Brand awareness refers to the extent to which customers are able to recall or recognise a brand. Brand awareness is a key consideration in consumer behavior, advertising management, brand management and strategy development; the consumer's ability to recognise or recall a brand is central to purchasing decision-making. Purchasing cannot proceed unless a consumer is first aware of a product category and a brand within that category. Awareness does not mean that the consumer must be able to recall a specific brand name, but he or she must be able to recall sufficient distinguishing features for purchasing to proceed. For instance, if a consumer asks her friend to buy her some gum in a "blue pack", the friend would be expected to know which gum to buy though neither friend can recall the precise brand name at the time. Different types of brand awareness have been identified, namely brand recognition. Key researchers argue that these different types of awareness operate in fundamentally different ways and that this has important implications for the purchase decision process and for marketing communications.
Brand awareness is related to concepts such as the evoked set and consideration set which describe specific aspects of the consumer's purchase decision. Consumers are believed to hold between three and seven brands in their consideration set across a broad range of product categories. Consumers will purchase one of the top three brands in their consideration set. Brand awareness is a key indicator of a brand's competitive market performance. Given the importance of brand awareness in consumer purchasing decisions, marketers have developed a number of metrics designed to measure brand awareness and other measures of brand health; these metrics are collectively known as Awareness and Usage metrics. To ensure a product or brand's market success, awareness levels must be managed across the entire product life-cycle - from product launch through to market decline. Many marketers monitor brand awareness levels, if they fall below a predetermined threshold, the advertising and promotional effort is intensified until awareness returns to the desired level.
Brand awareness is related to the functions of brand identities in consumers’ memory and can be measured by how well the consumers can identify the brand under various conditions. Brand awareness is central to understanding the consumer purchase decision process. Strong brand awareness can be a predictor of brand success, it is an important measure of brand strength or brand equity and is involved in customer satisfaction, brand loyalty and the customer's brand relationships. Brand awareness is a key indicator of a brand's market performance; every year advertisers invest substantial sums of money attempting to improve a brand's overall awareness levels. Many marketers monitor brand awareness levels, if they fall below a predetermined threshold, the advertising and promotional effort is intensified until awareness returns to the desired level. Setting brand awareness goals/ objectives is a key decision in marketing planning and strategy development. Brand awareness is one of major brand assets that adds value to the service or company.
Investments in building brand awareness can lead to sustainable competitive advantages, leading to long-term value. Marketers identify two distinct types of brand awareness; these types of awareness operate in different ways with important implications for marketing strategy and advertising. Brand recall is known as unaided recall or spontaneous recall and refers to the ability of the consumers to elicit a brand name from memory when prompted by a product category. Brand recall indicates a strong link between a category and a brand while brand recognition indicates a weaker link; when prompted by a product category, most consumers can only recall a small set of brands around 3–5 brand names. In consumer tests, few consumers can recall more than seven brand names within a given category and for low-interest product categories, most consumers can only recall one or two brand names. Research suggests that the number of brands that consumers can recall is affected by both individual and product factors including.
For instance, consumers who are involved with a category, such as heavy users or product enthusiasts, may be able to recall a larger set of brand names than those who are less involved. Brand recognition is known as aided recall and refers to the ability of the consumers to differentiate the brand when they come into contact with it; this does not require that the consumers identify the brand name. Instead, it means that consumers can recognise the brand when presented with it at the point-of-sale or after viewing its visual packaging. In contrast to brand recall, where few consumers are able to spontaneously recall brand names within a given category, when prompted with a brand name, a larger number of consumers are able to recognise it. Consumers will purchase one of the top three brands in their consideration set; this is known as top-of-mind awareness. One of the goals for most marketing communications is to increase the probability that consumers will include the brand in their consideration sets.
By definition, top-of-mind awareness is "the first brand that comes to mind when a customer is asked an unprompted question about a category." When discussing top-of-mind awareness among larger groups of consumers (as opposed to a
Personal selling occurs when a sales representative meets with a potential client for the purpose of transacting a sale. Many sales representatives rely on a sequential sales process that includes nine steps; some sales representatives develop part of the sales process. The sales process can be used in telemarketing. Personal selling can be defined as "the process of person-to-person communication between a salesperson and a prospective customer, in which the former learns about the customer's needs and seeks to satisfy those needs by offering the customer the opportunity to buy something of value, such as a good or service." The term may be used to describe a situation where a company uses a sales force as one of the main ways it communicates with customers. The earliest forms of exchange involved bartering systems. However, the advent of coinage enabled exchange to occur more efficiently and over much larger distances; the earliest references to selling, involving coin-based exchange, comes from Herodotus who noted that "The Lydians were the first people we know of to use a gold and silver coinage and to introduce the retail trade."
This implies that selling and buying, originated in the 7th century BCE, in the area now known as Turkey. From there, selling spread along Mediterranean, diffused throughout the civilized world; the Socratic philosophers expressed some concerns about the new type of selling in around the 4th century BCE. Their commentary was concerned with potential disruption of the more social aspects of selling. Traditional forms of exchange encouraged a social perspective - emphasising the social bonds that united members of a society. For example, during periods of drought or famine, individuals shared in the plight of their neighbours. However, the advent of this new form of selling encouraged a focus on the individual such that in times of scarcity, sellers raised their prices. During the Medieval period, trade underwent further changes. Localised trading based on transactional exchange and bartering systems was transformed as transportation improved and new geographic markets were opened. From the 11th century, the Crusades helped to open up new trade routes in the Near East, while the adventurer and merchant, Marco Polo stimulated interest in the far East in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Medieval merchants began to trade in exotic goods imported from distant shores including spices, food, fine cloth, notably silk, glass and many other luxury goods. As trade between countries or regions grew, trade networks became more complex and different types of sellers filled in the spaces within the network. During the thirteenth century, European businesses became more permanent and were able to maintain sedentary merchants in a home office and a system of agents who operated in different geographic markets. Exchange was conducted at arm's length, rather than face-to-face. Local market traders and itinerant peddlers continued to supply basic necessities, but permanent retail shops emerged from the 13th century in the more populous cities. By the 17th century, permanent shops with more regular trading hours were beginning to supplant markets and fairs as the main retail outlet. Provincial shopkeepers were active in every English market town; these shopkeepers sold a broad range of general merchandise, much like a contemporary general store.
Large business houses involved in import and export offered additional services including finance, bulk-breaking and risk-taking. In the 17th century, the public began to make mental distinctions between two types of trader. With the rise of a European merchant class, this distinction was necessary to separate the daily trade that the general population understood from the rising ranks of merchants who operated on a world stage and were seen as quite distant from everyday experience. In 18th century England, large industrial houses, such as Wedgewood, began mass-producing certain goods such as pottery and ceramics and needed a form of mass distribution for their products; some peddlers were employed by these industrial producers to act as a type of travelling sales representative, calling on retail and wholesale outlets in order to make a sale. In England, these peddlers were known as Manchester men because of the prevalence of the practice in the sale of cotton cloth manufactured in Manchester.
Employed by a factory or entrepreneur, they sold goods from shop to shop rather than door to door and were thus operating as a type of wholesaler or distribution intermediary. They were the precursors to the field sales representative. Sales activity can occur in many types of situations. Field representatives call on clients, who are business clients. In terms of number of transactions, most selling occurs at the retail level. Different types of sales roles can be identified: Order takers refers to selling that occurs at the wholesale or retail levels. Order processing involves determining the customer needs, pointing to inventory that meets the customer needs and completing the order. Order getters refers to the in-field sales activity wher
Online advertising called online marketing or Internet advertising or web advertising, is a form of marketing and advertising which uses the Internet to deliver promotional marketing messages to consumers. Consumers view online advertising as an unwanted distraction with few benefits and have turned to ad blocking for a variety of reasons; when software is used to do the purchasing, it is known as programmatic advertising. It includes email marketing, search engine marketing, social media marketing, many types of display advertising, mobile advertising. Like other advertising media, online advertising involves both a publisher, who integrates advertisements into its online content, an advertiser, who provides the advertisements to be displayed on the publisher's content. Other potential participants include advertising agencies who help generate and place the ad copy, an ad server which technologically delivers the ad and tracks statistics, advertising affiliates who do independent promotional work for the advertiser.
In 2016, Internet advertising revenues in the United States surpassed those of cable television and broadcast television. In 2017, Internet advertising revenues in the United States totaled $83.0 billion, a 14% increase over the $72.50 billion in revenues in 2016. Many common online advertising practices are controversial and subject to regulation. Online ad revenues may not adequately replace other publishers' revenue streams. Declining ad revenue has led some publishers to place their content behind paywalls. In early days of the Internet, online advertising was prohibited. For example, two of the predecessor networks to the Internet, ARPANET and NSFNet, had "acceptable use policies" that banned network "use for commercial activities by for-profit institutions"; the NSFNet began phasing out its commercial use ban in 1991. The first publicized example of online advertising was conducted via electronic mail. On 3 May 1978, a marketer from DEC, Gary Thuerk, sent an email to most of the ARPANET's American west coast users, advertising an open house for a new model of a DEC computer.
Despite the prevailing acceptable use policies, electronic mail marketing expanded and became known as "spam." The first known large-scale non-commercial spam message was sent on 18 January 1994 by an Andrews University system administrator, by cross-posting a religious message to all USENET newsgroups. In January 1994 Mark Eberra started the first email marketing company for opt in email list under the domain Insideconnect.com. He started the Direct Email Marketing Association to help stop unwanted email and prevent spam. Four months Laurence Canter and Martha Siegel, partners in a law firm, broadly promoted their legal services in a USENET posting titled "Green Card Lottery – Final One?" Canter and Siegel's Green Card USENET spam raised the profile of online advertising, stimulating widespread interest in advertising via both Usenet and traditional email. More spam has evolved into a more industrial operation, where spammers use armies of virus-infected computers to send spam remotely. Online banner advertising began in the early 1990s as page owners sought additional revenue streams to support their content.
Commercial online service Prodigy displayed banners at the bottom of the screen to promote Sears products. The first clickable web ad was sold by Global Network Navigator in 1993 to a Silicon Valley law firm. In 1994, web banner advertising became mainstream when HotWired, the online component of Wired Magazine, sold banner ads to AT&T and other companies; the first AT&T ad on HotWired had a 44% click-through rate, instead of directing clickers to AT&T's website, the ad linked to an online tour of seven of the world's most acclaimed art museums. GoTo.com created the first search advertising keyword auction in 1998. Google launched its "AdWords" search advertising program in 2000 and introduced quality-based ranking allocation in 2002, which sorts search advertisements by a combination of bid price and searchers' likeliness to click on the ads. More companies have sought to merge their advertising messages into editorial content or valuable services. Examples include Red Bull's Red Bull Media House streaming Felix Baumgartner's jump from space online, Coca-Cola's online magazines, Nike's free applications for performance tracking.
Advertisers may deliver ads based on a user's suspected geo
Publicity is the public visibility or awareness for any product, service or company. It may refer to the movement of information from its source to the general public but not always via the media; the subjects of publicity include people and services, works of art or entertainment. Art critic John Berger explains,"Publicity is not an assembly of competing messages: it is a language in itself, always being used to make the same general proposal, it proposes to each of us that we transform ourselves, or our lives by buying..publicity is not paid for something more." A publicist is someone that carries out publicity, while public relations is the strategic management function that helps an organization communicate and maintaining communication with the public. This can be done internally, without the use of popular media. From a marketing perspective, publicity is one component of marketing; the other elements of the promotional mix are advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing and personal selling.
Publicity is referred to as the result of public relations, in terms of providing favourable information to media and any third party outlets. This is done to provide a message to consumers without having to pay for direct space; this in return achieves greater credibility. After the message has been distributed, the publicist in charge of the information will lose control of how the message is used and interpreted, in contrast to the way it works in advertising. According to Grunig, public relations is reduced to publicity, he states how publicity is a form of activity in which should be associated with the sales promotion effort of a company, in order to help aid advertising and personal salesmanship as well. Kent stated that the doing of publicity can help attract attention whilst supplying information regarding a specific organization or individual client and any event, activity or attribute associated with them; the use of publicity is known to be an important strategic element and promotional tool due to its effect of intentional exposure on a consumer.
This helps publicity gain a beneficial advantage over other marketing aspects such as Advertising alongside its high credibility. Favourable publicity is created through reputation management, in which organizations try strive to control via the web. Furthermore, despite the fact that publicity, both good or bad, can be beneficial for an organization, company or individual, much of it is paid for despite claims that publicity is free. Despite publicity being an influential benefit within the marketing sector, one disadvantage which affects publicity is the lack of ability in which publicity cannot be repeated, in comparison to paid advertising. A publicist is a person whose job is to generate and manage publicity for a company, public figure, or work such as a book, movie, or band. Though there are many aspects to a publicist's job, their main function is to persuade the press to report about their client in the most positive way possible. Publicists identify "newsworthy" aspects of products and personalities to offer to the press as possible reportage ideas.
They are responsible for shaping reportage about their clients in a timely manner that fits within a media outlet's news cycle. They attempt to present a newsworthy story in a way that influences editorial coverage in a certain positive, direction; this is what is referred to as "spin." A publicist serves as a bridge between a client and the public Although day-to-day duties vary depending on what each clients needs consist of, the main focal point for a publicist is promotion. With regard to a crisis situation, publicists attempt to use the situation as an opportunity to get their organization's or client's name into the media. Elizabeth L. Toth describes how press agents are willing to intrigue news outlets, mainstream media and web blogs with “bad news” in order to “sell” a story and help gain further coverage for their clients; this is supported by the press agentry/publicity model, used within the fashion and entertainment industries, following the presumption that bad news can be good publicity.
Publicists are most categorized under a marketing arm of a company. The phrase any press is good press was coined to describe situations where bad behaviour by people involved with an organization or brand have resulted in positive results, due to the fame and press coverage accrued by such events. For example, the Australian Tourism Board's "So where the bloody hell are you?" advertising campaign was banned in the UK, but the amount of publicity the ban generated resulted in the official website for the campaign being swamped with requests to see the banned ad. Former British Prime Minister Tony Blair, upon visiting Australia, said "and here I am, in the Australian parliament building at what I think is something like four o'clock in the morning in the UK, and so I'm thinking, so where the bloody hell am I?"Publicity is known to contain high credibility, making it more influential in comparison to other market-driven communications. This in itself can affect consumers' thoughts by catching them'off-guard,’ applying differentiation between advertising.
The use of publicity may influence a consumer's attitude towards an advertisement or brand because of its high credibility value, in order to assess the trustworthiness of further informat
An advertising campaign is a series of advertisement messages that share a single idea and theme which make up an integrated marketing communication. An IMC is a platform in which a group of people can group their ideas and concepts into one large media base. Advertising campaigns utilize diverse media channels over a particular time frame and target identified audiences; the campaign theme is the central message that will be received in the promotional activities and is the prime focus of advertising campaign, as it sets the motif for the series of individual advertisements and other marketing communications that will be used. The campaign themes are produced with the objective of being used for a significant period but many of them are temporal due to factors like being not effective or market conditions and marketing mix. Advertising campaigns are built to accomplish a set of objectives; such objectives include establishing a brand, raising brand awareness, aggrandizing the rate of conversions/sales.
The rate of success or failure in accomplishing these goals is reckoned via effectiveness measures. There are 5 key points at which an advertising campaign must consider to ensure an effective campaign; these points are, integrated marketing communications, media channels, the communications process diagram and touch points. Integrated marketing communication is a conceptual approach used by the majority of organizations to develop a strategic plan on how they are going to broadcast their marketing and advertising campaigns. There has been a shift in the way marketers and advertisers interact with their consumers and now see it as a conversation between Advertising/ Marketing teams and consumers. IMC has emerged as a key strategy for organizations to manage customer experiences in the digital age; the more traditional advertising practices such as newspapers and magazines are still used but fail to have the same effect now as they did in previous years. The importance of the IMC is to make the marketing process seamless for both the brand and the consumer.
IMC attempts to meld all aspects of marketing into one cohesive piece. This includes sales promotion, public relations, direct marketing, social media; the entire point of IMC is to have all of these aspects of marketing work together as a unified force. This can be done through methods and activities all while using a media platform; the end goal of IMC is to get the brands message across to consumers in the most convenient way possible. Advantages of using IMC are that it has the ability to communicate the same message through several channels to create brand awareness. IMC is the most cost-effective solution when compared to mass media advertising to interact with target consumers on a personal level. IMC benefits small businesses, as they are able to submerge their consumers with communication of various kinds in a way that pushes them through the research and buying stages creating a relationship and dialogue with their new customer. Popular and obvious examples of IMC put into action are the likes of direct marketing to the consumer that the organisation has a knowledge that the person is interested in the brand by gathering personal information about them from when they shopped there and sending mail, emails and other direct communication with the person.
In-store sales promotions are tactics such as ‘30% off’ sales or offering loyalty cards to consumers to build a relationship. Television and radio advertisement are a form of advertising strategy derived from IMC. All of the components of IMC play an important role and a company may or may not choose to implement any of the integration strategies Media channels known as, marketing communications channels, are used to create a connection with the target consumer. Traditional methods of communication with the consumer include newspapers, Radio, billboards, telephone and door to door sales; these are just a few of the traditional methods. Along with traditional media channels, comes new and upcoming media channels. Social media has begun to play a large role in the way media and marketing intermingle to reach a consumer base. Social media has the power to reach a wider audience. Depending on the age group and demographic, social media can influence a company's overall image. Using social media as a marketing tool has become a popular method for branding.
A brand has the chance to create an entire social media presence based around their own specific targeted community. With advancements in digital communications channels, marketing communications allow for the possibility of two-way communications where an immediate consumer response can be elicited. Digital communications tools include: websites, social media, email and search engines as a few examples, it is important for an advertising campaign to select channels based on where their target consumer spends time to ensure market and advertising efforts are maximized. In the changing marketing and advertising environment, exposure to certain consumer groups and target audiences through traditional media channels has blurred; these traditional media channels are defined as print, out-of-home and direct mail. The introduction of various new modern-day media channels has altered their traditional advantages and disadvantages, it is imperative to the effectiveness of the Integrated Marketing Communication strategy that exposure to certain demographics, consumer groups and target audiences is anticipated to provide clarity and maximum communications impact.
Print media is defined as newspapers and magazines. With the transition in
Product placement known as embedded marketing, is a marketing technique where references to specific brands or products are incorporated into another work, such as a film or television program, with specific promotional intent. While references to brands may be voluntarily incorporated into works to maintain a feeling of realism and/or be a subject of commentary, product placement is the deliberate incorporation of references to a brand or product in exchange for compensation. Product placements may range from unobtrusive appearances within an environment, to prominent integration and acknowledgement of the product within the work. Common categories of products used for placements include automobiles and consumer electronics. Works produced by vertically integrated companies may use placements to promote their other divisions as a form of corporate synergy. During the 21st century, the use of product placement on television grew to combat the wider use of digital video recorders that can skip traditional commercial breaks, as well as to engage with younger demographics.
Digital editing technology is being used to tailor product placement to specific demographics or markets, in some cases, add placements to works that did not have embedded advertising, or update existing placements. Product placement began in the 19th century. By the time Jules Verne published the adventure novel Around the World in Eighty Days, his fame had led transport and shipping companies to lobby to be mentioned in the story. Whether Verne was paid to do so, remains unknown. A painting by Eduoard Manet shows a bar at the Folies Bergere with distinctive bottles placed at either end of the counter; the beer bottle is recognisable as Bass beer. Manet's motivations for including branded products in his painting are unknown. Research reported by Jean-Marc Lehu suggests that films produced by Auguste and Louis Lumière in 1876 were made at the request of a representative of Lever Brothers in France; the films feature Sunlight soap, which may be the first recorded instance of paid product placement in film.
This led to cinema becoming one of the earliest channels used for product placement. With the arrival of photo-rich periodicals in the late 19th century, publishers found ways of lifting their paper's reputation by placing an actual copy of the magazine in photographs of prominent people. For example, the German magazine Die Woche in 1902 printed an article about a countess in her castle where she, in one of the photographs, holds a copy of the magazine in her hands. Product placement was a common feature of many of the earliest actualities and cinematic attractions from the first ten years of cinema history. During the next four decades, Harrison's Reports cited cases of on-screen brand-name products. Harrison condemned the practice as harmful to movie theatres, his editorials reflected his hostility towards product placement in films. Harrison's Reports published its first denunciation of that practice over Red Crown gasoline's appearance in The Garage. Another editorial criticised the collaboration between the Corona Typewriter company and First National Pictures when a Corona typewriter appeared in several films in the mid-1920s including The Lost World.
Recognisable brand names appeared in movies from cinema's earliest history. Before films were narrative forms in the sense that they are recognized today, industrial concerns funded the making of what film scholar Tom Gunning described as "cinematic attractions", short films of one or two minutes. In the first decade or so of film audiences attended films as "fairground attractions" interesting for their then-amazing visual effects; this format was better suited to product placement than narrative cinema. Gurevitch argued that early cinematic attractions have more in common with television advertisements in the 1950s than they do with traditional films. Gurevitch suggested that as a result, the relationship between cinema and advertising is intertwined, suggesting that cinema was in part the result of advertising and the economic advantage that it provided early film makers. Segrave detailed the industries. A feature film that has expectations of reaching millions of viewers attracts marketers.
In many cases no payment is made for product exposure and no promise of marketing support is made when consumer brands appear in movies. Film productions need props for scenes, so each movie's property master, responsible for gathering props film, contacts product placement middlemen agencies or product companies directly. In addition to items for on-screen use, the product/service supplier might provide a production with large quantities of complementary products or services. Tapping product placement channels can be valuable for movies when a vintage product is required—such as a sign or bottle—that is not available. Although there is no definitive proof that product placement for Red Crown gasoline in The Garage, Fritz Lang's Dr. Mabuse the Gambler contained a prominent title card in the opening credits reading "The gowns of the female stars were designed by Vally Reinecke and made in the fashion studios of Flatow-Schädler und Mossner." Among notable silent films to feature product placement was Wings, the first to win the Academy Award for Best Picture.
It contained a plug for Hershey's chocolate. Fritz Lang's film M shows a banner display for Wrigley's PK Chewing Gum, for 20–30 seconds. Another early example occurs in Horse Feathers, where The