Center of excellence
A center of excellence is a team, a shared facility or an entity that provides leadership, best practices, support and/or training for a focus area. Due to its broad usage and vague legal precedent, a "center of excellence" in one context may have different characteristics from another; the focus area might be a business concept, a skill or a broad area of study. A center of excellence may be aimed at revitalizing stalled initiatives; the term may refer to a network of institutions collaborating with each other to pursue excellence in a particular area.. Within an organization, a center of excellence may refer to a group of people, a department or a shared facility, it may be known as a competency center or a capability center. Stephen Jenner and Craig Kilford, in Management of Portfolios, mention COE as a coordinating function which ensures that change initiatives are delivered and well, through standard processes and competent staff. In technology companies, the center of excellence concept is associated with new software tools, technologies or associated business concepts such as Service-oriented architecture or business intelligence.
In academic institutions, a center of excellence refers to a team with a clear focus on a particular area of research. In the healthcare sector, the term refers to a center that provides sufficient and accessible medical services to patients. Homeland Security Centers of Excellence Center for Excellence in Disaster Management and Humanitarian Assistance, U. S. Pacific Command Rochester Area Colleges Center for Excellence in Math and Science Jane Goodall Center for Excellence in Environmental Studies Center of Excellence for Stability Police Units US Army Sustainment Center of Excellence European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats Institute of Air Navigation Services – ATM training and e-learning
Project portfolio management
Project Portfolio Management is a senior leadership discipline that drives strategic execution and maximizes business value through the selection and oversight of project investments which align to business goals and strategies. PPM is the centralized management of the processes and technologies used by project managers and project management offices to analyze and collectively manage current or proposed projects based on numerous key characteristics; the objectives of PPM are to determine the optimal resource mix for delivery and to schedule activities to best achieve an organization’s operational and financial goals, while honouring constraints imposed by customers, strategic objectives, or external real-world factors. The International standard defines the framework of the Project Portfolio Management PPM provides program and project managers in large, program/project-driven organizations with the capabilities needed to manage the time, resources and budgets necessary to accomplish all interrelated tasks.
It provides a framework for issue resolution and risk mitigation, as well as the centralized visibility to help planning and scheduling teams to identify the fastest, cheapest, or most suitable approach to deliver projects and programs. Portfolio Managers define the strategy for their portfolio. Pipeline management involves steps to ensure that an adequate number of project proposals are generated and evaluated to determine whether a set of projects in the portfolio can be executed with finite development resources in a specified time. There are three major sub-components to pipeline management: ideation, work intake processes, Phase-Gate reviews. Fundamental to pipeline management is the ability to align the decision-making process for estimating and selecting new capital investment projects with the strategic plan; the focus on the efficient and effective deployment of an organization’s resources where and when they are needed. These can include financial resources, human resources, technical skills and design.
In addition to project-level resource allocation, users can model ‘what-if’ resource scenarios, extend this view across the portfolio. The capture and prioritization of change requests that can include new requirements, functions, operational constraints, regulatory demands, technical enhancements. PPM provides a central repository for these change requests and the ability to match available resources to evolving demand within the financial and operational constraints of individual projects. With PPM, the Office of Finance can improve their accuracy for estimating and managing the financial resources of a project or group of projects. In addition, the value of projects can be demonstrated in relation to the strategic objectives and priorities of the organization through financial controls and to assess progress through earned value and other project financial techniques. An analysis of the risk sensitivities residing within each project, as the basis for determining confidence levels across the portfolio.
The integration of cost and schedule risk management with techniques for determining contingency and risk response plans, enable organizations to gain an objective view of project uncertainties. In the early 2000s, many PPM vendors realized that project portfolio reporting services only addressed part of a wider need for PPM in the marketplace. Another more senior audience had emerged, sitting at management and executive levels above detailed work execution and schedule management, who required a greater focus on process improvement and ensuring the viability of the portfolio in line with overall strategic objectives. In addition, as the size, scope and geographical spread of organizations’ project portfolios continued to grow, greater visibility was needed of project work across the enterprise, allied to improved resource utilization and capacity planning. Enterprise Project Portfolio Management is a top-down approach to managing all project-intensive work and resources across the enterprise.
This contrasts with the traditional approach of combining manual processes, desktop project tools, PPM applications for each project portfolio environment. The PPM landscape is evolving as a result of the growing preference for managing multiple capital investment initiatives from a single, enterprise-wide system; this more centralized approach, resulting ‘single version of the truth’ for project and project portfolio information, provides the transparency of performance needed by management to monitor progress versus the strategic plan. The key aims of EPPM can be summarized as follows: Prioritize the right projects and programs: EPPM can guide decision-makers to strategically prioritize and control enterprise portfolios, it ensures the organization continues to increase productivity and on-time delivery - adding value, strengthening performance, improving results. Eliminate surprises: formal portfolio project oversight provides managers and executives with a process to identify potential problems earlier in the project lifecycle, the visibility to take corrective action before they impact financial results.
Build contingencies into the overall portfolio: flexibility exists within individual projects but, by integrating contingency planning across the entire portfolio of investments, organizations can have greater flexibility around how and when they need to allocate resources, alongside the flexibility to adjust those resources in response to a crisis. Maintain response flexibility: with in-depth visibility into resource allocation, organizations can respond to escalating emergencies by maneuvering resources from other activities, while calculating the impact this wil
Project management is the practice of initiating, executing and closing the work of a team to achieve specific goals and meet specific success criteria at the specified time. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals within the given constraints; this information is described in project documentation, created at the beginning of the development process. The primary constraints are scope, time and budget; the secondary – and more ambitious – challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and apply them to meet pre-defined objectives. The object of project management is to produce a complete project which complies with the client's objectives. In many cases the object of project management is to shape or reform the client's brief in order to feasibly be able to address the client's objectives. Once the client's objectives are established they should influence all decisions made by other people involved in the project – for example project managers, designers and sub-contractors.
Ill-defined or too prescribed project management objectives are detrimental to decision making. A project is a temporary endeavor designed to produce a unique product, service or result with a defined beginning and end undertaken to meet unique goals and objectives to bring about beneficial change or added value; the temporary nature of projects stands in contrast with business as usual, which are repetitive, permanent, or semi-permanent functional activities to produce products or services. In practice, the management of such distinct production approaches requires the development of distinct technical skills and management strategies; until 1900, civil engineering projects were managed by creative architects and master builders themselves, for example, Christopher Wren, Thomas Telford and Isambard Kingdom Brunel. In the 1950s organizations started to systematically apply project-management tools and techniques to complex engineering projects; as a discipline, project management developed from several fields of application including civil construction and heavy defense activity.
Two forefathers of project management are Henry Gantt, called the father of planning and control techniques, famous for his use of the Gantt chart as a project management tool. Both Gantt and Fayol were students of Frederick Winslow Taylor's theories of scientific management, his work is the forerunner to modern project management tools including work breakdown structure and resource allocation. The 1950s marked the beginning of the modern project management era where core engineering fields come together to work as one. Project management became recognized as a distinct discipline arising from the management discipline with engineering model. In the United States, prior to the 1950s, projects were managed on an ad-hoc basis, using Gantt charts and informal techniques and tools. At that time, two mathematical project-scheduling models were developed; the "critical path method" was developed as a joint venture between DuPont Corporation and Remington Rand Corporation for managing plant maintenance projects.
The "program evaluation and review technique", was developed by the U. S. Navy Special Projects Office in conjunction with the Lockheed Corporation and Booz Allen Hamilton as part of the Polaris missile submarine program. PERT and CPM are similar in their approach but still present some differences. CPM is used for projects. PERT, on the other hand, allows for stochastic activity times; because of this core difference, CPM and PERT are used in different contexts. These mathematical techniques spread into many private enterprises. At the same time, as project-scheduling models were being developed, technology for project cost estimating, cost management and engineering economics was evolving, with pioneering work by Hans Lang and others. In 1956, the American Association of Cost Engineers was formed by early practitioners of project management and the associated specialties of planning and scheduling, cost estimating, cost/schedule control. AACE continued its pioneering work and in 2006 released the first integrated process for portfolio and project management.
In 1969, the Project Management Institute was formed in the USA. PMI publishes A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, which describes project management practices that are common to "most projects, most of the time." PMI offers a range of certifications. Project management can apply to any project, but it is tailored to accommodate the specific needs of different and specialized industries. For example, the construction industry, which focuses on the delivery of things like buildings and bridges, has developed its own specialized form of project management that it refers to as construction project management and in which project managers can become trained and certified; the information technology industry has evolved to develop its own form of project management, referred to as IT project manag
Documentation is a set of documents provided on paper, or online, or on digital or analog media, such as audio tape or CDs. Examples are white papers, on-line help, quick-reference guides, it is becoming less common to see paper documentation. Documentation is distributed via websites, software products, other on-line applications. Professionals educated in this field are termed documentalists; this field changed its name to information science in 1968, but some uses of the term documentation still exists and there have been efforts to reintroduce the term documentation as a field of study. While associated ISO standards are not available publicly, a guide from other sources for this topic may serve the purpose.. David Berger has provided several principles of document writing, regarding the terms used, procedure numbering and lengths of sentences, etc; the following is a list of guides dealing with each specific field and type: documentation in health care thesis writing papers for academic journal publishing The procedures of documentation vary from one sector, or one type, to another.
In general, these may involve document drafting, submitting, approving, distributing and tracking, etc. and are convened by associated SOPs in a regulatory industry. It could involve creating content from scratch. Documentation should be easy to understand. If it's too long and too wordy, it ignored. Clear, Familiar words should be used to a maximum of 15 words to a sentence. Only gender hyper neutral word should be used and cultural biases should be avoided. Procedures should be numbered when they are to be performed.. Technical writers and corporate communicators are professionals whose field and work is documentation. Ideally, technical writers have a background in both the subject matter and in writing and managing content. Technical writers more collaborate with subject matter experts, such as engineers, technical experts, medical professionals, or other types of clients to define and create content that meets the user's needs. Corporate communications includes other types of written documentation, required for most companies.
Marketing Communications: MarCom writers endeavor to convey the company's value proposition through a variety of print and social media. This area of corporate writing is engaged in responding to proposals. Technical Communication: Technical writers document a company's product or service. Technical publication include user guides, installation an configuration manuals, troubleshooting/repair/replace procedures. Legal Writing: This type of documentation is prepared by attorneys or paralegals who could be in private practice or retained as corporate council. Compliance documentation: This type of documentation codifies Standard Operating Procedures, for any regulatory compliance needs, as for safety approval, financing, technical approval, etc. Index Index The following are typical software documentation types Request for Proposal Requirements/ Statement of work/ Scope of Work Software Design and Functional Specification System Design and Functional Specifications Change Management and Enhancement Tracking User Acceptance Testing Manpages PerldocsThe following are typical hardware and service documentation types network diagrams network maps datasheet for IT systems Service Catalog and Service Portfolio Documentation include such as feasibility report, technical documentation, operational documentation, log book, etc.
There are many types of software and applications used to create documentation. SOFTWARE DOCUMENTATION FOLDER A common type of software document written by software engineers in the simulation industry is the SDF; when developing software for a simulator, which can range from embedded avionics devices to 3D terrain databases by way of full motion control systems, the engineer keeps a notebook detailing the development "the build" of the project or module. The document can be MS word document or other environment, they should contain a requirements section, an interface section to detail the communication interface of the software. A notes section is used to detail the proof of concept, track errors and enhancements. A testing section to document how the software was tested; this documents conformance to the client's requirements. The result is a detailed description of how the software is designed, how to build and install the software on the target device, any known defects and work-arounds; this build document enables future developers and maintainers to come up to speed on the software in a timely manner, provides a roadmap to modifying code or searching for bugs.
SOFTWARE FOR NETWORK INVENTORY AND CONFIGURATION These software tools can automatically collect data of your network equipment. The data could be for configuration information; the ITIL Library requests to create such a database as a basis for all information for the IT responsible. It's the basis for IT documentation. Examples include XIA Configuration. "Documentation" is the preferred term for the process of populating criminal databases. Examples include the National Counter-terrorism Center's Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment, sex offender registries, gang databases. Documentation, as it pertains to the Early Childhood Education field, is "when we notice and value children's ideas, thinking and theories about the world and collect traces of their work (drawings, photograp
Project Management Body of Knowledge
The Project Management Body of Knowledge is a set of standard terminology and guidelines for project management. The body of knowledge evolves over time and is presented in A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge, a book whose sixth edition was released in 2017; the Guide is a document resulting from work overseen by the Project Management Institute, which offers the CAPM and PMP certifications. Much of the PMBOK Guide is unique to project management e.g. critical path method and work breakdown structure. The PMBOK Guide overlaps with general management regarding planning, staffing and controlling the operations of an organisation. Other management disciplines which overlap with the PMBOK Guide include financial forecasting, organisational behaviour, management science and other planning methods. Earlier versions of the PMBOK Guide were recognized as standards by the American National Standards Institute which assigns standards in the United States and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
The evolution of the PMBOK Guide is reflected in editions of the Guide. The Guide was first published by the Project Management Institute in 1996; that document was to some extent based on earlier work that began with a white paper published in 1983 called the "Ethics and Accreditation Committee Final Report." The second edition was published in 2000. In 2004, the PMBOK Guide — Third Edition was published with major changes from the previous editions; the Fourth edition was published in 2008. The Fifth Edition was released in 2013; the latest English-language version of The PMBOK Guide — The Sixth Edition was released in September 2017. The PMBOK Guide is intended to be a "subset of the project management body of knowledge, recognized as a good practice.'Generally recognized' means the knowledge and practices described are applicable to most projects most of the time and there is a consensus about their value and usefulness.'Good practice' means there is a general agreement that the application of the knowledge, skills and techniques can enhance the chance of success over many projects."
This means that sometimes the "latest" project management trends promoted by consultants, may not be part of the latest version of The PMBOK Guide. However, the 6th Edition of the PMBOK Guide now includes an "Agile Practice Guide" The PMBOK Guide is process-based, meaning it describes work as being accomplished by processes; this approach is consistent with other management standards such as ISO 9000 and the Software Engineering Institute's CMMI. Processes interact throughout a project or its various phases. Inputs Tools and Techniques Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge — Sixth Edition provides guidelines for managing individual projects and defines project management related concepts, it describes the project management life cycle and its related processes, as well as the project life cycle. And for the first time it includes an "Agile Practice Guide"; the PMBOK as described in the Guide recognizes 49 processes that fall into five basic process groups and ten knowledge areas that are typical of most projects, most of the time.
The five process groups are: Initiating: processes performed to define a new project or a new phase of an existing project by obtaining authorization to start the project or phase. Planning: Those processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, define the course of action required to attain the objectives that the project was undertaken to achieve. Executing: Those processes performed to complete the work defined in the project management plan to satisfy the project specifications Monitoring and Controlling: Those processes required to track and regulate the progress and performance of the project. Closing: Those processes performed to finalize all activities across all Process Groups to formally close the project or phase; the ten knowledge areas, each of which contains some or all of the project management processes, are: Project Integration Management: the processes and activities needed to identify, combine and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the project management process groups.
Project Scope management: the processes required to ensure that the project includes all the work required, only the work required, to complete the project successfully. Project Schedule Management: the processes required to manage the timely completion of the project; until the 6th edition of the PMBOK Guide this was called "Project Time Management" Project Cost Management: the processes involved in planning, budgeting, funding and controlling costs so that the project can be completed within the approved budget. Project Quality Management: the processes and activities of the performing organization that determine quality policies and responsibilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken. Project Resource Management: the processes that organize and lead the project team; until the 6th edition of the PMBOK Guide this was called "Project Human Resource Management" Project Communications Management: the processes that are required to ensure timely and appropriate planning, creation, storage, management, control and the ultimate disposition of project information.
Project Risk Management: the pr
PricewaterhouseCoopers is a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, United Kingdom. PwC ranks as the largest professional services firm in the world after Deloitte, is one of the Big Four auditors, along with Deloitte, EY and KPMG. PwC is a network of firms in 721 locations, with 250,930 people; as of 2015, 22% of the workforce worked in Asia, 26% in North America and the Caribbean and 32% in Western Europe. The company's global revenues were $37.7 billion in FY 2017, of which $16 billion was generated by its Assurance practice, $9.46 billion by its Tax practice and $12.25 billion by its Advisory practice. PwC provides services to 420 out of 500 Fortune 500 companies; the firm was formed in 1998 by a merger between Lybrand and Price Waterhouse. Both firms had histories dating back to the 19th century; the trading name was shortened to PwC in September 2010 as part of a rebranding effort. As of 2017, PwC is the 5th-largest owned company in the United States; the firm was created in 1998 when Lybrand merged with Price Waterhouse.
In 1854 William Cooper founded an accountancy practice in London, which became Cooper Brothers seven years when his three brothers joined. In 1898, Robert H. Montgomery, William M. Lybrand, Adam A. Ross Jr. and his brother T. Edward Ross formed Lybrand, Ross Brothers and Montgomery in the United States. In 1957 Cooper Brothers. In 1973 the three member firms in the UK, US and Canada changed their names to Lybrand. In 1980 Coopers & Lybrand expanded its expertise in insolvency by acquiring Cork Gully, a leading firm in that field in the UK. In 1990 in certain countries including the UK, Coopers & Lybrand merged with Deloitte Haskins & Sells to become Coopers & Lybrand Deloitte: in 1992 they reverted to Coopers & Lybrand. Samuel Lowell Price, an accountant, founded an accountancy practice in London in 1849. In 1865 Price went into partnership with William Hopkins Edwin Waterhouse. Holyland left shortly afterwards to work alone in accountancy and the firm was known from 1874 as Price, Waterhouse & Co.
The original partnership agreement, signed by Price and Waterhouse could be found in Southwark Towers, one of PwC's important legacy offices. By the late 19th century, Price Waterhouse had gained significant recognition as an accounting firm; as a result of growing trade between the United Kingdom and the United States, Price Waterhouse opened an office in New York in 1890, the American firm itself soon expanded rapidly. The original British firm opened an office in Liverpool in 1904 and elsewhere in the United Kingdom and worldwide, each time establishing a separate partnership in each country: the worldwide practice of PW was therefore a federation of collaborating firms that had grown organically rather than being the result of an international merger. In a further effort to take advantage of economies of scale, PW and Arthur Andersen discussed a merger in 1989 but the negotiations failed because of conflicts of interest such as Andersen's strong commercial links with IBM and PW's audit of IBM as well as the radically different cultures of the two firms.
It was said by those involved with the failed merger that at the end of the discussion, the partners at the table realized they had different views of business, the potential merger was scrapped. In 1998, Price Waterhouse merged with Lybrand to form PricewaterhouseCoopers. After the merger the firm had a large professional consulting branch, as did other major accountancy firms, generating much of its fees. Management Consulting Services was the fastest growing and most profitable area of the practice, though it was cyclical; the major cause for growth in the 1990s was the implementation of complex integrated ERP systems for multi-national companies. PwC came under increasing pressure to avoid conflicts of interests by not providing some consulting services financial systems design and implementation, to its audit clients. Since it audited a large proportion of the world's largest companies, this was beginning to limit its consulting market; these conflicts increased as additional services including outsourcing of IT and back office operations were developed.
For these reasons, in 2000, Ernst & Young was the first of the Big Four to sell its consulting services, to Capgemini. The fallout from the Enron and other financial auditing scandals led to the passage of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act limiting interaction between management consulting and auditing services. PwC Consulting began to conduct business under its own name rather than as the MCS division of PricewaterhouseCoopers. PwC therefore planned to capitalize on MCS's rapid growth through its sale to Hewlett Packard but negotiations broke down in 2000. In 2000, PwC acquired Canada's largest SAP consulting partner Omnilogic Systems. In March 2002 Arthur Andersen, LLP affiliates in Hong Kong and China completed talks to join PricewaterhouseCoopers, China. PwC announced in May 2002 that its consulting activities would be spun off as an independent entity and hired an outside CEO to run the global firm. An outside consultancy, Wolff Olins, was hired to create a brand image for the new entity, called "Monday".
The firm's CEO, Greg Brenneman described the unusual name as "a real word, recognizable and the right fit for a company that works hard to deliver results." These plans were soon revised, however. In October 2002, PwC sold
PRINCE2 is a structured project management method and practitioner certification programme. PRINCE2 emphasises dividing projects into controllable stages, it is adopted in many countries worldwide, including the UK, Western European countries, Australia. PRINCE2 training is available in many languages. PRINCE2 was developed as a UK government standard for information systems projects. In July 2013, ownership of the rights to PRINCE2 was transferred from HM Cabinet Office to AXELOS Ltd, a joint venture by the Cabinet Office and Capita, with 49% and 51% stakes respectively. PRINCE was derived from an earlier method called PROMPT II. In 1989 the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency adopted a version of PROMPT II as a UK Government standard for information systems project management, they gave it the name'PRINCE', which stood for "PROMPT II IN the CCTA Environment". PRINCE was renamed in a Civil service competition as an acronym for "PRojects IN Controlled Environments", it soon became applied outside the purely IT environment, both in UK government and in the private sector around the world.
PRINCE2 was released in 1996 as a generic project management method. PRINCE2 has become popular and is now a de facto standard for project management in many UK government departments and across the United Nations system. In the 2009 revision, the acronym was changed to mean'PRojects IN a Controlled Environment'. There have been two major revisions of PRINCE2 since its launch in 1996: "PRINCE2:2009 Refresh" in 2009, "PRINCE2 2017 Update" in 2017; the justification for the 2017 update was the evolutions in practical business practices and feedbacks from PRINCE2 practitioners in the actual project environment. These aspects are called tolerances or performance goals, they are considered during decision-making processes. In some organizations these can be KPIs. In the following table project level tolerances are summarized: Benefits can have as target the cost of the benefit, but the cost tolerance above is related to the cost of the project, not the cost of the benefit; each management level is checked against these tolerances.
PRINCE2 is based on seven principles and these cannot be tailored. The PRINCE2 principles can be described as a mindset that keeps the project aligned with the PRINCE2 methodology. If a project does not adhere to these principles, it is not being managed using PRINCE2. Continued Business Justification: The business case is the most important document, is updated at every stage of the project to ensure that the project is still viable. Early termination can occur. Learn From Experience: each project maintains a lessons log and projects should continually refer to their own and to previous and concurrent projects' lesson logs to avoid reinventing wheels. Unless lessons provoke change, they are only lessons identified. Defined Roles and Responsibilities: Roles are separated from individuals, who may take on multiple roles or share a role. Roles in PRINCE2 are structured in four levels. Project Management Team contains the last three, where all primary stakeholders need to be presented. Manage by Stages: the project is planned and controlled on a stage by stage basis.
Moving between stages includes updating the business case, overall plan, detailed next-stage plan in the light of new evidence. Manage by Exception: A PRINCE2 project has defined tolerances for each project objective, to establish limits of delegated authority. If a management level forecasts that these tolerances are exceeded, it is escalated to the next management level for a decision. Focus on Products: A PRINCE2 project focuses on the definition and delivery of the products, in particular their quality requirements. Tailor to Suit Project Environment: PRINCE2 is tailored to suit the project environment, complexity, time capability and risk. Tailoring is the first activity in the process reviewed for each stage. Not every aspect of PRINCE2 will be applicable to every project, thus every process has a note on scalability; this provides guidance to the project manager as to. The positive aspect of this is; the negative aspect is that many of the essential elements of PRINCE2 can be omitted sometimes resulting in a PINO project – Prince in Name Only Starting Up A Project, in which the project team is appointed including an executive and a project manager, a project brief is produced Initiating A Project, in which the business case refined and Project Initiation Documentation assembled Directing A Project, which dictates the ways in which the Project Board oversees the project Controlling A Stage, which dictates how each individual stage should be controlled, including the way in which work packages are authorised and distributed Managing Product Delivery, which has the purpose of controlling the link between the Project Manager and the Team Manager by placing formal requirements on accepting and delivering project work.
Managing Stage Boundaries, which dictates how to transition from one stage to the next Closing A Project, which covers the formal decommissioning of the project, follow-on actions and evaluation of the benefits. The PRINCE2 manual contains 26 suggested template