakshadweep. All other States and union territories of India permit the sale of alcohol.
Election days and certain national holidays such as Independence Day are meant to be dry days when liquor sale is not permitted but consumption is allowed. Some Indian states observe dry days on major religious festivals/occasions depending on the popularity of the festival in that region. Since the 1979 Islamic Revolution, the sale and consumption of alcohol is banned in Iran. All people are banned from drinking alcohol but some people trade and sell it illegally. Alcohol sales are banned in small shops and convenience stores; the consumption and brewing of, trafficking in liquor is against the law. Alcohol is banned only for Muslims in Malaysia due to its Islamic sharia law. Alcoholic products can be found in supermarkets, specialty shops, convenience stores all over the country. Non-halal restaurants typically sell alcohol; the Maldives ban the import of alcohol. Alcoholic beverages are available only to foreign tourists on resort islands and may not be taken off the resort. Pakistan allowed the free sale and consumption of alcohol for three decades from 1947, but restrictions were introduced by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto just weeks before he was removed as prime minister in 1977.
Since only members of non-Muslim minorities such as Hindus and Zoroastrians are allowed to apply for alcohol permits. The monthly quota is dependent upon one's income, but is about five bottles of liquor or 100 bottles of beer. In a country of 180 million, only about 60 outlets are allowed to sell alcohol; the Murree Brewery in Rawalpindi was once the only legal brewery. The ban is enforced by the country's Islamic Ideology Council, but it is not policed. Members of religious minorities, however sell their liquor permits to Muslims as part of a continuing black market trade in alcohol. There are only rest