Shchukinskaya is a station on the Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. Named after the village of Schukino before it was consumed by Moscow and became a municipality in the 1940s, it was opened on 30 December 1975; the design follows the original pillar-trispan. The pillars are faced with different shades of pinkish marble and punctuated by a vertical strip of anodized aluminum on each face; the walls are of corrugated, bronze-coloured aluminum, an alloy of extensive strength and flexibility, adorned with decorative panels. The floor is covered with polished grey granite; the architects were N. Samoylova and M. Alekseev. During the construction of the extension tunnel Oktyabrskoe Pole – Shchukinskaya a new engineering method was developed; because the Moscow soil was sandy, the metro tunnels had traditionally been built using the open pit method or by restricting building work from passing under inhabited areas as cave-ins would have been likely. For the Shchukinskaya tunnel however circular concrete blocks were pressed rather than mounted into the soil, as this was done the elements did not have time to develop into heavy pressure and sap into the tunnel.
This removed the need for festering a sand-cement mixture into the finish, thereby increasing the potential speed of construction, saving on building materials. Another achievement was that no metal was used for the mounting of the tunnel blocks, instead a bitumen mixture formed from the pressure of the boring complex was used to join the blocks; as this was denser than the soil, there was no need for festering of the cement. The entrances to the station are located near the intersection of Shchukinskaya Ulitsa and Ulitsa Marshala Vasilevskogo; the station handles 93500 people daily. Metro.ru mymetro.ru KartaMetro.info — Station location and exits on Moscow map Yuri Gridchin's website
Tushinskaya is a station on the Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. It was designed by I. G. Petukhova and V. P. Kachurinets and opened on 30 December 1975; the station was built to a modified standard design, with grey-blue marble pillars and white marble walls with inlaid zigzag friezes. Tushinskaya is one of the Metro's busiest stations, serving about 111,000 passengers per day according to a 1999 study. Tushinskaya is located adjacent to Tushino railway station on the Rizhsky suburban direction of Moscow Railway. Metro.ru mymetro.ru KartaMetro.info – Station location and exits on Moscow map
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit; this differs from a tram or streetcar, which uses the track as the return path, needing only one wire and one pole. They are distinct from other kinds of electric buses, which rely on batteries. Power is most supplied as 600-volt direct current, but there are exceptions. Around 300 trolleybus systems are in operation, in cities and towns in 43 countries. Altogether, more than 800 trolleybus not more than about 400 concurrently; the trolleybus dates back to 29 April 1882, when Dr. Ernst Werner Siemens demonstrated his "Elektromote" in a Berlin suburb; this experiment continued until 13 June 1882, after which there were few developments in Europe, although separate experiments were conducted in the U. S. In 1899, another vehicle which could run either on or off rails was demonstrated in Berlin; the next development was when Lombard Gerin operated an experimental line at the Paris Exhibition of 1900 after four years of trials, with a circular route around Lake Daumesnil that carried passengers.
Routes followed in 6 places including Fontainebleau. Max Schiemann on 10 July 1901 opened the world's fourth passenger-carrying trolleybus system, which operated at Bielatal, in Germany. Schiemann built and operated the Bielatal system, is credited with developing the under-running trolley current collection system, with two horizontally parallel overhead wires and rigid trolleypoles spring-loaded to hold them up to the wires. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days there were many other methods of current collection; the Cédès-Stoll system was first operated near Dresden between 1902 and 1904, 18 systems followed. The Lloyd-Köhler or Bremen system was tried out in Bremen with 5 further installations, the Cantono Frigerio system was used in Italy. Throughout the period, trackless freight systems and electric canal boats were built. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
Though it was opened on 20 June, the public was not admitted to the Bradford route until the 24th. Bradford was the last to operate trolleybuses in the UK, the system closing on 26 March 1972; the last rear-entrance trolleybus in Britain was in Bradford and is now owned by the Bradford Trolleybus Association. Birmingham was the first to replace a tram route with trolleybuses, while Wolverhampton, under the direction of Charles Owen Silvers, became world-famous for its trolleybus designs. There were 50 trolleybus systems in the UK. By the time trolleybuses arrived in Britain in 1911, the Schiemann system was well established and was the most common, although the Cédès-Stoll system was tried in West Ham and in Keighley. Smaller trackless trolley systems were built in the US early as well; the first non-experimental system was a seasonal municipal line installed near Nantasket Beach in 1904. The trackless trolley was seen as an interim step, leading to streetcars. In the U. S. A. some systems subscribed to the all-four concept of using buses, trolleybuses and rapid transit subway and/or elevated lines, as appropriate, for routes ranging from the used to the heaviest trunk line.
Buses and trolleybuses in particular were seen as entry systems that could be upgraded to rail as appropriate. In a similar fashion, many cities in Britain viewed trolleybus routes as extensions to tram routes where the cost of constructing or restoring track could not be justified at the time, though this attitude changed markedly in the years after 1918. Trackless trolleys were the dominant form of new post-war electric traction, with extensive systems in among others, Los Angeles, Rhode Island, Atlanta; some trolleybus lines in the United States came into existence when a trolley or tram route did not have sufficient ridership to warrant track maintenance or reconstruction. In a similar manner, a proposed tram scheme in Leeds, United Kingdom, was changed to a trolleybus scheme to cut costs. Trolleybuses are uncommon today in North America, but they remain common in many European countries as well as Russia and China occupying a position in usage between street railways and diesel buses. Worldwide, around 300 cities or metropolitan areas are served by trolleybuses today.
Trolleybuses are used extensively in large European cities, such as Athens, Bratislava, Budapest, Kiev, Milan, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, Tallinn, Varna and Zurich, as well as smaller ones such as Arnhem, Coimbra, Kaunas, Limoges, Modena, Piatra Neamț, Plzeň, Prešov, Solingen, Szeged, Târgu Jiu and Yalta. See Trolleybus usage by country. Transit authorities in some cities have reduced or discontinued their use of trolleybuses in recent years, while othe
Yuzhnoportovy District is an administrative district of South-Eastern Administrative Okrug, one of the 125 raions of Moscow, Russia. The area of the district is 4.53 square kilometers. Population: 73,178, Administrative divisions of Moscow
Skhodnenskaya is a station on the Tagansko-Krasnopresnenskaya Line of the Moscow Metro. The station is a single vault, a significant engineering achievement and a change from the typical functionality design of the 1960s. Moscow's history of single vault stations began 40 years prior to Skhodnenskaya with Biblioteka Imeni Lenina which opened along with the Metro itself in 1935. Built to a design of the Paris Métro, problems of keeping the structure from collapse and pouring in bitumen called for no repeat of such methods; the second single vault, opened in 1938, was built with the cut and cover method, was not successful. The delicacy required when preparing and handling heavy monolithic concrete vault blocks was labour-intensive and in that period of industrialisation, was not cost affective. During the late 1960s following the beginning the deviation from a policy of functionality, engineers returned to the single-vault design. First tested in the Kharkov Metro, the design is initiated with a simple cut and cover as a column tri-span after the walls are mounted.
The pit is filled with the excavated earth, up to the depth of the vault keystone, shaped into a half-cylinder. From there a metallic armature is placed on the earth, on it, concrete blocks. Once set, the earth under the completed vault is re-excavated and work on the station platforms can begin; the exact shape of the dome depends on the hydro-geological conditions of the surrounding location. If hydro-isolation is not required, the walls that erected the dome are incorporated into the design and the appearance is that of a vault lying on top of them. If hydro-isolation is required, the vault extends all the way to the bottom and the station appears like a half-cylinder. In presence of high water pressure from the soil, the walls are not only left outside, but the vault is forced into a backwards curvature, making the station more cylindrical. Skhodnensakaya was the first station in Moscow to be built using this method, its design incorporated the walls into its construction. Architects Popov and Fokin were the first to exploit the potential design which gave greater potential than the pillar-trispan.
The walls were adorned with decorative cast-aluminium panels. All signage and light fixtures were attached to the ceiling, keeping the platform free of obstructions. Skhodnenskaya opened on 30 December 1975 as part of the northern extension of the Krasnopresnenskiy Line; the new design proved popular and was used in all future extensions, or new line segments and in Moscow and other ex-USSR metros had at least some single vaults. This single vault design however, should not be confused with those found in Saint Petersburg Metro, which are built exploiting a different technology; the station's underground vestibules are interlinked with subways allowing access to the Skhodnenskaya street, Yana Rainisa and Khimkinskiy Boulevards. Each day 78,750 people use the station. Metro.ru mymetro.ru KartaMetro.info — Station location and exits on Moscow map
Tverskaya (Moscow Metro)
Tverskaya is a station on Moscow Metro's Zamoskvoretskaya line. The station is along Tverskaya Street under Pushkin Square in Moscow. From its opening in 1979 until 1990, it was named Gorkovskaya, the name of Tverskaya Street during the Soviet times. After the government restored the Tverskaya name in 1990, he station's name was changed accordingly; the station was planned to open in 1938 along with the rest of the Gorkovsky radius of the second stage of the Metro. However this was abandoned and a provision of a straight tunnel, with a reinforced structure was left; however upon the change in the Metro development plans in the early 1960s, the city included a transfer station on the line. As a result, in 1975, after the opening of Pushkinskaya station, construction on Tverskaya began; the design marked a real engineering achievement, as the central hall, the passenger platforms were built without any disruption to the service. The decoration is dedicated to the works of the author, architects R. Semerdzhiev, B.
Thor, N. Shreter and V. Cheremin made best to show the revolutionary constructivism shapes of flared pylons and plastered ceiling thus leaving the engineering achievement visible. White marble was used for red granite for the floor; the end of the station was decorated with a sculptural composition dedicated to the theme of his works. However, in 1987 after the opening of a transfer with Chekhovskaya, the composition was moved to the escalator lobby in the transfer. Transfer to Pushkinskaya is achieved through the two underplatform passageways, via the vestibule under the Pushkin square which they share. In August 2000, a homemade bomb was detonated in the walkway leading to Pushkin Square. Seven victims were killed at six others died in hospitals; the explosion injured 118 others. The initial criminal investigation that followed blamed several criminal groups that were battling for the rights to operate retail kiosks in the walkway. Prosecutors looked at groups associated with Achemez Gochiyayev and Arbi Barayev.
No one was brought to trial for the attack. Moscow Metro Zamoskvoretskaya line Tverskaya Street
A bus is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers. Buses can have a capacity as high as 300 passengers; the most common type of bus is the single-deck rigid bus, with larger loads carried by double-decker and articulated buses, smaller loads carried by midibuses and minibuses. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus do not charge a fare. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special licence above and beyond a regular driver's licence. Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism. Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, electric trolleybuses in 1882; the first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, electric buses, as well as ones powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel.
As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world. Bus is a clipped form of the dative plural of omnis-e; the theoretical full name is in French voiture omnibus. The name originates from a mass-transport service started in 1823 by a French corn-mill owner named Stanislas Baudry in Richebourg, a suburb of Nantes. A by-product of his mill was hot water, thus next to it he established a spa business. In order to encourage customers he started a horse-drawn transport service from the city centre of Nantes to his establishment; the first vehicles stopped in front of the shop of a hatter named Omnés, which displayed a large sign inscribed "Omnes Omnibus", a pun on his Latin-sounding surname, omnes being the male and female nominative and accusative form of the Latin adjective omnis-e, combined with omnibus, the dative plural form meaning "for all", thus giving his shop the name "Omnés for all". His transport scheme was a huge success, although not as he had intended as most of his passengers did not visit his spa.
He turned the transport service into his principal lucrative business venture and closed the mill and spa. Nantes citizens soon gave the nickname "omnibus" to the vehicle. Having invented the successful concept Baudry moved to Paris and launched the first omnibus service there in April 1828. A similar service was introduced in London in 1829. Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation; the first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared on the streets of London on 22 April 1833. Steam carriages were much less to overturn, they travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages, they were much cheaper to run, caused much less damage to the road surface due to their wide tyres. However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the turnpike trusts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation eliminated mechanically propelled vehicles from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, 10 mph in the country.
In parallel to the development of the bus was the invention of the electric trolleybus fed through trolley poles by overhead wires. The Siemens brothers, William in England and Ernst Werner in Germany, collaborated on the development of the trolleybus concept. Sir William first proposed the idea in an article to the Journal of the Society of Arts in 1881 as an "...arrangement by which an ordinary omnibus...would have a suspender thrown at intervals from one side of the street to the other, two wires hanging from these suspenders. Although this experimental vehicle fulfilled all the technical criteria of a typical trolleybus, it was dismantled in the same year after the demonstration. Max Schiemann opened a passenger-carrying trolleybus in 1901 in Germany. Although this system operated only until 1904, Schiemann had developed what is now the standard trolleybus current collection system. In the early days, a few other methods of current collection were used. Leeds and Bradford became the first cities to put trolleybuses into service in Great Britain on 20 June 1911.
In Siegerland, two passenger bus lines ran but unprofitably, in 1895 using a six-passenger motor carriage developed from the 1893 Benz Viktoria. Another commercial bus line using the same model Benz omnibuses ran for a short time in 1898 in the rural area around Llandudno, Wales. Daimler produced one of the earliest motor-bus models in 1898, selling a double-decker bus to the Motor Traction Company, first used on the streets of London on 23 April 1898; the vehicle had a maximum speed of 18 km/h and accommodated up to 20 passengers, in an enclosed area below and on an open-air pl