A political party is an organized group of people with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in the government. The party agrees on some proposed policies and programmes, with a view to promoting the collective good or furthering their supporters' interests. While there is some international commonality in the way political parties are recognized and in how they operate, there are many differences, some are significant. Many political parties have an ideological core, but some do not, many represent ideologies different from their ideology at the time the party was founded. Many countries, such as Germany and India, have several significant political parties, some nations have one-party systems, such as China and Cuba; the United States is in practice a two-party system but with many smaller parties participating and a high degree of autonomy for individual candidates. Political factions have existed in democratic societies since ancient times. Plato writes in his Republic on the formation of political cliques in Classical Athens, the tendency of Athenian citizens to vote according to factional loyalty rather than for the public good.
In the Roman Republic, Polybius coined the term ochlocracy to describe the tendency of politicians to mobilise popular factionalist sentiment against their political rivals. Factional politics remained a part of Roman political life through the Imperial period and beyond, the poet Juvenal coined the phrase "bread and circuses" to describe the political class pandering to the citizenry through diversionary entertainments rather than through arguments about policy. "Bread and circuses" survived as part of Byzantine political life - for example, the Nika revolt during the reign of Justinian was a riot between the "Blues" and the "Greens"—two chariot racing factions at the Hippodrome, who received patronage from different Senatorial factions and religious sects. The patricians who sponsored the Blues and the Greens competed with each other to hold grander games and public entertainments during electoral campaigns, in order to appeal to the citizenry of Constantinople; the first modern political factions, can be said to have originated in early modern Britain.
The first political factions, cohering around a basic, if fluid, set of principles, emerged from the Exclusion Crisis and Glorious Revolution in late 17th century England. The Whigs supported Protestant constitutional monarchy against absolute rule, they were interested in the citizens of United Kingdom being free from the aristocracy and opposed to any tyranny, however they supported the constitutional aristocracy and does not consider the British nobility abusive because of its limits; the leader of the Whigs was Robert Walpole, who maintained control of the government in the period 1721–1742. As the century wore on, the factions began to adopt more coherent political tendencies as the interests of their power bases began to diverge; the Whig party's initial base of support from the great aristocratic families widened to include the emerging industrial interests and wealthy merchants. As well as championing constitutional monarchy with strict limits on the monarch's power, the Whigs adamantly opposed a Catholic king as a threat to liberty, believed in extending toleration to nonconformist Protestants, or dissenters.
A major influence on the Whigs were the liberal political ideas of John Locke, the concepts of universal rights employed by Locke and Algernon Sidney. Although the Tories were out of office for half a century, for most of this period the Tories retained party cohesion, with occasional hopes of regaining office at the accession of George II and the downfall of the ministry of Sir Robert Walpole in 1742, they acted as a united, though unavailing, opposition to Whig corruption and scandals. At times they cooperated with the "Opposition Whigs", Whigs who were in opposition to the Whig government, they regained power with the accession of George III in 1760 under Lord Bute. When they lost power, the old Whig leadership dissolved into a decade of factional chaos with distinct "Grenvillite", "Bedfordite", "Rockinghamite", "Chathamite" factions successively in power, all referring to themselves as "Whigs". Out of this chaos, the first distinctive parties emerged; the first such party was the Rockingham Whigs under the leadership of Charles Watson-Wentworth and the intellectual guidance of the political philosopher Edmund Burke.
Burke laid out a philosophy that described the basic framework of the political party as "a body of men united for promoting by their joint endeavours the national interest, upon some particular principle in which they are all agreed". As opposed to the instability of the earlier factions, which were tied to a particular leader and could disintegrate if removed from power, the party was centred around a set of core principles and remained out of power as a united opposition to government. A coalition including the Rockingham Whigs, led by the Earl of She
2010 Brazilian general election
The first round of the Brazilian general election of 2010 was held on Sunday, October 3, 2010. The Presidency of the Republic, all 513 Chamber of Deputies seats and 54 out of 81 Federal Senate seats were contested in this election, along with governorships and Legislative Assemblies of all 26 states and the Federal District. On October 31, a run-off was held for president and eight state governorships that did not reach 50% plus one of the valid votes cast in the first round. On October 3, 2010, Brazilian citizens eligible to vote were required by law to choose a successor to President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, of the Workers' Party, as President Lula's second, four-year term in office was coming to an end and he was constitutionally prohibited from running for a third, consecutive term. 2010 marked the first time since the first election after the redemocratization in which he did not run for president. As no candidate received absolute majority of the valid cast votes in the first round, a second round, run-off was required to be held on October 31, at which time Lula's designated successor, Workers' Party candidate Dilma Rousseff, defeated the candidate of the Brazilian Social Democracy Party, José Serra, 56% to 44%.
Rousseff therefore became Brazil's first female president. Elected candidate All 26 Brazilian states and the Federal District governors were up for election. If none of the candidates received a majority of valid votes in the first round, a run-off was held on October 31, 2010. According to the Constitution, governors are elected directly to a four-year term, with a limit of two terms. Aécio Neves, Alcides Rodrigues, Blairo Maggi, Eduardo Braga, Ivo Cassol, Luiz Henrique da Silveira, Marcelo Miranda, Paulo Hartung, Roberto Requião, Waldez Góes, Wilma de Faria and Wellington Dias were all elected in 2002 and re-elected in 2006 and thus were not allowed to run again. After his involvement in an ongoing corruption scandal in late 2009, Federal District Governor José Roberto Arruda left the Democrats party becoming ineligible since it is required for citizens seeking to run for any public office in the country to be a registered party member for at least a year before the predicted election date.
Fifty-four of the 81 seats in the Federal Senate, the upper house, were up for election. According to the Constitution, senators are elected directly to an eight-year term, there is no limit on the number of terms. Alternately, one third and two thirds of the seats are up for election every four years. In 2006, one third of the seats were up for election and thus in 2010 there were two thirds, corresponding to two senators for each one of the 26 Brazilian states, plus two senators for the Federal District. All 513 seats in the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house, were up for election. According to the Constitution, federal deputies are elected directly to a four-year term, there is no limit on the number of terms; as a result of the parliamentary election, the Lulista coalition took control of the majority of seats in both houses. All seats in the State Assemblies will be up for election. According to the Constitution, State Assemblies are unicameral, its members, who are designated as state deputies, are elected directly to a four-year term, with no limit on the number of terms.
A Brazilian court banned all political spoofs in the runup to the elections. This was condemnation. On September 2, 2010, the Supreme Federal Court overturned the decision
Supreme Federal Court
The Supreme Federal Court is the supreme court of Brazil, serving as the Constitutional Court of the country. It is the highest court of law in Brazil for constitutional issues and its rulings cannot be appealed. On questions involving non-constitutional issues, regarding federal laws, the highest court is, by rule, the Superior Court of Justice. Alongside its appeal competence by the Extraordinary Appeal, the Court has a small range of cases of original jurisdiction, including the power of judicial review, judging the constitutionality of laws passed by the National Congress, through a Direct Action of Unconstitutionality. There are other mechanisms for reaching the Court directly, such as the Declaratory Action of Constitutionality and the Direct Action of Unconstitutionality by Omission; the eleven judges of the court are called Ministers, although having no similarity with the government body of ministers. They are approved by the Senate. There is no term length but a mandatory retirement age of 75.
All judicial and administrative meetings of the Supreme Court have been broadcast live on television since 2002. The Court is open for the public to watch the meetings. In May 2009 The Economist called the Supreme Federal Court "the most overburdened court in the world, thanks to a plethora of rights and privileges entrenched in the country's 1988 constitution till the tribunal's decisions did not bind lower courts; the result was a court, overstretched to the point of mutiny. The Supreme Court received 100,781 cases last year." The court was inaugurated during the colonial era in 1808, the year that the royal family of Portugal arrived in Rio de Janeiro. It was called the House of Appeals of Brazil; the proclamation of the Brazilian Declaration of Independence and the adoption of the Imperial Constitution in 1824 preceded the establishment of the Supreme Court of Justice in 1829. With the first Constitution of the Republic, the current Court was established. Although the constitutional norms that regulated the creation of the Court allowed Deodoro da Fonseca, Brazil's first president, to nominate an new Court, the president chose to nominate as the first members of the Supreme Federal Court the ministers who were serving as members of the predecessor imperial Court.
Two hundred members have served on the Court. The Constitution of 1891 decided; when Getúlio Vargas came into power, the number of members was reduced to 11. The number was changed to 16 in 1965, but has not changed since. Of all Presidents of Brazil, only one never nominated a minister; the President and Vice-president of the Court are elected by their peers for a term of two years by secret ballot. The serving President is Dias Toffoli. Re-election for a consecutive term is not allowed. By tradition, the members of the Court always elect as president the most senior minister of the Court that has not yet served as President, to avoid politicization of the Court. Therefore, it is known beforehand that the next Presidents of the Court, after Dias Toffoli, will be, in order, Luiz Fux and Rosa Weber. If all members sitting on the Court have served as president, the rotation starts all over again. According to the same convention, the Court selects as vice-president for a certain term the minister who, according to that tradition, will be selected president in the succeeding term.
By tradition, the elections of the president and vice-president are never unanimous, there being always one isolated minority vote in each election, as the ministers who are to be elected never cast their votes for themselves. The Chief Justice is the 4th in the Presidential Succession Line, when the President of Brazil becomes prevented to be in charge, being preceded by the Vice-President, the President of the Chamber of Deputies, the President of the Federal Senate, as provided in Article 80 of the Brazilian Constitution. NotesM. ^ Names in bold are the names used in social denomination. Brazil federal courts Tribunal de Justiça List of Ministers of the Supreme Federal Court Official website Photo 360° of Supreme Federal Court - GUIABSB
2014 Brazilian general election
General elections were held in Brazil on 5 October 2014 to elect the President, the National Congress, state governors and state legislatures. As no candidate in the presidential and several gubernatorial elections received more than 50% of the vote, a second-round runoff was held on 26 October. In the first round of voting Dilma Rousseff won 41.6% of the vote, ahead of Aécio Neves with 33.6% and Marina Silva with 21.3%. Rousseff and Neves contested the runoff on 26 October and Rousseff won re-election by a narrow margin, 51.6% to Neves' 48.4%. Incumbent President Dilma Rousseff of the Workers' Party, Brazil's first female president, was challenged by 11 other candidates. Minas Gerais Senator Aécio Neves from the Brazilian Social Democracy Party and Marina Silva from the Brazilian Socialist Party were her main rivals. Since none of the candidates obtained over 50% of the valid votes in the 5 October election, a second-round election was held on 26 October between Rousseff and Neves, who had finished first and second in the 5 October vote.
In Brazil's closest presidential election results since 1989, Rousseff narrowly defeated Neves in the second round, taking 51.6% of the vote to Neves' 48.4%. The original PSB candidate had been Eduardo Campos. However, he died in a plane crash in Santos on 13 August 2014, after which the party chose Silva, his running mate, to replace him as the presidential candidate. Criticised for low economic growth and intervening in the economy. Proposed less intervention in the economy. Shortly before the election a former executive of the state-run oil company Petrobras accused a minister, three state governors, six senators and dozens of congressmen from President Dilma Rousseff’s Workers’ Party and several coalition allies of having accepted kickbacks from contracts. First Round Second Round Rousseff vs. Neves Rousseff vs. Silva Silva vs. Neves Sources: Chamber Senate 198 of the elected candidates were new to the House of Representatives, the highest proportion of freshmen in 16 years; the number of political parties in the parliament increased from 22 parties after the 2010 election to 28 at the beginning of the new term
Municipalities of Brazil
The municipalities of Brazil are administrative divisions of the Brazilian states. At present, Brazil has 5,570 municipalities, making the average municipality population 34,361; the average state in Brazil has 214 municipalities. Roraima is the least subdivided state, with 15 municipalities, while Minas Gerais is the most subdivided state, with 853; the Federal District cannot be divided into municipalities, according to the Brazilian Constitution, the Federal District assumes the same constitutional and legal powers and obligations of the states and municipalities, instead, it is divided by administrative regions. The 1988 Brazilian Constitution treats the municipalities as parts of the Federation and not dependent subdivisions of the states; each municipality has an autonomous local government, comprising a mayor and a legislative body called municipal chamber. Both the local government and the legislative body are directly elected by the population every four years; these elections take place at the same time all over the country.
Each municipality has the constitutional power to approve its own laws, as well as collecting taxes and receiving funds from the state and federal governments. However, municipal governments have no judicial power, courts are only organised at the state or federal level. A subdivision of the state judiciary, or comarca, can either correspond to an individual municipality or encompass several municipalities; the seat of the municipal administration is a nominated city, with no specification in the law about the minimum population, area or facilities. The city always has the same name as the municipality. Municipalities can be subdivided, only for administrative purposes, into districts. Other populated sites with no legal effect or regulation. All municipalities are subdivided into neighbourhoods, although most municipalities do not define their neighbourhood limits. Municipalities can be split or merged to form new municipalities within the borders of the state, if the population of the involved municipalities expresses a desire to do so in a plebiscite.
However, these must abide by the Brazilian Constitution, forming exclaves or seceding from the state or union is expressly forbidden. Municipalities of Acre Municipalities of Alagoas Municipalities of Amapá Municipalities of Amazonas Municipalities of Bahia Municipalities of Ceará Municipalities of Espírito Santo Municipalities of Goiás Municipalities of Maranhão Municipalities of Mato Grosso Municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul Municipalities of Minas Gerais Municipalities of Pará Municipalities of Paraíba Municipalities of Paraná Municipalities of Pernambuco Municipalities of Piauí Municipalities of Rio de Janeiro Municipalities of Rio Grande do Norte Municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul Municipalities of Rondônia Municipalities of Roraima Municipalities of Santa Catarina Municipalities of São Paulo Municipalities of Sergipe Municipalities of Tocantins Lists of cities List of largest cities in Brazil List of municipalities of Brazil Administrative region Map on the World Gazetteer at Archive.today Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
Superior Electoral Court
The Superior Electoral Court is the highest body of the Brazilian Electoral Justice, which comprises one Regional Electoral Court in each of the 26 states and the Federal District of the country, as determined by Article 118 of the Constitution of Brazil. The Brazilian Electoral Code of 1932 established the Electoral Justice in Brazil, replacing the political system conducted by the Legislative branch over the electoral proceedings; the new judicial system transferred control over such proceedings to the Judiciary. In the present, duties of the Electoral Justice are regulated by a posterior Electoral Code, approved in 1965, which revoked the 1932 code, but kept the judicial control over the electoral proceedings; the Superior Electoral Court is the highest judicial body of the Brazilian Electoral Justice as per Article 121, §3 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988, which sets that the decisions of the Superior Electoral Court are unappealable, except those contrary to the Constitution, or that deny habeas corpus or writs of mandamus.
Therefore, in such exceptions, the Supreme Federal Court judges appeals filed against the Superior Electoral Court’s rulings. The composition of the court is ruled by Article 119 of the Constitution of Brazil, which sets that the court shall be composed by seven members. Three of them shall be elected by secret vote from among the Justices of the Supreme Federal Court and two other judges shall be elected by secret vote from among the Justices of the Superior Court of Justice; the remaining two shall be appointed by the President of Brazil from among six lawyers of notable juridical knowledge and good moral reputation nominated by the Supreme Federal Court. Official website
Superior Labour Court
The Superior Labor Court or Tribunal Superior do Trabalho, in Portuguese, is the highest Brazilian appellate court for Labor law issues. Its headquarters are located near the American Embassy, it is one of the five high courts in Brazil. It is the highest instance in the Brazilian federalized labor courts system, which includes the Regional Labor Courts, at common appeal level, the Trial Labor Courts in the first instance level; the origins of that court remonts the National Labor Council, created in 1923, a part of the Federal Executive Branch, subordinated to the Ministry of Agriculture and Commerce. In 1946 the Council was transformed in the Tribunal Superior do Trabalho; the Brazilian Constitution adopted in that same year recognized the TST as part of the Judiciary Branch, no longer subordinated to the Executive Branch. That basic situation was kept by all subsequent Constitutions. Since its origins, that Court was integrate by both effective Ministers and temporary class Ministers; the effective Ministers were considered Magistrates for all legal prerogatives, while the Temporary Classist Ministers, which were paritary representatives of both patrons em employers, were pointed for a fixed term and had fewer powers and prerogative.
The Classists Ministers were abolished by a constitutional amendment in 1999, subsisting only the effective Ministers. By the actual legislation, the Court is integrated by 27 members, entitled Ministers, pointed by the President of Brazil; the nomination only occurs after the approval of the Senate. All the nominated members must be at least 35 and no more than 65 years old, must have Brazilian nationality and moral integrity, plus all the requirements to enter in a public service career. There are 3 positions reserved lawyers, indicated by the Order of Attorneys of Brazil, 3 for members of the Public Ministry, the remaining 21 for career judges of the Regional Labor Courts. Official website Brazil federal courts