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Project MKUltra

Project MKUltra called the CIA mind control program, is the code name given to a program of experiments on human subjects that were designed and undertaken by the U. S. Central Intelligence Agency, some of which were illegal. Experiments on humans were intended to identify and develop drugs and procedures to be used in interrogations in order to weaken the individual and force confessions through mind control; the project was organized through the Office of Scientific Intelligence of the CIA and coordinated with the United States Army Biological Warfare Laboratories. Code names for drug-related experiments were Project Artichoke; the operation was sanctioned in 1953, reduced in scope in 1964 and further curtailed in 1967. It was halted in 1973; the program engaged in many illegal activities, including the use of U. S. and Canadian citizens as its unwitting test subjects, which led to controversy regarding its legitimacy. MKUltra used numerous methods to manipulate its subjects' mental states and brain functions.

Techniques included the covert administration of high doses of psychoactive drugs and other chemicals, hypnosis, sensory deprivation, isolation and sexual abuse, as well as other forms of torture. The scope of Project MKUltra was broad, with research undertaken at more than 80 institutions, including colleges and universities, hospitals and pharmaceutical companies; the CIA operated using front organizations, although sometimes top officials at these institutions were aware of the CIA's involvement. Project MKUltra was first brought to public attention in 1975 by the Church Committee of the United States Congress and Gerald Ford's United States President's Commission on CIA activities within the United States. Investigative efforts were hampered by CIA Director Richard Helms' order that all MKUltra files be destroyed in 1973. In 1977, a Freedom of Information Act request uncovered a cache of 20,000 documents relating to project MKUltra which led to Senate hearings that year; some surviving information regarding MKUltra was declassified in July 2001.

In December 2018, declassified documents included a letter to an unidentified doctor discussing work on six dogs made to run and stop via remote control and brain implants. The project's intentionally obscure CIA cryptonym is made up of the digraph MK, meaning that the project was sponsored by the agency's Technical Services Staff, followed by the word Ultra, used to designate the most secret classification of World War II intelligence. Other related cryptonyms include Project MKNAOMI and Project MKDELTA. According to author Stephen Kinzer, the CIA project “was a continuation of the work begun in WWII-era Japanese facilities and Nazi concentration camps on subduing and controlling human minds”. Kinzer wrote that MKUltra's use of mescaline on unwitting subjects was a practice that Nazi doctors had begun in the Dachau concentration camp. Kinzer proposes evidence of the continuation of a Nazi agenda, citing the CIA's secret recruitment of Nazi torturers and vivisectionists to continue the experimentation on thousands of subjects, Nazis brought to Fort Detrick, Maryland, to instruct CIA officers on the lethal uses of sarin gas.

The project was headed by Sidney Gottlieb but began on the order of CIA director Allen Welsh Dulles on April 13, 1953. Its aim was to develop mind-controlling drugs for use against the Soviet bloc in response to alleged Soviet and North Korean use of mind control techniques on U. S. prisoners of war during the Korean War. The CIA wanted to use similar methods on their own captives, was interested in manipulating foreign leaders with such techniques, devising several schemes to drug Fidel Castro, it conducted experiments without the subjects' knowledge or consent. In some cases, academic researchers were funded through grants from CIA front organizations but were unaware that the CIA was using their work for these purposes; the project attempted to produce a perfect truth drug for interrogating suspected Soviet spies during the Cold War, to explore other possibilities of mind control. Subproject 54 was the Navy's top-secret "Perfect Concussion" program, supposed to use sub-aural frequency blasts to erase memory.

Most MKUltra records were destroyed in 1973 by order of CIA director Richard Helms, so it has been difficult for investigators to gain a complete understanding of the more than 150 funded research subprojects sponsored by MKUltra and related CIA programs. The project began during a period of what Rupert Cornwell described as "paranoia" at the CIA, when the U. S. had lost its nuclear monopoly and fear of Communism was at its height. CIA counter-intelligence chief James Jesus Angleton believed that a mole had penetrated the organization at the highest levels; the agency poured millions of dollars into studies examining ways to influence and control the mind and to enhance its ability to extract information from resistant subjects during interrogation. Some historians assert that one goal of MKUltra and related CIA projects was to create a "Manchurian Candidate"-style subject. Alfred McCoy has claimed that the CIA attempted to focus media attention on these sorts of "ridiculous" programs so that the public would not look at the research's primary goal, effective methods of interrogation.

One 1955 MKUltra document gives an indication of the range of the effort. It refers to the study of an assortment of mind-altering substances described as

Albert Einstein Institution

The Albert Einstein Institution is a non-profit organization that specializes in the study of the methods of nonviolent resistance in conflicts and to explore its policy potential and communicate these findings through print and other media, conferences and workshops. The institution's founder and senior scholar, Gene Sharp, is known for his writings on strategic nonviolent struggle; the institute is named after the physicist Albert Einstein, who was, at least at some points in his life, a pacifist. The institution "is committed to the defense of freedom and the reduction of political violence through the use of nonviolent action". To further this mission, the Institution has supported research projects; the Albert Einstein Institution was founded in 1983 and operates out of a small office in East Boston, Massachusetts. A feature documentary by Scottish director, Ruaridh Arrow, How to Start a Revolution, about the global influence of the Albert Einstein Institution and Gene Sharp's work was released in September 2011.

The film won "Best Documentary" and "The Mass Impact Award" at the Boston Film Festival in September 2011. The European premiere was held at London's Raindance Film Festival on October 2, 2011 where it won Best Documentary; the film has been described as the unofficial film of the Occupy Wall St movement being shown in Occupy camps in cities all over the world. The film screened to MPs and Lords in the British Houses of Parliament on February 1, 2012. Former Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez accused the Albert Einstein Institution of being behind a "soft coup" attempt in Venezuela. Dr. Sharp and the Albert Einstein Institution have dismissed such accusations. In response to the accusations against the institution, professor Stephen Zunes initiated a petition titled "Open Letter in Support of Gene Sharp and Strategic Nonviolent Action" which expresses support for Dr Sharp and the Albert Einstein Institution; the petition was signed by many prominent left-wing scholars and activists, including Howard Zinn and Noam Chomsky.

Albert Einstein Institution website How to Start a Revolution, documentary directed by Ruaridh Arrow

Bilal Abdallah Alayli

Bilal Abdallah Alayli is a Lebanese academic and scholar. Bilal Alayli Or Alayeli was born in Beirut, Lebanon in 1949, he was raised in a Sunni Muslim family. He joined the Lebanese University to graduate in 1973 earning a bachelor's degree in physics, his highest honors qualified him to earn the scholarship of the Lebanese University to travel to France for further academic formation. In France, he obtained a PhD in nuclear physics from the University of Lyon in 1976 and received his diploma in civil engineering from, he joined the University of Oran from the year of 1976 until the year of 1979. He founded with Dr. Jack Nasr Faculty of Engineering at the Lebanese University in 1981, he was appointed Director of the Faculty of Engineering at the Lebanese University -section III through the years of 1982 and 1992. He remained a Professor in that university until the year of 2007, he worked as an Assistant Director of Oger from 1982 until 1984 He was appointed Assistant Director of the Hariri Foundation from 1984 until 1986 Co- founder of laceco Elected as the president of the Order of Engineers and Architects in April 2008 supported by the Future Movement and 14 March.

His number at The Order of Engineers and Architects – Beirut is 4173. Laceco The Team universite of lyon visit of Bilal Alaily Director of Operations, Ghassan Khatib Director of LACECO to Chairman and Founder of Adgeco Group Mohamed Dekkak Visit of a delegation from the FSCE to the President of the Order of Engineers of Beirut

Kathryn Stowell

Kathryn Mary Stowell is a New Zealand academic. She is a full professor at the Massey University. Stowell joined Massey University in 1976, after a 1990 PhD titled'Cloning and expression of the cDNA for human lactoferrin,' she rose to full professor in 2015. Stowell is best-known publicly for her work on malignant hyperthermia, a genetic disorder which causes a severe and fatal hypermetabolic reaction in susceptible people when exposed to inhaled anaesthetics or the muscle relaxant suxamethonium. Malignant hyperthermia has an incidence of between 1:10,000 and 1:250,000 worldwide, but 1:200 at Palmerston North Hospital due to a large family in the area carrying the gene for many generations. Stowell's work has concentrated on identifying the genetic basis for MH susceptibility, developing genetic testing to replace the invasive muscle biopsy test used. In 2015, Stowell was made an Officer of the New Zealand Order of Merit for her services to biomedical science. Crossley, Michael Ludwig, Kathryn M. Stowell, Piet De Vos, Klaus Olek, George G. Brownlee.

"Recovery from hemophilia B Leyden: an androgen-responsive element in the factor IX promoter." Science 257, no. 5068: 377–379. Rosenberg, Neil Pollock, Anja Schiemann, Terasa Bulger, Kathryn Stowell. "Malignant hyperthermia: a review." Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 10, no. 1: 93. Davis, M. R. Brown, A. Dickson, H. Horton, D. James, N. Laing, R. Marston et al. "Malignant hyperthermia associated with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis or congenital abnormalities and a novel RYR1 mutation in New Zealand and Australian pedigrees." British Journal of Anaesthesia 88, no. 4: 508–515. Stowell, K. M. T. A. Rado, W. D. Funk, J. W. Tweedie. "Expression of cloned human lactoferrin in baby-hamster kidney cells." Biochemical Journal 276, no. Pt 2: 349. Brown RL. "A novel ryanodine receptor mutation and genotype-phenotype correlation in a large malignant hyperthermia New Zealand Maori pedigree". Human Molecular Genetics. 9: 1515–24. Doi:10.1093/hmg/9.10.1515. PMID 10888602. Kathryn Stowell publications indexed by Google Scholar Publications by Kathryn Stowell, at ResearchGate

Mexican National Trios Championship

The Mexican National Trios Championship is a three-man tag team professional wrestling championship, sanctioned by the "Comisión de Box y Lucha Libre Mexico D. F.", which oversees all matches. Since its creation in 1985 the championship has been promoted by several major Mexican wrestling promotions, Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre, Asistencia Asesoría y Administración and is promoted by Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre; the change from promotion to promotion was approved by the commission if the trios champions left one promotion to work for the other. As it is a professional wrestling championship, it is not won or lost competitively, but instead by the decision of the bookers of a wrestling promotion; the title is awarded to a team after the team "wins" a match to maintain the illusion that professional wrestling is a competitive sport. All title matches take place under two-out-of-three falls rules. In the early 1980s the six-man tag team match became popular in Mexico, to the point where that match format is the most prevalent format in Lucha Libre today.

The Universal Wrestling Association created the UWA World Trios Championship in 1984 and the Boxing and Wrestling Commission created the Mexican National Trios Championship in 1985, making it only the second Trios championship in Mexico. Control of the championship was given to EMLL, the UWA's main rival at the time, with the commission retaining oversight and approval of the championship matches. In 1993 champions Los Infernales left EMLL to join AAA, taking the trios championship with them after approval by the commission. In the late 1990s the championship was not promoted on a regular basis by AAA and appeared inactive until the champions, Blue Panther, Fuerza Guerrera, El Signo, joined CMLL in 2001 and lost the championship to a CMLL team. From that point forward the championship has been controlled by CMLL once more; the current Mexican National Trios Champions is the team known as Nueva Generación Dinamitas, who won the championship on July 25, 2017 when they defeated Los Hijos del Infierno.

This is the team's first reign as a team and they are the 40th overall champions. Los Reyes de la Atlantida hold the record for most reigns as a team, with three reigns in total, while Atlantis and Volador Jr. holds the individual record with four reigns each. With the emergence of trios such as Los Misioneros de la Muerte, Los Brazos and more, the six-man tag team match became popular in the early 1980s, its popularity led to the trios format becoming the most prevalent match format in Lucha libre to this day. The popularity led to the creation of the first trios championship in Mexico when the Universal Wrestling Association created the UWA World Trios Championship in 1984; the Mexican National Trios Championship was created in 1985, at the request of Empresa Mexicana de Lucha Libre and endorsed by the Mexico City Boxing and Wrestling Commission. The commission granted EMLL the rights to promote the championship, which meant that CMLL had control over the everyday use of the championship, determining which storylines the title wre being used in, who were allowed to challenge for the title and how to use it in a public relations sense.

The Commission approves any championship change that EMLL proposed. The finals of the tournament to crown the first champions saw Los Infernales defeat Los Brazos to become the first champions. Los Brazos would win the championship 9 months but only hold them for a short while. In February 1986 Los Brazos became the first team to hold the title twice as they defeated Dos Caras, Villano III, Villano IV for the championship. EMLL rebranded themselves "Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre" in 1991 and created the CMLL World Trios Championship but kept the rights to the Mexican National Trios Championship. In 1992 Asistencia Asesoría y Administración was formed by a group of officials and wrestlers who broke away from CMLL; the then-reigning champions Cien Caras, Máscara Año 2000, Universo 2000 left CMLL to join AAA and brought the Mexican National Trios Championship with them as it was not a CMLL owned title. The Commission granted AAAthe right to control the title from 1992 on on when AAA began working with Promotora Mexicana de Lucha Libre both promotions were allowed used the Trios title by the commission.

In 1996 AAA and PROMELL stopped working together and the title was vacated. PROMELL was granted the right to promote the title from that point on and held a tournament to crown new champions. Blue Panther, Fuerza Guerrera, El Signo won the tournament and would go on to hold the titles for 1,728 days, although for the majority of the time the three did not team up and the Trios championship was inactive. In 2001 the trio worked a couple of matches for CMLL, just long enough for them to lose the championship to Mr. Niebla, Olímpico, Safari, bringing the championship back under CMLL's control, where it has remained since. On June 13, 2003 a championship match between champions La Familia de Tijuana and Los Nuevo Infernales, ended with La Familia being disqualified; the disqualification meant that the titles would change hands, but Los Nuevo Infernales refused to win th

Alcohol-induced respiratory reactions

Alcohol-induced respiratory reactions termed alcohol-induced asthma and alcohol-induced respiratory symptoms, are recognized as a pathological bronchoconstriction response to the consumption of alcohol that afflicts many people with a "classical" form of asthma, the airway constriction disease evoked by the inhalation of allergens. Alcohol-induced respiratory reactions reflect the operation of different and racially related mechanisms that differ from those of classical, allergen-induced asthma. In 1973, Breslin et al. tested the effects of alcoholic beverage consumption on the respiratory symptoms of 11 asthmatic subjects who gave a history of asthma attacks following certain alcoholic beverages. In response to ingesting the type of beverage that the subjects reported to provoke their symptoms, six developed the asthmatic symptom of chest tightness, two developed a symptom associated with asthma and one subject developed both chest tightness and rhinitis. Symptoms developed immediately after ingestion, inhalation of fumes from the beverages did not precipitate symptoms, bronchoconstriction in response to the ingestion was confirmed in the three patients evaluated by pulmonary function tests.

The study suggested that these reactions were induced by non-alcoholic allergens that were contained in or contaminated the beverages. In 1978 a non-asthmatic female of Japanese descent with a history of moderately severe bronchoconstriction responses to various alcoholic beverages and in 1981 an asthmatic Japanese male with a similar history beer or 95% pure ethanol were studied and found to develop bronchoconstriction after drinking apple juice but not after drinking apple juice per se; these studies suggested that alcohol itself caused the asthmatic symptoms triggered by alcoholic beverages. A subsequent study in 1986 found that 9 of 18 patients with a history of red wine-induced asthma symptoms showed bronchoconstriction in response to ingesting red wine; the study suggested that the reaction was not allergen-induced but rather triggered by sulfur dioxide, a sulfur dioxide-related agent, or an agent whose levels in alcohol beverages correlated positively with those of sulfur dioxide. A questionnaire survey of 366 asthmatic patients conducted in 2000 found that 33% reported asthma symptoms in response to alcoholic beverages.

The study suggested the salicylate-"contaminates" in wine may contribute to these responses. In other studies, D. P. Agarwal and colleagues associated race-based variations in the activity alcohol-metabolizing enzymes with the occurrence of alcohol flush reactions to alcohol and alcoholic beverages in certain Asian populations; this early work is the basis for further studies that have defined not only many alcohol-induced flush reactions but many alcohol-induced respiratory reactions as due to racially associated genetic differences in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. Alcohol-induced asthma reactions among Asians has been most studied in those of native Japanese descent. In such individuals, the ingestion of any alcoholic beverage or pure ethanol and, in some cases, the smelling ethanol fumes may be followed within 1–30 minutes, by one or more of the following symptoms: an alcohol flush reaction, rapid heart rate, light-headedness, systemic dermatitis, and, in ~50% of individuals with a history of asthma, exacerbation of asthmatic bronchoconstriction and related symptoms, In rare instances, asthmatic symptoms in response to alcoholic beverages may occur in the absence of a history of asthma and cardiovascular collapse and death may occur.

These reactions appear due to a deficiency in the metabolism of the ethanol in the alcoholic beverage. Humans metabolize ethanol through NAD+-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase class I enzymes to acetaldehyde and metabolize acetaldehyde by NAD2-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 to acetic acid. Eastern Asians have a deficiency in acetaldehyde metabolism in a high percentage of their populations; the deficiency has been most investigated in native Japanese who have a variant ALDH2 allele termed glu487lys, ALDH2*2, or ALDH2*504lys, a single nucleotide polymorphism allele encoding in its amino acid residue 487 rather than lysine. Since ALDH2 assembles and functions as a tetramer and since ALDH2 tetramers containing one or more glu487lys proteins are essentially inactive, the glu487lys protein behaves as a dominant negative in inactivating the normal ALDH2 protein and individuals homozygous for glu487lys have undetectable while heterozygote individuals for glu487lys have little ALDH2 activity. In consequence, Japanese homozygous or, to a lesser extent, heterozygous for glu487lys metabolize ethanol to acetaldehyde but metabolize acetaldehyde poorly and are thereby susceptible to a set of adverse responses to ethanol and ethanol-containing beverages.