SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Pronoun

In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun has been theorized to be a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase. It is a particular case of a pro-form. Pronouns have traditionally been regarded as one of the parts of speech, but some modern theorists would not consider them to form a single class, in view of the variety of functions they perform cross-linguistically. An example of a pronoun is "their", both plural and singular. Subtypes include personal and possessive pronouns and reciprocal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns and interrogative pronouns, indefinite pronouns; the use of pronouns involves anaphora, where the meaning of the pronoun is dependent on an antecedent. For example, in the sentence That poor man looks as if he needs a new coat, the antecedent of the pronoun he is dependent on that poor man; the adjective associated with pronoun is pronominal. A pronominal is a word or phrase that acts as a pronoun. For example, in That's not the one I wanted, the phrase the one is a pronominal.

Pronouns are listed as one of eight parts of speech in The Art of Grammar, a treatise on Greek grammar attributed to Dionysius Thrax and dating from the 2nd century BC. The pronoun is described there as "a part of speech substitutable for a noun and marked for a person." Pronouns continued to be regarded as a part of speech in Latin grammar, thus in the European tradition generally. In more modern approaches, pronouns are less to be considered to be a single word class, because of the many different syntactic roles that they play, as represented by the various different types of pronouns listed in the previous sections. Linguists in particular have trouble classifying pronouns in a single category, some do not agree that pronouns substitute nouns or noun categories. Certain types of pronouns are identical or similar in form to determiners with related meaning; this observation has led some linguists, such as Paul Postal, to regard pronouns as determiners that have had their following noun or noun phrase deleted.

Other linguists have taken a similar view, uniting pronouns and determiners into a single class, sometimes called "determiner-pronoun", or regarding determiners as a subclass of pronouns or vice versa. The distinction may be considered to be one of subcategorization or valency, rather like the distinction between transitive and intransitive verbs – determiners take a noun phrase complement like transitive verbs do, while pronouns do not; this is consistent with the determiner phrase viewpoint, whereby a determiner, rather than the noun that follows it, is taken to be the head of the phrase. Cross-linguistically, it seems as though pronouns share 3 distinct categories: point of view and number; the breadth of each subcategory however tends to differ among languages. The use of pronouns involves anaphora, where the meaning of the pronoun is dependent on another referential element; the referent of the pronoun is the same as that of a preceding noun phrase, called the antecedent of the pronoun.

The grammatical behavior of certain types of pronouns, in particular their possible relationship with their antecedents, has been the focus of studies in binding, notably in the Chomskyan government and binding theory. In this binding context and reciprocal pronouns in English are referred to as anaphors rather than as pronominal elements. Under binding theory, specific principles apply to different sets of pronouns. In English and reciprocal pronouns must adhere to Principle A: an anaphor must be bound in its governing category. Therefore, in syntactic structure it must be lower in structure and have a direct relationship with its referent; this is called a C-command relationship. For instance, we see that John cut himself is grammatical, but Himself cut John is not, despite having identical arguments, since himself, the reflexive, must be lower in structure to John, its referent. Additionally, we see examples like John said that Mary cut himself are not grammatical because there is an intermediary noun, that disallows the two referents from having a direct relationship.

On the other hand, personal pronouns must adhere to Principle B: a pronoun must be free within its governing category. This means that although the pronouns can have a referent, they cannot have a direct relationship with the referent where the referent selects the pronoun. For instance, John said Mary cut him is grammatical because the two co-referents and him are separated structurally by Mary; this is. The type of binding that applies to subsets of pronouns varies cross-linguistically. For instance, in German linguistics, pronouns can be split into two distinct categories — personal pronouns and d-pronouns. Although personal pronouns act identically to that of English personal pronouns, d-pronouns follow yet another principle, Principle C, function to nouns in that they cannot have a direct relationship to an antecedent; the following sentences give examples of particular types of pronouns used with antecedents: Third-person personal pronouns: That

Andrew Ibrahim

Andrew Philip Michael Ibrahim is a British Muslim convert known as Isa Ibrahim after his conversion to Islam. Ibrahim was arrested by Bristol police on suspicion of terrorism, on 17 July 2009 convicted of preparing terrorist acts. Ibrahim was born to an English mother, Vicky, he is the son of an NHS consultant pathologist. Ibrahim attended four schools: Colston's School and Queen Elizabeth's Hospital in Bristol, Downside School in Somerset, Bristol Cathedral School. At the time of his arrest he was a student at City of Bristol College. Ibrahim was arrested. After his arrest police evacuated residents in Comb Paddock, Westbury-on-Trym, a Bristol suburb, whilst soldiers from the Royal Logistics Corps carried out controlled explosions at his home/flat; the police sealed off and searched nearby woodland. On 30 April 2008 Ibrahim was charged with terrorist offences, they were: 1. Possession of an explosive substance 2. Intent to commit terrorism and 3. Possession of articles for terrorist purposes, he was accused of possessing the explosive substance hexamethylene triperoxide diamine known as HMTD, an organic chemical compound.

He was accused of possessing two home-made vests, ball bearings, air gun pellets and screws, wired circuitry and electric bulb filaments. On 30 April 2008 Ibrahim appeared at the City of Westminster Magistrates' Court. After a short hearing he was remanded in custody until 23 May, he was accused of having an explosive substance with intent and charged with intending to commit a terrorist act by intending to construct and detonate an improvised explosive device. On 17 July 2009 at Winchester Crown Court Ibrahim was given an indeterminate sentence, with a minimum of ten years in jail

18th Delaware General Assembly

The 18th Delaware General Assembly was a meeting of the legislative branch of the state government, consisting of the Delaware Senate and the Delaware House of Representatives. Elections were held the first Tuesday of October and terms began on the first Tuesday in January, it met in Dover, convening January 7, 1794, two weeks before the beginning of the second year of the administration of Governor Joshua Clayton. The apportionment of seats was permanently assigned to three senators and seven representatives for each of the three counties. Population of the county did not effect the number of delegates. Both chambers had a Federalist majority. Daniel Rogers, Sussex County Stephen Lewis, Kent County Senators were elected by the public for a three-year term, one third posted each year. Representatives were elected by the public for a one-year term. Martin, Roger A.. Memoirs of the Senate. Newark, Delaware: Roger A. Martin. Delaware Historical Society.