COINTELPRO was a series of covert, at times illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at surveilling, infiltrating and disrupting domestic political organizations. FBI records show that COINTELPRO resources targeted groups and individuals that the FBI deemed subversive, including the Communist Party USA, anti–Vietnam War organizers, activists of the civil rights movement or Black Power movement and animal rights organizations, feminist organizations, the American Indian Movement, independence movements, a variety of organizations that were part of the broader New Left; the program targeted the Ku Klux Klan. The FBI financed and controlled an extreme right-wing group of former members of the Minutemen anti-communist para-military organization, transforming it into a group called the Secret Army Organization that targeted groups and leaders involved in the Anti-War Movement, using both intimidation and violent acts; the FBI has used covert operations against domestic political groups since its inception.
COINTELPRO tactics are still used to this day, have been alleged to include discrediting targets through psychological warfare. The FBI's stated motivation was "protecting national security, preventing violence, maintaining the existing social and political order."Beginning in 1969, leaders of the Black Panther Party were targeted by the COINTELPRO and "neutralized" by being murdered, imprisoned, publicly humiliated or falsely charged with crimes. Some of the Black Panthers affected included Fred Hampton, Mark Clark, Zayd Shakur, Geronimo Pratt, Mumia Abu-Jamal, Marshall Conway. Common tactics used by COINTELPRO were perjury, witness harassment, witness intimidation, withholding of evidence. FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover issued directives governing COINTELPRO, ordering FBI agents to "expose, misdirect, discredit, or otherwise Neutralize" the activities of these movements and their leaders. Under Hoover, the agent in charge of COINTELPRO was William C. Sullivan. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy authorized some of the programs.
Although Kennedy only gave written approval for limited wiretapping of Martin Luther King's phones "on a trial basis, for a month or so", Hoover extended the clearance so his men were "unshackled" to look for evidence in any areas of King's life they deemed worthy. Internal documents dated as late as 2017, showed that the FBI had continued to engage in similar programs by surveilling the Black Lives Matter movement. Centralized operations under COINTELPRO began in August 1956 with a program designed to "increase factionalism, cause disruption and win defections" inside the Communist Party USA. Tactics included anonymous phone calls, Internal Revenue Service audits, the creation of documents that would divide the American communist organization internally. An October 1956 memo from Hoover reclassified the FBI's ongoing surveillance of black leaders, including it within COINTELPRO, with the justification that the movement was infiltrated by communists. In 1956, Hoover sent an open letter denouncing Dr. T.
R. M. Howard, a civil rights leader and wealthy entrepreneur in Mississippi who had criticized FBI inaction in solving recent murders of George W. Lee, Emmett Till, other African Americans in the South; when the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, an African-American civil rights organization, was founded in 1957, the FBI began to monitor and target the group immediately, focusing on Bayard Rustin, Stanley Levison, Martin Luther King Jr. After the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Hoover singled out King as a major target for COINTELPRO. Under pressure from Hoover to focus on King, Sullivan wrote: In the light of King's powerful demagogic speech.... We must mark him now if we have not done so before, as the most dangerous Negro of the future in this nation from the standpoint of communism, the Negro, national security. Soon after, the FBI was systematically bugging King's home and his hotel rooms, as they were now aware that King was growing in stature daily as the most prominent leader of the civil rights movement.
In the mid-1960s, King began to publicly criticize the Bureau for giving insufficient attention to the use of terrorism by white supremacists. Hoover responded by publicly calling King the most "notorious liar" in the United States. In his 1991 memoir, Washington Post journalist Carl Rowan asserted that the FBI had sent at least one anonymous letter to King encouraging him to commit suicide. Historian Taylor Branch documents an anonymous November 21, 1964 "suicide package" sent by the FBI that contained audio recordings, which were obtained through tapping King's phone and placing bugs throughout various hotel rooms over the past two years was created two days after the announcement of King's impending Nobel Peace Prize; the tape, prepared by FBI audio technician John Matter documented a series of King's sexual indiscretions combined with a letter telling him "There is only one way out for you. You better take it before your filthy, fraudulent self is bared to the nation". King was subsequently informed that the audio would be released to the media if he did not acquies
Operation CHAOS or Operation MHCHAOS was the code name of a United States Central Intelligence Agency domestic espionage project targeting the American people from 1967 to 1974, established by President Johnson and expanded under President Nixon, whose mission was to uncover possible foreign influence on domestic race, anti-war and other protest movements. The operation was launched under Director of Central Intelligence Richard Helms by chief of counter-intelligence James Jesus Angleton, headed by Richard Ober; the "MH" designation is to signify. The CIA began domestic recruiting operations in 1959 in the process of finding Cuban exiles who could be used in the campaign against communist Cuba and President Fidel Castro; as these operations expanded, the CIA formed a Domestic Operations Division in 1964. In 1965, US President Lyndon Johnson requested that the CIA begin its own investigation into domestic dissent—independent of the FBI's ongoing COINTELPRO; the CIA developed numerous operations targeting American dissents in the US.
Many of these programs operated under the CIA's Office of Security, including: HTLINGUAL – Directed at letters passing between the United States and the Soviet Union. Project 2 – Directed at infiltration of foreign intelligence targets by agents posing as dissident sympathizers and which, like CHAOS, had placed agents within domestic radical organizations for the purposes of training and establishment of dissident credentials. Project MERRIMAC – Designed to infiltrate domestic antiwar and radical organizations thought to pose a threat to security of CIA property and personnel. Project RESISTANCE – Worked with college administrators, campus security and local police to identify anti-war activists and political dissidents without any infiltration taking place; when President Nixon came to office in 1969, existing domestic surveillance activities were consolidated into Operation CHAOS. Operation CHAOS first used CIA stations abroad to report on antiwar activities of United States citizens traveling abroad, employing methods such as physical surveillance and electronic eavesdropping, utilizing "liaison services" in maintaining such surveillance.
The operations were expanded to include 60 officers. In 1969, following the expansion, the operation began developing its own network of informants for the purposes of infiltrating various foreign antiwar groups located in foreign countries that might have ties to domestic groups. CIA officers expanded the program to include other leftist or counter-cultural groups with no discernible connection to Vietnam, such as groups operating within the women's liberation movement; the domestic spying of Operation CHAOS targeted the Israeli embassy, domestic Jewish groups such as the B'nai B'rith. In order to gather intelligence on the embassy and B'nai B'rith, the CIA purchased a garbage collection company to collect documents that were to be destroyed. Targets of Operation CHAOS within the antiwar movement included: Students for a Democratic Society Black Panther Party Young Lords Women Strike for Peace Ramparts MagazineAt its finality, Operation CHAOS contained files on 7,200 Americans, a computer index totaling 300,000 civilians and 1,000 groups.
The aim of the programs was to compile reports on "illegal and subversive" contacts between United States civilian protesters and "foreign elements" which "might range from casual contacts based on mutual interest to controlled channels for party directives."DCI Richard Helms informed President Johnson on November 15, 1967, that the CIA had uncovered "no evidence of any contact between the most prominent peace movement leaders and foreign embassies in the U. S. or abroad." Helms repeated this assessment in 1969. In total, 6 reports were compiled for 34 for cabinet level officials; the secret program was exposed by investigative journalist Seymour Hersh in a 1974 article in the New York Times entitled Huge CIA Operation Reported in US Against Antiwar Forces, Other Dissidents in Nixon Years. Amid the uproar of the Watergate break-in involving two former CIA officers, Operation CHAOS had been closed in 1973. Further details were revealed in 1975 during Representative Bella Abzug's House Subcommittee on Government Information and individual Rights.
The government, in response to the revelations, felt pressured enough to launch the Commission on CIA Activities Within the United States, led by Vice President Nelson Rockefeller, to investigate the depth of the surveillance. Richard Cheney Deputy White House Chief of Staff, is noted as having stated the Rockefeller Commission was to avoid "... congressional efforts to further encroach on the executive branch."Following the revelations by the Rockefeller Commission, then-DCI George H. W. Bush admitted that "the operation in practice resulted in some improper accumulation of material on legitimate domestic activities." Covert operation ECHELON NSA warrantless surveillance controversy Project MERRIMAC Project MINARET Project RESISTANCE Project SHAMROCK Project Megiddo FISA Court Operation Mockingbird CHAOS, MERRIMAC, RESISTANCE | PDF Development of Surveillance Technology & Risk of Abuse of Economic Information | PDF Operation Chaos: The CIA's War Against the Sixties Counter-Culture Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with respect to Intelligence Activities: United States Senate - CIA Intelligence Collection about Americans: CHAOS and the Office of Security Transcriptions of CIA documents related to Operation MHCHAOS
Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering and analyzing national security information from around the world through the use of human intelligence. As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States. Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Though it is not the only agency of the Federal government of the United States specializing in HUMINT, the CIA serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the U. S. intelligence community. Moreover, the CIA is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President.
It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIA Director concurrently served as the head of the Intelligence Community. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA had the largest budget of all IC agencies, exceeding previous estimates; the CIA has expanded its role, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations; when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, to perform covert actions. According to its fiscal 2013 budget, the CIA has five priorities: Counterterrorism, the top priority Nonproliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
Warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events. Counterintelligence Cyber intelligence; the CIA has an executive office and five major directorates: The Directorate of Digital Innovation The Directorate of Analysis The Directorate of Operations The Directorate of Support The Directorate of Science and Technology The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence. The Deputy Director is formally appointed by the Director without Senate confirmation, but as the President's opinion plays a great role in the decision, the Deputy Director is considered a political position, making the Chief Operating Officer the most senior non-political position for CIA career officers; the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day-to-day operation of the CIA.
Each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Associate Director of military affairs, a senior military officer, manages the relationship between the CIA and the Unified Combatant Commands, who produce and deliver to the CIA regional/operational intelligence and consume national intelligence produced by the CIA; the Directorate of Analysis, through much of its history known as the Directorate of Intelligence, is tasked with helping "the President and other policymakers make informed decisions about our country's national security" by looking "at all the available information on an issue and organiz it for policymakers". The Directorate has four regional analytic groups, six groups for transnational issues, three that focus on policy and staff support. There is an office dedicated to Iraq; the Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, for covert action. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of human intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U.
S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence and budget between the United States Department of Defense and the CIA. In spite of this, the Department of Defense organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency; this Directorate is known to be organized by geographic regions and issues, but its precise organization is classified. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research and manage technical collection disciplines and equipment. Many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air
Student activism is work by students to cause political, economic, or social change. Although focused on schools and educational funding, student groups have influenced greater political events. Modern student activist movements vary in subject and success, with all kinds of students in all kinds of educational settings participating, including public and private school students; some student protests focus on the internal affairs of a specific institution. Some student protests focus on an institution's impact on the world, such as a disinvestment campaign, while others may focus on a regional or national policy's impact on the institution, such as a campaign against government education policy. Although student activism is associated with left-wing politics, right-wing student movements are not uncommon. Student activism at the university level is nearly as old as the university itself. Students in Paris and Bologna staged collective actions as early as the 13th century, chiefly over town and gown issues.
Student protests over broader political issues have a long pedigree. In Joseon Dynasty Korea, 150 Sungkyunkwan students staged an unprecedented remonstration against the king in 1519 over the Kimyo purge. In Argentina, as elsewhere in Latin America, the tradition of student activism dates back to at least the 19th century, but it was not until after 1900 that it became a major political force. In 1918 student activism triggered a general modernization of the universities tending towards democratization, called the University Revolution; the events were accompanied by similar uprisings across Latin America. Australian Students have a long history of being active in political debates; this is true in the newer universities that have been established in suburban areas. For much of the 20th century, the major campus organizing group across Australia was the Australian Union of Students, founded in 1937 as the Union of Australian University Students; the AUS folded in 1984. It was replaced by the National Union of Students in 1987.
Student politics of Bangladesh is reactive and violent. Student organizations act as the armament of the political parties they are part of. Over the years, political clashes and factional feuds in the educational institutes killed many hampering the academic atmosphere. To check those hitches, universities go to lengthy and unexpected closures. Therefore, classes are not completed on time and there are session jams; the student wings of ruling parties dominate the campuses and residential halls through crime and violence to enjoy various unauthorized facilities. They control the residential halls to manage seats in favor of loyal pupils, they buy for free from the restaurants and shops nearby. They grab tenders to earn illicit money, they take money from the freshmen candidates and put pressure on teachers to get an acceptance for them. They take money from the job seekers and put pressures on university administrations to appoint them. In Canada, New Left student organizations from the late 1950s and 1960s became two: SUPA and CYC.
SUPA grew out of the CUCND at a University of Saskatchewan conference. While CUCND had focused on protest marches, SUPA sought to change Canadian society as a whole; the scope expanded to grass-roots politics in disadvantaged communities and'consciousness raising' to radicalize and raise awareness of the'generation gap' experienced by Canadian youth. SUPA was a decentralized organization, rooted in local university campuses. SUPA however disintegrated in late 1967 over debates concerning the role of working class and'Old Left'. Members moved to the CYC or became active leaders in CUS, leading the CUS to assume the mantle of New Left student agitation. In 1968, SDU was formed at Simon Fraser Universities. SFU SDU former SUPA members and New Democratic Youth, absorbed members from the campus Liberal Club and Young Socialists. SDU was prominent in an Administration occupation in 1968, a student strike in 1969. After the failure of the student strike, SDU broke up; some members joined the Yippies. Other members helped form the Vancouver Liberation Front in 1970.
The FLQ was considered a terrorist organization, causing the use of the War Measures Act after 95 bombings in the October Crisis. This was the only peacetime use of the War Measures Act. Since the 1970s, PIRGs have been created as a result of Student Union referendums across Canada in individual provinces. Like their American counterparts, Canadian PIRGs are student directed and funded. Most operate on a consensus decision making model. Despite efforts at collaboration, Canadian PIRGs are independent of each other. Anti-Bullying Day was created by high school students David Shepherd, Travis Price of Berwick, Nova Scotia, is now celebrated annually across Canada. In 2012, the Quebec Student Movement arose due to an increase of tuition of 75%.