Zambia the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa. It neighbours the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, Angola to the west; the capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of Zambia. The population is concentrated around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the northwest, the core economic hubs of the country. Inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. After visits by European explorers in the eighteenth century, the region became the British protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century; these were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company.
On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party maintained power from 1964 until 1991. Kaunda played a key role in regional diplomacy, cooperating with the United States in search of solutions to conflicts in Rhodesia and Namibia. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with the UNIP as the sole legal political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation". Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of social-economic growth and government decentralisation. Levy Mwanawasa, Chiluba's chosen successor, presided over Zambia from January 2002 until his death in August 2008, is credited with campaigns to reduce corruption and increase the standard of living. After Mwanawasa's death, Rupiah Banda presided as Acting President before being elected President in 2008. Holding office for only three years, Banda stepped down after his defeat in the 2011 elections by Patriotic Front party leader Michael Sata.
Sata died on 28 October 2014. Guy Scott served as interim president until new elections were held on 20 January 2015, in which Edgar Lungu was elected as the sixth President. In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries; the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa is headquartered in Lusaka. The territory of what is now Zambia was known as Northern Rhodesia from 1911, it was renamed Zambia at independence in 1964. The new name of Zambia was derived from the Zambezi river; the area of modern Zambia is known to have been inhabited by the Khoisan until around AD 300, when migrating Bantu began to settle around these areas. These early hunter-gatherer groups were either annihilated or absorbed by subsequent more organised Bantu groups. Archaeological excavation work on the Zambezi Valley and Kalambo Falls show a succession of human cultures. In particular, ancient camping site tools near the Kalambo Falls have been radiocarbon dated to more than 36,000 year ago.
The fossil skull remains of Broken Hill Man, dated between 300,000 and 125,000 years BC, further shows that the area was inhabited by early humans. The early history of the peoples of modern Zambia can only be gleaned from knowledge passed down by generations through word of mouth. In the 12th century, waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants arrived during the Bantu expansion. Among them, the Tonga people were the first to settle in Zambia and are believed to have come from the east near the "big sea"; the Nkoya people arrived early in the expansion, coming from the Luba–Lunda kingdoms in the southern parts of the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo and northern Angola, followed by a much larger influx between the late 12th and early 13th centuries To the east, the Maravi Empire spanning the vast areas of Malawi and parts of modern northern Mozambique began to flourish under Kalonga. At the end of the 18th century, some of the Mbunda migrated to Barotseland, Mongu upon the migration of among others, the Ciyengele.
The Aluyi and their leader, the Litunga Mulambwa valued the Mbunda for their fighting ability. In the early 19th century, the Nsokolo people settled in the Mbala district of Northern Province. During the 19th century, the Ngoni and Sotho peoples arrived from the south. By the late 19th century, most of the various peoples of Zambia were established in their current areas; the earliest European to visit the area was the Portuguese explorer Francisco de Lacerda in the late 18th century. Lacerda led an expedition from Mozambique to the Kazembe region in Zambia, died during the expedition in 1798; the expedition was from on led by his friend Francisco Pinto. This territory, located between Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Angola, was claimed and explored by Portugal in that period. Other European visitors followed in the 19th century; the most prominent of these was David Livingstone, who had a vision of ending the slave trade through the "3 Cs": Christianity and Civilization. He was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River in 1855, naming them the Victoria Falls after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
He described them thus: "Scenes so lovely must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight". Locally the falls are known as "Mosi-o-Tunya" or "thunder
Star Academy (Arabia)
Star Academy Arab World known as Star Academy: Al-Academya or Star Academy Arabia, is a pan-Arab televised talent show, which aired in 2003. The show features a group of young male and female candidates who are selected from a pan-Arab pool of more than three-thousand and are sequestered for four months in "The Academy," a four-story building in Lebanon, where they live and compete against one another every week; the show became an everyday much-watched event across the Arab World. The show was adapted from a French show of the same name and is produced by Dutch company Endemol, Vanilla Productions & PAC Ltd. Star Academy Arab World is based on the Spanish format called Operación Triunfo; the show centers around the 16 candidates who compete in weekly talent competitions, singing and acting during on-stage performances. At the end of every week, one contestant is kicked off by a public vote by the viewers. One of the show's highlights are the appearances of some of the Arab World's most important performers such as Najwa Karam, Diana Haddad, Haifa Wahbe, Angham, Ramy Ayach, Myriam Fares, Kazem Al Saher, Nawal Al-Zoghbi, Marwan Khoury, Carole Samaha, Ehab Tawfik, Wael Kfoury, Fares Karam, Abdallah Al Rowaished, Saad Lamjarred and many more.
The show has been successful for its reinvention and continuous changes, just as, starting from the third season, the show witnessed guests from international superstars such as Julio Iglesias, Karl Wolf, Tina Arena, Chris De Burgh and Massari. On February 10, 2014, LBCI CBC & Endemol Middle East announced that Star Academy will renew another season; the casting started and will be held in Amman, Erbil, Cairo, Casablanca, Marrakech and Sousse. Based in Adma, a city north of Beirut, the show is aired for 4 months on the Egyptian TV station CBC and on the Lebanese terrestrial channel LBC and is hosted by Hilda Khalife; the show follows 16 candidates through their weeks living in "The Academy," training with "teachers," and performing their talents in live on-stage shows. While many choose to sing, talents are not restricted to vocal performances; the show takes on a few different formats depending on the day of the week. Every day, there is a one-hour "access" show that goes over the day's exciting events.
On Friday, there is a live performance show where the candidates compete against each other, sometimes alongside famous domestic and international stars, are voted off one by one. In addition, viewers can tune into "The Academy" 24/7 by watching LBC Reality, a dedicated satellite station; the concept of the show is training the students in several disciplines: singing, sports, theatre expression and musical culture. Each Monday, the three weakest students are nominated; the nomination is done by the teaching staff after the candidates undergo an evaluation test the day before Sunday. On Friday, a special live show called. During the prime show, the candidates sing either by themselves or with guest artists; the three nominated candidates' initial voting is through the public, done by either phone calls or text messages. The one with the highest percentage of votes returns; the two remaining candidates are voted on by their fellow candidates, the one with the most votes remains. The other candidate has to leave the academy immediately.
When the overall number of candidates is reduced, the nomination by the professors comes down to two students. At this point, it's up to the public to vote, in and, out, as the remaining candidates do not vote; the show proved to be immensely popular. As the CBC station provides satellite connections to more than two dozen Arab countries and to Egyptian and/or Arab communities throughout the world, it became one of the most popular shows in the Arab-speaking world. In Saudi Arabia in particular, Star Academy was a media event so popular that its broadcasts achieved record ratings, emptied streets in major cities like Jedda, animated debates, inspired Mosque sermons, distracted students from focusing on final exams in May 2004. CBC And LBCI, the networks airing the show, reaped huge profits from the show but have been unable to replicate the show's success with other reality shows; this debate caused the indefinite postponing of West Asian edition of Big Brother known as Big Brother – Al Raiss.
While the show is immensely popular among viewers in Saudi Arabia, many conservative and religious leaders have criticized the show for promoting anti-Islamic behavior and ideals. Star Academy has sparked intense debates over the role of Islam in public life, Western cultural influence, gender relations, political participation and has subverted Wahhabi notions of social order. In response to countless questions from religious Saudi viewers who questioned whether or not it was religiously haram or halal to watch the show and participate in the voting component of Star Academy, the Permanent Committee for Scientific Research and the Issuing of Fatwas issued a related fatwa that prohibited watching, voting in, or participating in Star Academy, as well as urging businessmen not to finance this or any similar show. According to the Committee, the fatwa was issued because the show carried a number of serious issues including "free mixing of the sexes," "the wanton display and unveiling on the part of the women displaying their charms," and blatant promotion of immorality by "making Muslims get used to seeing these shameful scenes that provoke desires and by distancing them from good morals and virtues."
The Committee al
Operación Triunfo (Spanish TV series)
Operación Triunfo is a reality television talent show which first aired on Spain's TVE network in 2001. A music talent contest with viewer voting and reality show elements that originated Endemol's Star Academy franchise, the show aims to find the country's next solo singing sensation. Operación Triunfo first aired in 2001. On its first run between 2001 and 2004, three seasons were aired on TVE, which served as the national final to select the Spanish entry for the Eurovision Song Contest; the first season of OT was successful in ratings, becoming one of the most popular shows in the history of Spanish television and featuring singers that went on to enjoy long-term recognition from the public: notably Rosa López, David Bisbal, David Bustamante or Chenoa. After the third season, TVE decided not to renew the show and its rights were acquired by Telecinco, which aired seasons 5–8 of the series. Season 8 in 2011 was cancelled due to poor ratings and its finale was rushed as a result. On April 26, 2017, RTVE approved a new season of the talent show produced by Gestmusic Endemol, returning to TVE after 13 years.
The total cost of the season was €10.2 million. Due to its ratings success, it was renewed for a further season. A selection of hopefuls is boarded in "The Academy", managed by a headmaster, where they are coached by various professionals in several artistic disciplines and are filmed with cameras. Once a week, the contestants have to face a prime time show, where they sing a cover version of a popular song they have prepared during the week before, as well as recapping their trials and tribulations at The Academy from the past week; the live show will feature special guest stars, with whom some of the contestants have the opportunity to sing. Based on the judges' verdicts and viewer voting, the weakest contestant is dropped; the eventual winner is awarded a record deal and/or some amount of money. All contestants appearing above were born in Spain, except for Chenoa, Argentinian-born, Moritz Weisskopf, German, Chipper Cooke, from the United States, Brenda Mau, from Peru, Alexandra Masangkay, from the Philippines, winner of season 8 Nahuel Sachak, from Paraguay, winner of season 10 Famous Oberogo, Nigerian-born.
All three finalists of the first series released debut albums, but while Rosa scored seventh place in the Eurovision Song Contest 2002 with the song "Europe's Living a Celebration", had notable success with her albums, it was Bisbal who went on to international success winning a Latin Grammy Award for Best Newcomer for his album Corazón Latino. Other participants of this first edition launched successful solo careers. In addition, Gisela started a career in musical theater; the second series of Operación Triunfo became an anomaly in the category of popular reality TV music shows. First of all, the winner had little success after the show. Second of all, many contestants who did not do well had massive success across Europe and Latin America, not just in Spain: Beth was chosen to represent Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 2003, she scored 8th place with the song "Dime". The first person out of the show, Mai Meneses, rose to prominence in 2006 when herself and a childhood friend formed the band Nena Daconte.
They released an album, He Perdido Los Zapatos, praised by critics. The album sold over 200,000 copies in Spain alone, an amazing feat as an average album to get to number 1 in Spain needs around 20,000 sales. Vega, who came 9th, managed to release the best selling single of 2003 in Spain with her own composition, "iGrita!", with over one million copies sold. Runner-up Ramón was chosen to represent Spain in the Eurovision Song Contest 2004, he scored 10th place with the song "Para llenarme de ti". This was the last series aired by TVE until 2017, the one with the lowest ratings until 2011. TVE refused a fourth series, choosing to select its Eurovision Song Contest entry using a multi-artist national final; the show was offered to Telecinco, who bought its rights. This fourth season started airing in June 2005 and got better ratings than the third one, but it never reached the results that the first season achieved. Runner-up Soraya Arnelas would represent Spain at the Eurovision Song Contest 2009 and sixth-placed Edurne would represent Spain at the Eurovision Song Contest 2015.
Telecinco announced in May 2006 that the fifth series of the program was to be released in October 2006. In July, 25 Telecinco aired a special show titled Operación Triunfo 2006: Otra Vez en Marcha. In this show some former OT artists performed and the new selection of contestants was introduced; the fifth series started on Sunday October 8, 2006 with 18 finalists, but two finalists had to leave and they didn't enter the academy. It created some controversy as one of the first two people out that night was the first black person, Claritzel to be on the show, she had to leave the show because of a heart intervention. Castings started in Barcelona for the new series on February 18, 2008; the sixth season began on April 2008, with 18 candidates to enter the academy. This season has been the most controversial because many critics pointed that the season centered more on the reality show aspect than on the contestants' performing talent. Runner-up Pablo López went on to launch a successful recording ca
Reality television is a genre of television programming that documents purportedly unscripted real-life situations starring unknown individuals rather than professional actors. Reality television came to prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000s with the global successes of the series Survivor and Big Brother, all of which became global franchises. Reality television shows tend to be interspersed with "confessionals", short interview segments in which cast members reflect on or provide context for the events being depicted on-screen. Competition-based reality shows feature gradual elimination of participants, either by a panel of judges or by the viewership of the show. Documentaries, television news, sports television, talk shows, traditional game shows are not classified as reality television; some genres of television programming that predate the reality television boom are retroactively labeled reality television, including hidden camera shows, talent-search shows, documentary series about ordinary people, high-concept game shows, home improvement shows, court shows featuring real-life cases.
Reality television has faced significant criticism since its rise in popularity. Critics argue reality television shows do not reflect reality, in ways both implicit, deceptive; some have been accused of underdog to win. Other criticisms of reality television shows include that they are intended to humiliate or exploit participants. Television formats portraying ordinary people in unscripted situations are as old as the television medium itself. Producer-host Allen Funt's Candid Camera, in which unsuspecting people were confronted with funny, unusual situations and filmed with hidden cameras, first aired in 1948, is seen as a prototype of reality television programming. Precedents for television that portrayed people in unscripted situations began in the late 1940s. Queen for a Day was an early example of reality-based television; the 1946 television game show Carry sometimes featured contestants performing stunts. Debuting in 1948, Allen Funt's hidden camera show Candid Camera broadcast unsuspecting ordinary people reacting to pranks.
In 1948, talent search shows Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour and Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts featured amateur competitors and audience voting. In the 1950s, game shows Beat the Clock and Truth or Consequences involved contestants in wacky competitions and practical jokes. Confession was a crime/police show which aired from June 1958 to January 1959, with interviewer Jack Wyatt questioning criminals from assorted backgrounds; the radio series Nightwatch tape-recorded the daily activities of Culver City, California police officers. The series You Asked for It incorporated audience involvement by basing episodes around requests sent in by postcard from viewers. "You're Another", a science fiction short story by American writer Damon Knight, first appeared in the June 1955 issue of The Magazine of Fantasy and Science Fiction and contains the earliest fictional depiction of what is now called reality television. First broadcast in the United Kingdom in 1964, the Granada Television documentary Seven Up!, broadcast interviews with a dozen ordinary 7-year-olds from a broad cross-section of society and inquired about their reactions to everyday life.
Every seven years, a film documented the life of the same individuals during the intervening period, titled the Up Series, episodes include "7 Plus Seven", "21 Up", etc.. The program was structured as a series of interviews with no element of plot. However, it did have the then-new effect of turning ordinary people into celebrities; the first reality show in the modern sense may have been the series The American Sportsman, which ran from 1965 to 1986 on ABC in the United States. A typical episode featured one or more celebrities, sometimes their family members, being accompanied by a camera crew on an outdoor adventure, such as hunting, hiking, scuba diving, rock climbing, wildlife photography, horseback riding, race car driving, the like, with most of the resulting action and dialogue being unscripted, except for the narration. In the 1966 Direct Cinema film Chelsea Girls, Andy Warhol filmed various acquaintances with no direction given; the 12-part 1973 PBS series An American Family showed a nuclear family going through a divorce.
In 1974 a counterpart program, The Family, was made in the UK, following the working class Wilkins family of Reading. Other forerunners of modern reality television were the 1970s productions of Chuck Barris: The Dating Game, The Newlywed Game, The Gong Show, all of which featured participants who were eager to sacrifice some of their privacy and dignity in a televised competition; the 1976-1980 BBC series The Big Time showed, in each of its 15 episodes, a different amateur in some field trying to succeed professionally in that field, with help from notable experts. The series is credited with starting the career of Sheena Easton, selected to appear in the episode showing an aspiring pop singer trying to enter the music business. In 1978, Living in the Past recreated life in an
Star Academy (French TV series)
Star Academy is a French reality television show based on the Spanish hit TV show Operación Triunfo. It is produced by the Dutch company Endemol, it consists of a contest of young singers. It spawned an successful show in Quebec called Star Académie, it was broadcast on TF1 and NRJ12. At the end of each season, selected contestants would go on tour around France, Switzerland, Belgium and other French-speaking countries; the contestants stayed in the Dammarie-lès-Lys castle: The Vives-Eaux castle. The reality show was hosted by Nikos Aliagas and featured guest stars such as Madonna, Britney Spears, Beyoncé, Katy Perry, Jonas Brothers, Miley Cyrus, Mariah Carey, Céline Dion, The Corrs, Simple Plan, Tina Arena, Nelly Furtado, Tokio Hotel, Alicia Keys, Craig David, 50 Cent, will.i.am, Destiny's Child, James Blunt, Sting, David Guetta, Lenny Kravitz, Janet Jackson, Liza Minnelli, Phil Collins, Laura Pausini, Kylie Minogue, Dannii Minogue, Tina Turner, Andrea Bocelli, Charles Aznavour, Hélène Ségara, Peter Kingsbery, Lara Fabian, Shania Twain, Avril Lavigne, Alizée, Johnny Hallyday, Paul Anka, Lionel Richie, Alanis Morissette, Ray Charles, Stevie Wonder, Elton John, Bee Gees, Ricky Martin.
The contestants are classed in order. Jenifer Bartoli - participated in the Star Academy Tour, released debut album Jenifer and follow-up Le Passage. Released live CD & DVD Jenifer fait son live. Mario Barravecchia - participated in the Star Academy Tour Jean-Pascal Lacoste - participated in the Star Academy Tour Carine Haddadou Olivia Ruiz - participated in the Star Academy Tour, released debut album J'aime pas l'amour in 2003 and follow-up album La Femme Chocolat in 2005. Jessica Marquez - participated in the Star Academy Tour Patrice Maktav - participated in the Star Academy Tour Djalil Amine - participated in the Star Academy Tour François Roure - participated in the Star Academy Tour Cécile Boutry Sidonie Koch Grégory Gulli - participated in the Star Academy Tour Stéphane Bosmans Amandine Bisqueret Khalifa M'Baye CatherineSeason 1 was won in 2001 by Jenifer Bartoli from Nice, who has become one of France's best-loved new female singers since then. Second studio album Le Passage has songwriting contributions from Calogero and Benoît Poher from Kyo.
She released two other studio albums and Apelle-moi Jen. Carine and Mario, along with series 2 contestants Anne-Laure and Houcine and series 5 contestants Pierre and Alexia make up the cast of a new comedie-musicale in France "Salut Joe" which features the songs of legendary star Joe Dassin. Olivia Ruiz has enjoyed commercial success with her album La Femme Chocolat. Nolwenn Leroy - participated in the Star Academy Tour, released debut album Nolwenn and follow-up Histoires Naturelles. Released live CD & DVD Histoires Naturelles Tour. Houcine Camara - participated in the Star Academy Tour Emma Daumas - participated in the Star Academy Tour Georges-Alain Jones - participated in the Star Academy Tour Aurélie Konaté - participated in the Star Academy Tour Jérémy Chatelain - participated in the Star Academy Tour Anne-Laure Sibon - participated in the Star Academy Tour Fabien Fasake - participated in the Star Academy Tour Alexandre Balduzzi - participated in the Star Academy Tour Isabelle Lem Eva Chemouni Rudy Carvalho Philip Miro Nazim Florence Stéphanie HansenSeason 2 of Star Academy launched some singers with successful solo careers - winner Nolwenn but Emma, who reinvented herself as France's answer to Avril Lavigne.
Élodie Frégé - participated in the Star Academy Tour and released debut CD Elodie Frégé early in 2004 and 3 others in 2006, 2007 and 2010. Michal - participated in the Star Academy Tour Sofia Essaïdi - participated in the Star Academy Tour and released debut CD Mon cabaret in 2005. Patxi Garat - participated in the Star Academy Tour Morganne Matis - participated in the Star Academy Tour and released debut cd Une fille De L'ere in 2006 Lukas Delcourt - participated in the Star Academy Tour - appeared in French drama series Sous le soleil. Pierre Bouley - participated in the Star Academy Tour and member of Premix. Romain Billard - participated in the Star Academy Tour and member of Premix Amina El Bennouni Stéphanie Dalmasso - appeared in French drama series Sous le soleil. Edouard Algayon - participated in the Star Academy Tour, formed the trio Premix with Pierre and Romain, released CD Chambre 1512 which included single "Oui ou Non". Premix split amicably in late 2005. Anne Thibault Valérie Deniz De Boccard Marjorie Condoris Michaël Sapience Icaro Da SilvaAfter the successful season 2, much was expected of season 3 and the favourites were named at the beginning: Sofia and Michal.
As it turned out, both of them made their respective male/female semi finals, joined by Elodie and Patxi respectively. Elodie ended up making it to the finals, where she beat Polish contestant Michal and become the winner of Star Academy 3. Michal will return to the music scene in France in 2007 with his second album All Alone with my Gueule. Sofia ended up releasing her own album Mon cabaret in 2005. Grégory Lemarchal - participated in the Star Academy Tour Lucie Bernardoni - participated in the Star Academy Tour Hoda Nekra - participated in the Star Academy Tour Mathieu Johann - participated in the Star Academy Tour Sofiane Tadjine-Lambert- participated in the Star Academy Tour Sa
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations