Pelias was king of Iolcus in Greek mythology. The son of Tyro and the god Poseidon, he was the one who sent Jason on the quest for the Golden Fleece. Pelias was the son of Poseidon, his wife is recorded as daughter of Bias, or Phylomache, daughter of Amphion. He was the father of Acastus, Alcestis, Hippothoe, Evadne, Asteropeia and Medusa. Tyro was married to King Cretheus of Iolcus, with whom she had three sons, Pherês, Amythaon, but she loved Enipeus, a river god, she pursued Enipeus. One day, filled with lust for Tyro, disguised himself as Enipeus and lay with her - from their union were born twin sons and Neleus. Tyro exposed her sons on a mountain to die, but they were found by a herdsman who raised them as his own, as one story goes, or they were raised by a maid; when they reached adulthood and Neleus found Tyro and killed her stepmother Sidero for having mistreated her. Pelias was power-hungry and he wished to gain dominion over all of Thessaly. To this end, he banished Neleus and Pherês, locked Aeson in the dungeons in Iolcus.
While in the dungeons, Aeson married and had several children, most famously, Jason. Aeson sent Jason away from Iolcus in fear that Pelias would have him killed as a potential heir to the throne. Jason grew in the care of Chiron the centaur, on the slopes of Mount Pelion, to be educated while Pelias, fearing that he would be overthrown, was warned by an oracle to beware a man wearing one sandal. Many years Pelias offered a sacrifice by the sea in honor of Poseidon. Jason, summoned with many others to take part in the sacrifice, lost one of his sandals in the flooded river Anaurus while rushing to Iolcus. In Virgil's Aeneid and Hyginus' Fabulae, Hera/Juno disguised herself as an old woman, whom Jason helped across the river when he lost his sandal; when Jason entered Iolcus, he was announced as a man wearing one sandal. Fearful, Pelias asked Jason. Jason responded. Pelias sent him to retrieve the Golden Fleece, it would be found in a grove sacred to Ares, the god of war. Though the Golden Fleece hung on an oak tree, this was a impossible task, as an ever-watchful dragon guarded it.
Jason made preparations by commanding the shipwright Argus to build a ship large enough for fifty men, which he would call the Argo. These heroes who would join his quest were known as the Argonauts. Upon their arrival, Jason requested the Golden Fleece from the king of Aeëtes. Aeëtes demanded that Jason must first yoke a pair of fire-breathing bulls to a plough and sow dragon's teeth into the earth. Medea, daughter of Aeëtes, fell in love with Jason, being endowed with magical powers, aided him in his completion of the difficult task, she cast a spell to put the dragon to sleep, enabling Jason to obtain the Golden Fleece from the oak tree. Jason and the Argonauts fled Colchis and began their journey home to Thessaly. During Jason's absence, Pelias thought the Argo had sunk, this was what he told Aeson and Promachus, who committed suicide by drinking poison. However, it is possible that the two were both killed directly by Pelias; when Jason and Medea returned, Pelias still refused to give up his throne.
Medea conspired to have Pelias' own daughters kill him. She told them she could turn an old ram into a young ram by boiling it. During the demonstration, a live, young ram jumped out of the pot. Excited, the girls cut their father into pieces and threw them into a pot, in the expectation that he would emerge rejuvenated. Pelias, of course, did not survive; as he was now an accessory to a terrible crime, Jason was still not made king. Pelias' son Acastus banished Jason and Medea, to Corinth, so reclaimed the kingdom. An alternate telling of the story has Medea slitting the throat of Jason's father Aeson, who she really does revive as a much younger man. Media related to Pelias at Wikimedia Commons
In Greek mythology, Agamemnon was a king of Mycenae, the son of King Atreus and Queen Aerope of Mycenae, the brother of Menelaus, the husband of Clytemnestra and the father of Iphigenia, Electra or Laodike and Chrysothemis. Legends make him the king of Mycenae or Argos, thought to be different names for the same area; when Helen, the wife of Menelaus, was taken to Troy by Paris, Agamemnon commanded the united Greek armed forces in the ensuing Trojan War. Upon Agamemnon's return from Troy, he was killed by the lover of his wife Clytemnestra. In old versions of the story, the scene of the murder, when it is specified, is the house of Aegisthus, who has not taken up residence in Agamemnon's palace, it involves an ambush and the deaths of Agamemnon's followers as well. In some versions, Clytemnestra herself does the killing, or they act together as accomplices, killing Agamemnon in his own home, his name in Greek, Ἀγαμέμνων, means "very steadfast", "unbowed". The word comes from *Ἀγαμέδμων from ἄγαν, "very much" and μέδομαι, "think on".
Atreus, Agamemnon's father, murdered the sons of his twin brother Thyestes and fed them to Thyestes after discovering Thyestes' adultery with his wife Aerope. Thyestes fathered Aegisthus with his own daughter and this son vowed gruesome revenge on Atreus' children. Aegisthus murdered Atreus and restored his father to the throne. Aegisthus jointly ruled with Thyestes. During this period and his brother, took refuge with Tyndareus, King of Sparta. There they married Tyndareus' daughters Clytemnestra and Helen. Agamemnon and Clytemnestra had four children: one son and three daughters, Iphigenia and Chrysothemis. Menelaus succeeded Tyndareus in Sparta, while Agamemnon, with his brother's assistance, drove out Aegisthus and Thyestes to recover his father's kingdom, he became the most powerful prince in Greece. Agamemnon's family history had been tarnished by murder and treachery, consequences of the heinous crime perpetrated by his ancestor, of a curse placed upon Pelops, son of Tantalus, by Myrtilus, whom he had murdered.
Thus misfortune hounded successive generations of the House of Atreus, until atoned by Orestes in a court of justice held jointly by humans and gods. Agamemnon gathered the reluctant Greek forces to sail for Troy. Preparing to depart from Ancient Greece, a port in Boeotia, Agamemnon's army incurred the wrath of the goddess Artemis. There are several reasons throughout myth for such wrath: in Aeschylus' play Agamemnon, Artemis is angry for the young men who will die at Troy, whereas in Sophocles' Electra, Agamemnon has slain an animal sacred to Artemis, subsequently boasted that he was Artemis' equal in hunting. Misfortunes, including a plague and a lack of wind, prevented the army from sailing; the prophet Calchas announced that the wrath of the goddess could only be propitiated by the sacrifice of Agamemnon's daughter Iphigenia. Classical dramatizations differ on how willing either daughter was to this fate, her death appeased Artemis, the Greek army set out for Troy. Several alternatives to the human sacrifice have been presented in Greek mythology.
Other sources, such as Iphigenia at Aulis, say that Agamemnon was prepared to kill his daughter, but that Artemis accepted a deer in her place, whisked her away to Tauris in the Crimean Peninsula. Hesiod said. Agamemnon was the commander-in-chief of the Greeks during the Trojan War. During the fighting, Agamemnon killed Antiphus and fifteen other Trojan soldiers, according to one source, but in the "Iliad" itself, he's shown to slaughter hundreds more in Book 11 during his "aristea" loosely translated to "day of glory", the most similar to Achilles' "aristea" in Book 21. Before his "aristea," Agamemnon was considered to be one of the three best warriors on the Greek side as proven when Hector challenges any champion of the Greek side to fight him in Book 7, Agamemnon is one of the three most wished for to face him out of the nine strongest Greek warriors who volunteered, and after they reconciled Achilles admits in Book 23 that Agamemnon is "the best in strength and in throwing the spear." That claim is further proven by the fact that Agamemnon was the only major warrior on either side never to need the gods' direct intervention to increase his strength or give him any unfair advantages in battle and yet he still caused incredible destruction on the scale of Achilles.
The Iliad tells the story about the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles in the final year of the war. Following one of the Achaean Army's raids, daughter of Chryses, one of Apollo's priests, was taken as a war prize by Agamemnon. Chryses was met with little success. Chryses prayed to Apollo for the safe return of his daughter, which Apollo responded to by unleashing a plague over the Achaean Army. After learning from the Prophet Calchas that the plague could be dispelled by returning Chryseis to her father, Agamemnon reluctantly agreed (but first berated Calch
Seven Against Thebes
Seven Against Thebes is the third play in an Oedipus-themed trilogy produced by Aeschylus in 467 BC. The trilogy is sometimes referred to as the Oedipodea, it concerns the battle between an Argive army led by Polynices and the army of Thebes led by Eteocles and his supporters. The trilogy won the first prize at the City Dionysia; the trilogy's first two plays and Oedipus, as well as the satyr play Sphinx, are no longer extant. When Oedipus, King of Thebes, realized he had married his own mother and had two sons and two daughters with her, he blinded himself and cursed his sons to divide their inheritance by the sword; the two sons and Polynices, in order to avoid bloodshed, agreed to rule Thebes in alternate years. After the first year, Eteocles refused to step down, leading Polynices to raise an army of Argives to take Thebes by force; this is. Seven Against Thebes features little action. Dialogues show aspects of Eteocles' character. There is a lengthy description of each of the seven captains that lead the Argive army against the seven gates of the city of Thebes as well as the devices on their respective shields.
Eteocles, in turn, announces. The commander of the troops before the seventh gate is revealed to be Polynices, the brother of the king. Eteocles remembers and refers to the curse of their father Oedipus. Eteocles resolves to fight his brother in person before the seventh gate and exits. Following a choral ode, a messenger enters, announcing that the attackers have been repelled but that Eteocles and Polynices have killed each other in battle, their bodies are brought on stage, the chorus mourns them. Due to the popularity of Sophocles' play Antigone, the ending of Seven against Thebes was rewritten about fifty years after Aeschylus' death. While Aeschylus wrote his play to end with somber mourning for the dead brothers, it now contains an ending that serves as a lead-in of sorts to Sophocles' play: a messenger appears, announcing a prohibition against burying Polynices; the seven attackers and defenders in the play are: The mytheme of the "outlandish" and "savage" Seven who threatened the city has traditionally seemed to be based on Bronze Age history in the generation before the Trojan War, when in the Iliad's Catalogue of Ships only the remnant Hypothebai subsists on the ruins of Thebes.
Yet archaeologists have been hard put to locate seven gates in "seven-gated Thebes": In 1891 Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff declared that the seven gates existed only for symmetry with the seven assailants, whose names vary: some have their own identity, like Amphiaraus the seer, "who had his sanctuary and his cult afterwards... Others appear as stock figures to fill out the list," Burkert remarks. "To call one of them Eteoklos, vis-à-vis Eteokles the brother of Polyneikes, appears to be the desperate invention of a faltering poet" Burkert follows a suggestion made by Ernest Howald in 1939 that the Seven are pure myth led by Adrastos on his magic horse, seven demons of the Underworld. The city is saved when the brothers run each other through. Burkert adduces a ninth-century relief from Tell Halaf which would illustrate a text from II Samuel 2: "But each seized his opponent by the forelock and thrust his sword into his side so that all fell together"; the mythic theme passed into Etruscan culture: a fifth-century bronze mirrorback is inscribed with Fulnice and Evtucle running at one another with drawn swords.
A gruesome detail from the battle, in which Tydeus gnawed on the living brain of Melanippos in the course of the siege appears, in a sculpted terracotta relief from a temple at Pyrgi, ca. 470–460 BC. The Seven Against Thebes were Adrastus Amphiaraus Capaneus Hippomedon Parthenopeus Polynices TydeusAllies: Eteoclus and Mecisteus; some sources, state that Eteoclus and Mecisteus were in fact two of the seven, that Tydeus and Polynices were allies. This is because both Polynices were foreigners. However, Polynices was the cause of the entire conflict, Tydeus performed acts of valour far surpassing Eteoclus and Mecisteus. Either way, all nine men were present in the battle; the defenders of Thebes included Melanippus Polyphontes Megareus Hyperbius Actor Lasthenes EteoclesSee Epigoni, the mythic theme of the Second War of Thebes Of the other two plays that made up the trilogy that included Seven Against Thebes and Oedipus, of its satyr play The Sphinx, few fragments have survived. The only fragment definitively assigned to Oedipus is a line translated by Herbert Weir Smyth as "We were coming on our journey to the place from which three highways part in the branching roads, where we crossed the junction of the triple roads at Potniae."
The only two fragments definitively assigned to The Sphinx were translated by Smyth as "For the stranger a garland, an ancient crown, the best of bonds, as Prometheus said," and "The Sphinx, the Watch-dog that presideth over evil days." Translators David Grene and Richmond Lattimore wrote that "the rise of German Romanticism, the consequent resurgence of enthusiasm for Aesc
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in Ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BCE to the 6th century CE. It is roughly divided into the Archaic period, Classical period, Hellenistic period, it is succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it resembled Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects. Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers, it has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a standard subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article contains information about the Epic and Classical periods of the language. Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects; the main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Aeolic and Doric, many of them with several subdivisions.
Some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions. There are several historical forms. Homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the "Iliad" and "Odyssey", in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic and other Classical-era dialects; the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period, they differ in some of the detail. The only attested dialect from this period is Mycenaean Greek, but its relationship to the historical dialects and the historical circumstances of the times imply that the overall groups existed in some form. Scholars assume that major Ancient Greek period dialect groups developed not than 1120 BCE, at the time of the Dorian invasion—and that their first appearances as precise alphabetic writing began in the 8th century BCE.
The invasion would not be "Dorian" unless the invaders had some cultural relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, who regarded themselves as descendants of the population displaced by or contending with the Dorians; the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects. Allowing for their oversight of Arcadian, an obscure mountain dialect, Cypriot, far from the center of Greek scholarship, this division of people and language is quite similar to the results of modern archaeological-linguistic investigation. One standard formulation for the dialects is: West vs. non-west Greek is the strongest marked and earliest division, with non-west in subsets of Ionic-Attic and Aeolic vs. Arcadocypriot, or Aeolic and Arcado-Cypriot vs. Ionic-Attic. Non-west is called East Greek. Arcadocypriot descended more from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age.
Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect. Thessalian had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Pamphylian Greek, spoken in a small area on the southwestern coast of Anatolia and little preserved in inscriptions, may be either a fifth major dialect group, or it is Mycenaean Greek overlaid by Doric, with a non-Greek native influence. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, or to an island. Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, Northern Peloponnesus Doric; the Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek. All the groups were represented by colonies beyond Greece proper as well, these colonies developed local characteristics under the influence of settlers or neighbors speaking different Greek dialects; the dialects outside the Ionic group are known from inscriptions, notable exceptions being: fragments of the works of the poet Sappho from the island of Lesbos, in Aeolian, the poems of the Boeotian poet Pindar and other lyric poets in Doric.
After the conquests of Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BCE, a new international dialect known as Koine or Common Greek developed based on Attic Greek, but with influence from other dialects. This dialect replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek. By about the 6th century CE, the Koine had metamorphosized into Medieval Greek. Ancient Macedonian was an Indo-European language at least related to Greek, but its exact relationship is unclear because of insufficient data: a dialect of Greek; the Macedonian dialect (or l
Idomeneus of Crete
In Greek mythology, Idomeneus was a Cretan commander, father of Orsilochus and Iphiclus, son of Deucalion and Cleopatra, grandson of Minos and king of Crete. He led the Cretan armies to the Trojan War and was one of Helen's suitors as well as a comrade of the Telamonian Ajax. Meriones was his charioteer and brother-in-arms. In Homer's Iliad, Idomeneus is found among the first rank of the Greek generals, leading his troops and engaging the enemy head-on, escaping serious injury. Idomeneus was one of Agamemnon's trusted advisors, he was one of the primary defenders when most of the other Achaean heroes were injured, fought Hector and repulsed his attack. Like most of the other leaders of the Greeks, he is alive and well, he was one of the Achaeans to enter the Trojan Horse. Idomeneus killed at least three Amazon women, including Bremusa, at Troy. A tradition, preserved by the mythographer Apollodorus of Athens, continues the story as follows: after the war, Idomeneus's ship hit a terrible storm, he promised Poseidon that he would sacrifice the first living thing he saw when he returned home if Poseidon would save his ship and crew.
The first living thing was his son. The gods sent a plague to Crete; the Cretans sent him into exile in Calabria and Colophon in Asia Minor where he died. According to Marcus Terrentius Varro, the gens Salentini descended from Idomeneus, who had sailed from Crete to Illyria, together with Illyrians and Locrians from Illyria to Salento, see Grecìa Salentina. Alternatively, Idomeneus was driven out of Crete by Leucus, his foster son, who had seduced and killed Idomeneus' wife Meda and usurped the throne of Crete; the tale is covered by the fourth-century Italian writer Maurus Servius Honoratus, the French 17th century writer François Fénelon. According to the hypothetical reading of Achterberg et al. Idomeneus may be mentioned on the Phaistos Disk as the governor of Mesara. Idomeneo, a 1781 opera seria by Mozart, is based on the story of Idomeneus's return to Crete. In this version, Poseidon spares Idomeneo's son Idamante, on condition that Idomeneo relinquish his throne to the new generation. Achterberg, Winfried.
Media related to Idomeneus at Wikimedia Commons
In Greek mythology, was an Argive seer, with a gift for interpreting the flight of birds that he received of Apollo: "as an augur, Calchas had no rival in the camp". He interpreted the entrails of the enemy during the tide of battle. Calchas was the son of son of the seer Idmon, by Polymele, he was the brother of Leucippe and Theoclymenus It was Calchas who prophesied that in order to gain a favourable wind to deploy the Greek ships mustered in Aulis on their way to Troy, Agamemnon would need to sacrifice his daughter, Iphigeneia, to appease Artemis, whom Agamemnon had offended. The episode was related at length in the lost Cypria, of the Epic Cycle, he states that Troy will be sacked on the tenth year of the war. In the Iliad, Calchas tells the Greeks that the captive Chryseis must be returned to her father Chryses in order to get Apollo to stop the plague he has sent as a punishment: this triggered the quarrel of Achilles and Agamemnon, the main theme of the Iliad. In the story, Poseidon assumes the form of Calchas in order to rouse and empower the Greek forces while Zeus is not observing the battle.
In Sophocles' Ajax, Calchas delivers a prophecy to Teucer suggesting that the protagonist will die if he leaves his tent before the day is out. Calchas plays a role in Quintus of Smyrna's Posthomerica. Calchas said, it is he rather than Helenus that predicts that Troy will only fall once the Argives are able to recruit Philoctetes. It is by his advice that they halt the battle though Neoptolemus is slaughtering the Trojans, he tells the Argives that the city is more taken by strategy than by force. He endorses Odysseus' suggestion that the Trojan Horse will infiltrate the Trojans, he foresees that Aeneas will survive the battle and found the city, tells the Argives that they will not kill him. He did not join the Argives when they boarded the ships, as he foresaw the impending doom of the Kapherean Rocks. Calchas died of shame at Colophon in Asia Minor shortly after the Trojan War: the prophet Mopsus beat him in a contest of soothsaying, although Strabo placed an oracle of Calchas on Monte Gargano in Magna Graecia.
It is said that Calchas died of laughter when he thought another seer had incorrectly predicted his death. This seer had foretold Calchas would never drink from the wine produced from vines he had planted himself. In medieval and versions of the myth, Calchas is portrayed as a Trojan defector and the father of Chryseis, now called Cressida. 4138 Kalchas, Jovian asteroid
Ithaca, Ithaki or Ithaka is a Greek island located in the Ionian Sea, off the northeast coast of Kefalonia and to the west of continental Greece. Ithaca's main island has an area of 96 square kilometres and had a population in 2011 of 3,231, it is the second-smallest of seven main Ionian Islands, after Paxi. Ithaca is a separate regional unit of the Ionian Islands region, the only municipality of the regional unit; the capital is Vathy. Modern Ithaki is linked with Homer's Ithaca, the home of Odysseus, whose twenty-year absence is part of the plot of the classical Greek poem and allegory: Odyssey of Homer; the island was named by Pterelaus, the son of Taphius, king of the Taphians. The Taphians were mariners and slave-traders from Taphos, an island off the coast of Arcanania in north-western Greece. Pterelaus' sons Ithakus and Polyctor colonised the island of Ithaki around 1,320 BC, which took the name of his oldest son. Although the name Ithaki has remained unchanged since ancient times, written documents of different periods refer to the island by other names, such as: Val di Compare, Piccola Cephallonia, Anticephallonia Ithaki nisos, Thakou, Thiakou Thiaki Teaki Fiaki The island has been inhabited since the 2nd millennium BC.
It may have been the capital of Cephalonia during the Mycenaean period and the capital-state of the small kingdom ruled by Odysseus. The Romans occupied the island in the 2nd century BC, it became part of the Byzantine Empire; the Normans ruled Ithaca in the 13th century, after a short Turkish rule it fell into Venetian hands. Ithaca was subsequently occupied by France under the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio, it was liberated by a joint Russo-Turkish force commanded by admirals Fyodor Ushakov and Kadir Bey in 1798 and subsequently became a part of the Septinsular Republic, established as a protectorate of the Russian Empire and Ottoman Empire. It became a French possession again in 1807, until it was taken over by the United Kingdom in 1809. Under the 1815 Treaty of Paris, Ithaca became a state of the United States of the Ionian Islands, a protectorate of the British Empire. In 1830 the local community requested to join with the rest of the newly restored nation-state of Greece. Under the 1864 Treaty of London, along with the remaining six Ionian islands, were ceded to Greece as a gesture of diplomatic friendship to Greece's new Anglophile king, George I.
The United Kingdom kept its privileged use of the harbour at Corfu. The origins of the first people to inhabit the island, which occurred during the last years of the Neolithic period, are not clear; the traces of buildings, walls and a road from this time period prove that life existed and continued to do so during the Early Hellenic era. In the years some of the population migrated to part of the island; the buildings and walls that were excavated showed the lifestyle of this period had remained primitive. During the Mycenaean period, Ithaca rose to the highest level of its ancient history. Based on the Odyssey and oral traditions, it is believed that the island became the capital of the Ionian Kingdom-State, which included the surrounding lands, was referred to as one of the most powerful states of that time; the Ithacans were characterized as great navigators and explorers with daring expeditions reaching further than the Mediterranean Sea. The epic poems of Homer, the Iliad and the Odyssey, shed some light on Bronze-Age Ithaca.
Those poems are thought to have been composed sometime in the 9th or 8th centuries BC, but may have made use of older mythological and poetic traditions. Recent studies concluded. After the end of the Mycenaean period Ithaca's influence diminished, it came under the jurisdiction of the nearest large island. During the ancient Hellenic prime, independent organized life continued in the northern and southern part of the island. In the southern part, in the area of Aetos, the town Alalcomenae was founded. From this period, many objects of important historical value have been found during excavations. Among these objects are coins imprinted with the name Ithaca and the image of Odysseus which suggest that the island was self-governed. According to the different periods and circumstances, the population of the island kept changing. Although there is no definite numerical information until the Venetian period, it is believed that from the Mycenaean to the Byzantine period, the number of inhabitants was several thousand, who lived in the northern part of Ithaca.
During the Middle Ages, the population decreased due to the continuous invasions of pirates, forcing the people to establish settlements and live in the mountains. In 1479, Ottoman forces reached the islands and many of the people fled from the island out of fear of the new Turkish settlers; those that remained hid in the mountains to avoid the pirates who controlled the channel between Cephalonia and Ithaca and the bays of the island. In the following five years, the Turks and Venetians laid claim to the islands diplomatically. Possession of the islands was taken by the Ottoman Empire from 1484 to 1499. During this period, the Venetians had strength