Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. Along with grammar and logic, it is one of the three ancient arts of discourse. Rhetoric aims to study the capacities of writers or speakers needed to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. Aristotle defines rhetoric as "the faculty of observing in any given case the available means of persuasion" and since mastery of the art was necessary for victory in a case at law or for passage of proposals in the assembly or for fame as a speaker in civic ceremonies, calls it "a combination of the science of logic and of the ethical branch of politics". Rhetoric provides heuristics for understanding and developing arguments for particular situations, such as Aristotle's three persuasive audience appeals: logos and ethos; the five canons of rhetoric or phases of developing a persuasive speech were first codified in classical Rome: invention, style and delivery. From Ancient Greece to the late 19th century, rhetoric played a central role in Western education in training orators, counsellors, historians and poets.
Scholars have debated the scope of rhetoric since ancient times. Although some have limited rhetoric to the specific realm of political discourse, many modern scholars liberate it to encompass every aspect of culture. Contemporary studies of rhetoric address a much more diverse range of domains than was the case in ancient times. While classical rhetoric trained speakers to be effective persuaders in public forums and institutions such as courtrooms and assemblies, contemporary rhetoric investigates human discourse writ large. Rhetoricians have studied the discourses of a wide variety of domains, including the natural and social sciences, fine art, journalism, digital media, history and architecture, along with the more traditional domains of politics and the law; because the ancient Greeks valued public political participation, rhetoric emerged as a crucial tool to influence politics. Rhetoric remains associated with its political origins; however the original instructors of Western speech—the Sophists—disputed this limited view of rhetoric.
According to the Sophists, such as Gorgias, a successful rhetorician could speak convincingly on any topic, regardless of his experience in that field. This method suggested. In his Encomium to Helen, Gorgias applied rhetoric to fiction by seeking for his own pleasure to prove the blamelessness of the mythical Helen of Troy in starting the Trojan War. Looking to another key rhetorical theorist, Plato defined the scope of rhetoric according to his negative opinions of the art, he criticized the Sophists for using rhetoric as a means of deceit instead of discovering truth. In "Gorgias", one of his Socratic Dialogues, Plato defines rhetoric as the persuasion of ignorant masses within the courts and assemblies. Rhetoric, in Plato's opinion, is a form of flattery and functions to cookery, which masks the undesirability of unhealthy food by making it taste good. Thus, Plato considered any speech of lengthy prose aimed at flattery as within the scope of rhetoric. Aristotle both redeemed rhetoric from his teacher and narrowed its focus by defining three genres of rhetoric—deliberative, forensic or judicial, epideictic.
Yet as he provided order to existing rhetorical theories, Aristotle extended the definition of rhetoric, calling it the ability to identify the appropriate means of persuasion in a given situation, thereby making rhetoric applicable to all fields, not just politics. When one considers that rhetoric included torture, it is clear that rhetoric cannot be viewed only in academic terms. However, the enthymeme based upon logic was viewed as the basis of rhetoric. However, since the time of Aristotle, logic has changed. For example, Modal logic has undergone a major development that modifies rhetoric. Yet, Aristotle outlined generic constraints that focused the rhetorical art squarely within the domain of public political practice, he restricted rhetoric to the domain of the contingent or probable: those matters that admit multiple legitimate opinions or arguments. The contemporary neo-Aristotelian and neo-Sophistic positions on rhetoric mirror the division between the Sophists and Aristotle. Neo-Aristotelians study rhetoric as political discourse, while the neo-Sophistic view contends that rhetoric cannot be so limited.
Rhetorical scholar Michael Leff characterizes the conflict between these positions as viewing rhetoric as a "thing contained" versus a "container". The neo-Aristotelian view threatens the study of rhetoric by restraining it to such a limited field, ignoring many critical applications of rhetorical theory and practice; the neo-Sophists threaten to expand rhetoric beyond a point of coherent theoretical value. Over the past century, people studying rhetoric have tended to enlarge its object domain beyond speech texts. Kenneth Burke asserted humans use rhetoric to resolve conflicts by identifying shared characteristics and interests in symbols. By nature, humans engage in identification, either to identify themselves or another individual with a group; this definition of rhetoric as identification broadened the scope from strategic and overt political persuasion to the more implicit tactics of identification found in an immense range of sources. Among the many scholars who have since pursued Burke's line of thought, James Boyd White sees rhetoric as a broader domain of social experience in his notion of constitutive rhet
Brainwashing is the concept that the human mind can be altered or controlled by certain psychological techniques. Brainwashing is said to reduce its subject’s ability to think critically or independently, to allow the introduction of new, unwanted thoughts and ideas into the subject’s mind, as well as to change his or her attitudes and beliefs; the concept of brainwashing was developed in the 1950s to explain how the Chinese government appeared to make people cooperate with them. Advocates of the concept looked at Nazi Germany, at some criminal cases in the United States, at the actions of human traffickers, it was applied by Margaret Singer, Philip Zimbardo, some others in the anti-cult movement to explain conversions to some new religious movements and other groups. This resulted in scientific and legal debate with Eileen Barker, James Richardson, other scholars, as well as legal experts, rejecting at least the popular understanding of brainwashing; the concept of brainwashing is sometimes involved in legal cases regarding child custody.
Although the term appears in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders of the American Psychiatric Association brainwashing is not accepted as scientific fact. The Chinese term xǐnăo was used to describe the coercive persuasion used under the Maoist government in China, which aimed to transform "reactionary" people into "right-thinking" members of the new Chinese social system; the term punned on the Taoist custom of "cleansing / washing the heart / mind" before conducting ceremonies or entering holy places. The Oxford English Dictionary records the earliest known English-language usage of the word "brainwashing" in an article by newspaperman Edward Hunter, in Miami News, published on 24 September 1950. Hunter was an outspoken anticommunist and was alleged to be a CIA agent working undercover as a journalist. Hunter and others used the Chinese term to explain why, during the Korean War, some American prisoners of war cooperated with their Chinese captors in a few cases defected to their side.
British radio operator Robert W. Ford and British army Colonel James Carne claimed that the Chinese subjected them to brainwashing techniques during their war-era imprisonment; the U. S. military and government laid charges of brainwashing in an effort to undermine confessions made by POWs to war crimes, including biological warfare. After Chinese radio broadcasts claimed to quote Frank Schwable, Chief of Staff of the First Marine Air Wing admitting to participating in germ warfare, United Nations commander Gen. Mark W. Clark asserted: Whether these statements passed the lips of these unfortunate men is doubtful. If they did, too familiar are the mind-annihilating methods of these Communists in extorting whatever words they want.... The men themselves are not to blame, they have my deepest sympathy for having been used in this abominable way. Beginning in 1953, Robert Jay Lifton interviewed American servicemen, POWs during the Korean War as well as priests and teachers, held in prison in China after 1951.
In addition to interviews with 25 Americans and Europeans, Lifton interviewed 15 Chinese citizens who had fled after having been subjected to indoctrination in Chinese universities. Lifton found that when the POWs returned to the United States their thinking soon returned to normal, contrary to the popular image of "brainwashing."In 1956, after reexamining the concept of brainwashing following the Korean War, the U. S. Army published a report entitled Communist Interrogation and Exploitation of Prisoners of War, which called brainwashing a "popular misconception"; the report concludes that "exhaustive research of several government agencies failed to reveal one conclusively documented case of'brainwashing' of an American prisoner of war in Korea." In George Orwell's 1949 dystopian novel Nineteen Eighty-Four the main character is subjected to imprisonment and torture in order to conform his thoughts and emotions to the wishes of the rulers of Orwell's fictional future totalitarian society. Orwell's vision influenced Hunter and is still reflected in the popular understanding of the concept of brainwashing.
In the 1950s many American films were filmed that featured brainwashing of POWs, including The Rack, The Bamboo Prison, Toward the Unknown, The Fearmakers. The film Forbidden Area told the story of Soviet secret agents, brainwashed through classical conditioning by their own government so they wouldn't reveal their identities. In 1962 The Manchurian Candidate "put brainwashing front and center" by featuring a plot by the Soviet government to take over the United States by use of a brainwashed presidential candidate; the concept of brainwashing became popularly associated with the research of Russian psychologist Ivan Pavlov, which involved dogs, not humans, as subjects. In The Manchurian Candidate the head brainwasher is Dr. Yen Lo, of the Pavlov Institute; the science fiction stories of Cordwainer Smith depict brainwashing to remove memories of traumatic events as a normal and benign part of future medical practice. Mind control remains an important theme in science fiction. Terry O'Brien comments: "Mind control is such a powerful image that if hypnoti
Godwin's law is an Internet adage asserting that "As an online discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Nazis or Hitler approaches 1". Promulgated by the American attorney and author Mike Godwin in 1990, Godwin's law referred to Usenet newsgroup discussions, it is now applied to any threaded online discussion, such as Internet forums, chat rooms, comment threads, as well as to speeches and other rhetoric where reductio ad Hitlerum occurs. Godwin has stated. In 2012, "Godwin's law" became an entry in the third edition of the Oxford English Dictionary. There are many corollaries to some considered more canonical than others. For example, there is a tradition in many newsgroups and other Internet discussion forums that, when a Hitler comparison is made, the thread is finished and whoever made the comparison loses whatever debate is in progress; this principle is itself referred to as Godwin's law. Godwin's law itself can be abused as a distraction, diversion or as censorship, fallaciously miscasting an opponent's argument as hyperbole when the comparisons made by the argument are appropriate.
Similar criticisms of the "law" have been made by the American lawyer and author Glenn Greenwald. Godwin's law does not claim to articulate a fallacy. "Although deliberately framed as if it were a law of nature or of mathematics," Godwin wrote, "its purpose has always been rhetorical and pedagogical: I wanted folks who glibly compared someone else to Hitler to think a bit harder about the Holocaust."In December 2015, Godwin commented on the Nazi and fascist comparisons being made by several articles about Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump, saying: "If you're thoughtful about it and show some real awareness of history, go ahead and refer to Hitler when you talk about Trump, or any other politician." In August 2017, Godwin made similar remarks on social networking websites Facebook and Twitter with respect to the two previous days' Unite the Right rally in Charlottesville, Virginia and encouraging efforts to compare its alt-right organizers to Nazis. In October 2018, Godwin said on Twitter that it is acceptable to call Brazilian politician Jair Bolsonaro a "Nazi".
Association fallacy List of eponymous laws Straw man Think of the children Little Eichmanns Anderson, Nate. "No Nazi comparisons? Sounds like something Hitler would say!". Ars Technica. Retrieved September 1, 2011. Tim Skirvin. "How to post about Nazis and get away with it—the Godwin's law FAQ". Skirv's Wiki. Archived from the original on October 11, 1999. "I Seem to be a Verb". BBC News. July 14, 2010. Fishman, Aleisa. "Voices on Antisemitism - Interview with Mike Godwin". U. S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Interview with "Mike Godwin on Godwin's Law" by Dan Amira, New York magazine, March 8, 2013 Wired 2.10.
Think of the children
"Think of the children" is a cliché that evolved into a rhetorical tactic. It refers to children's rights. In debate, however, it is a plea for pity, used as an appeal to emotion, therefore it becomes a logical fallacy. Art and Advocacy argued that the appeal substitutes emotion for reason in debate. Ethicist Jack Marshall wrote in 2005 that the phrase's popularity stems from its capacity to stunt rationality discourse on morals. "Think of the children" has been invoked by censorship proponents to shield children from perceived danger. Community and Online Censorship argued that classifying children in an infantile manner, as innocents in need of protection, is a form of obsession over the concept of purity. A 2011 article in the Journal for Cultural Research observed that the phrase grew out of a moral panic, it was an exhortation in the 1964 Disney film Mary Poppins, when the character of Mrs. Banks pleaded with her departing nanny not to quit and to "think of the children!" The phrase was popularized as a satiric reference on the animated television program The Simpsons in 1996, when character Helen Lovejoy pleaded "Won't somebody please think of the children?" during a contentious debate by citizens of the fictional town of Springfield.
In the 2012 Georgia State University Law Review, Charles J. Ten Brink called Lovejoy's use of "Think of the children" a successful parody; the appeal's subsequent use in society was the subject of mockery. After its popularization on The Simpsons, the phrase has been called "Lovejoy's Law", the "Helen Lovejoy defence", the "Helen Lovejoy syndrome", "think-of-the-children-ism". Sociologist Joel Best wrote in 1993 that during the late 19th century, adults developed an increased concern for the welfare of children. Best noted that societies experienced decreasing birth rates after industrialization, with parents focusing their attention on fewer children. According to him, at that time adults began to view childhood as a sacred period of development and children as invaluable, guiltless beings. During the 1970s and 1980s, Best wrote, adults saw children as potential victims and sought to eliminate perceived threats. In the 1995 compilation Children and the Politics of Culture, anthropologist Vivienne Wee analyzed the perception of children by adults and how it supported the concept of children's rights.
Wee wrote that in this model, children were seen as defenseless, in need of protection by authoritative adults. According to Wee, this European pattern led to the idea that children required the sanctuary of the United Nations Charter and the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Wee wrote: "Alternatively, children's vulnerability could be interpreted as purity and innocence, needing the protection of responsible adults, it is this second, protective mode of interpretation that underlies the idea of children's rights, needing the protection of a UN charter – hence the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child." She observed that the view of youth as weak and innocent focused on what might occur if children's rights were not shielded. Wee argued that this behavior towards children was not positive. According to her, this mindset may lead to hypocrisy by adults who assume that all their actions intended to protect children and creates the risk that adults may wield power "for the children's own good".
Noting that adult authority may be masked as empathy, Wee concluded: "These alternative cultural interpretations of the vulnerability of children would thus generate their own respective political and psychological consequences." "Think of the children" has been used in its literal sense to advocate for the rights of children. Early usage during the 20th century included writings in 1914 by the National Child Labor Committee criticizing child labor standards in the United States. U. S. President Bill Clinton used the phrase in a 1999 speech to the International Labour Organization, asking his audience to imagine a significant reduction in child labor: "Think of the children... freed of the crushing burden of dangerous and demeaning work, given back those irreplaceable hours of childhood for learning and playing and living."The phrase's literal use extends into the 21st century, with Sara Boyce of the Children's Law Centre in Northern Ireland drawing on it to advocate for the legal rights of the region's children.
The 2008 book Child Labour in a Globalized World used the phrase to call attention to the role of debt bondage in child labor. Sara Dillon of Suffolk University Law School used the phrase "What about the children" in her 2009 book, International Children's Rights, to focus on child-labor program conditions. Benjamin Powell used the phrase differently in his book, Out of Poverty: Sweatshops in the Global Economy, writing that in the absence of child labor some youth faced starvation. In a 2010 book on human rights, Children's Rights and Human Development, child psychiatrist Bruce D. Perry used the phrase "think of the children" to urge clinicians to incorporate a process sensitive to developmental stages when counseling youth. In their 2002 book, Art and Advocacy: Mastering Parliamentary Debate, John Meany and Kate Shuster called the use of the phrase "Think of the children" in debate a type of logical fallacy and an appeal to emotion. According to the authors, a debater may use the phrase to sway members of the audience and avoid logical discussion.
They provide an example: "I know this national missile defense plan has its detractors, but won't someone please think of the children?" Their assessment was echoed by Margie Borschke in an article for the journal Media International Australia incorporating Culture
A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a clan, commercial and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose, with the goal of persuading members of the public or a more defined target group. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines a slogan as "a short and striking or memorable phrase used in advertising." A slogan has the attributes of being memorable concise and appealing to the audience. The word slogan is derived from slogorn, an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic and Irish sluagh-ghairm. Slogans vary from the visual to the chanted and the vulgar, their simple rhetorical nature leaves little room for detail and a chanted slogan may serve more as social expression of unified purpose than as communication to an intended audience. George E. Shankel's research states that, "English-speaking people began using the term by 1704." The term at that time meant "the distinctive note, phrase or cry of any person or body of persons." Slogans were common throughout the European continent during the Middle Ages.
Crimmins' research suggests that brands are an valuable corporate asset, can make up a lot of a business's total value. With this in mind, if we take into consideration Keller's research, which suggests that a brand is made up of three different components; these include, name and slogan. Brands names and logos both can be changed by the way. Therefore, the slogan has a large job in portraying the brand. Therefore, the slogan should create a sense of likability in order for the brand name to be likable and the slogan message clear and concise. Dass, Kohli, & Thomas' research suggests that there are certain factors that make up the likability of a slogan; the clarity of the message the brand is trying to encode within the slogan. The slogan emphasizes the benefit of the service it is portraying; the creativity of a slogan is another factor that had a positive effect on the likability of a slogan. Lastly, leaving the brand name out of the slogan will have a positive effect on the likability of the brand itself.
Advertisers must keep into consideration these factors when creating a slogan for a brand, as it shows a brand is a valuable asset to a company, with the slogan being one of the three main components to a brands' image. The original usage refers to the usage as a clan motto among Highland clans. Marketing slogans are called taglines in the United States or straplines in the United Kingdom. Europeans use the terms baselines, claims or pay-offs. "Sloganeering" is a derogatory term for activity which degrades discourse to the level of slogans. Slogans are used to convey a message about the service or cause that it is representing, it written as a song. Slogans are used to capture the attention of the audience it is trying to reach. If the slogan is used for commercial purposes it is written to be memorable/catchy in order for a consumer to associate the slogan with the product it is representing. A slogan is part of the production aspect that helps create an image for the product, service or cause it's representing.
A slogan can be a few simple words used to form a phrase. In commercial advertising, corporations will use a slogan as part of promotional activity. Slogans can become a global way of identifying good or service, for example Nike's slogan'Just Do It' helped establish Nike as an identifiable brand worldwide. Slogans should catch the audience's attention and influence the consumer's thoughts on what to purchase; the slogan is used by companies to affect the way consumers view their product compared to others. Slogans can provide information about the product, service or cause its advertising; the language used in the slogans is essential to the message. Current words used can trigger different emotions; the use of good adjectives makes for an effective slogan. When a slogan is used for advertising purposes its goal is to sell the product or service to as many consumers through the message and information a slogan provides. A slogan's message can include information about the quality of the product.
Examples of words that can be used to direct the consumer preference towards a current product and its qualities are: good, real, great, perfect and pure. Slogans can influence. Slogans offer information to consumers in an creative way. A slogan can be used for a powerful cause; the slogan can be used to raise awareness about a current cause. A slogan should be clear with a supporting message. Slogans, when combined with action, can provide an influential foundation for a cause to be seen by its intended audience. Slogans, whether used for advertising purpose or social causes, deliver a message to the public that shapes the audiences' opinion towards the subject of the slogan. "It is well known that the text a human hears or reads constitutes 7% of the received information. As a result, any slogan possesses a support
A red herring is something that misleads or distracts from a relevant or important question. It may be either a logical fallacy or a literary device that leads readers or audiences toward a false conclusion. A red herring may be used intentionally, as in mystery fiction or as part of rhetorical strategies, or may be used in argumentation inadvertently; the term was popularized in 1807 by English polemicist William Cobbett, who told a story of having used a kipper to divert hounds from chasing a hare. As an informal fallacy, the red herring falls into a broad class of relevance fallacies. Unlike the straw man, premised on a distortion of the other party's position, the red herring is a plausible, though irrelevant, diversionary tactic. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, a red herring may be unintentional; the expression is used to assert that an argument is not relevant to the issue being discussed. For example, "I think. I recommend you support this because we are in a budget crisis, we do not want our salaries affected."
The second sentence, though used to support the first sentence, does not address that topic. In fiction and non-fiction a red herring may be intentionally used by the writer to plant a false clue that leads readers or audiences towards a false conclusion. For example, the character of Bishop Aringarosa in Dan Brown's The Da Vinci Code is presented for most of the novel as if he is at the centre of the church's conspiracies, but is revealed to have been innocently duped by the true antagonist of the story; the character's name is a loose Italian translation of "red herring". A red herring is used in legal studies and exam problems to mislead and distract students from reaching a correct conclusion about a legal issue as a device that tests students' comprehension of underlying law and their ability to properly discern material factual circumstances. In a literal sense, there is no such fish as a "red herring"; this process makes the fish pungent smelling and, with strong enough brine, turns its flesh reddish.
In its literal sense as a cured kipper, the term can be dated to the mid-13th century, in the poem The Treatise by Walter of Bibbesworth: "He eteþ no ffyssh But heryng red."Prior to 2008, the figurative sense of "red herring" was thought to originate from a supposed technique of training young scent hounds. There are variations of the story, but according to one version, the pungent red herring would be dragged along a trail until a puppy learned to follow the scent; when the dog was being trained to follow the faint odour of a fox or a badger, the trainer would drag a red herring perpendicular to the animal's trail to confuse the dog. The dog learned to follow the original scent rather than the stronger scent. A variation of this story is given, without mention of its use in training, in The Macmillan Book of Proverbs and Famous Phrases, with the earliest use cited being from W. F. Butler's Life of Napier, published in 1849. Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable gives the full phrase as "Drawing a red herring across the path", an idiom meaning "to divert attention from the main question by some side issue".
Another variation of the dog story is given by Robert Hendrickson who says escaping convicts used the pungent fish to throw off hounds in pursuit. According to a pair of articles by Professor Gerald Cohen and Robert Scott Ross published in Comments on Etymology, supported by etymologist Michael Quinion and accepted by the Oxford English Dictionary, the idiom did not originate from a hunting practice. Ross researched the origin of the story and found the earliest reference to using herrings for training animals was in a tract on horsemanship published in 1697 by Gerland Langbaine. Langbaine recommended a method of training horses by dragging the carcass of a cat or fox so that the horse would be accustomed to following the chaos of a hunting party, he says if a dead animal is not available, a red herring would do as a substitute. This recommendation was misunderstood by Nicholas Cox, published in the notes of another book around the same time, who said it should be used to train hounds. Either way, the herring was not used to distract the hounds or horses from a trail, rather to guide them along it.
The earliest reference to using herring for distracting hounds is an article published on 14 February 1807 by radical journalist William Cobbett in his polemical periodical Political Register. According to Cohen and Ross, accepted by the OED, this is the origin of the figurative meaning of red herring. In the piece, William Cobbett critiques the English press, which had mistakenly reported Napoleon's defeat. Cobbett recounted that he had once used a red herring to deflect hounds in pursuit of a hare, adding "It was a mere transitory effect of the political red-herring. Quinion concludes: "This story, extended repetition of it in 1833, was enough to get the figurative sense of red herring into the minds of his readers also with the false idea that it came from some real practice of huntsmen." Although Cobbett popularized the figurative usage, he was
Appeal to pity
An appeal to pity is a fallacy in which someone tries to win support for an argument or idea by exploiting his or her opponent's feelings of pity or guilt. It is a specific kind of appeal to emotion; the name "Galileo argument" refers to the scientist's suffering as a result of his house arrest by the Inquisition. An appeal to pity can be seen in many charitable advertisements. Charities appeal to your pity of less fortunate people or animals in order for you to be more to donate to that particular charity. "You must have graded my exam incorrectly. I studied hard for weeks because I knew my career depended on getting a good grade. If you give me a failing grade I'm ruined!" "Ladies and gentlemen of the jury, look at this miserable man, in a wheelchair, unable to use his legs. Could such a man be guilty of embezzlement?" "Think of the children." Appeal to consequences