A prop, formally known as property, is an object used on stage or on screen by actors during a performance or screen production. In practical terms, a prop is considered to be anything movable or portable on a stage or a set, distinct from the actors, scenery and electrical equipment. Consumable food items appearing in the production are considered props; the earliest known use of the term "properties" in English to refer to stage accessories is in the 1425 CE morality play, The Castle of Perseverance. The Oxford English Dictionary finds the first usage of "props" in 1841, while the singular form of "prop" appeared in 1911. During the Renaissance in Europe, small acting troupes functioned as cooperatives, pooling resources and dividing any income. Many performers provided their own costumes, but special items—stage weapons, furniture or other hand-held devices—were considered "company property"; some experts however seem to think that the term comes from the idea that stage or screen objects "belong" to whoever uses them on stage.
There is no difference between props such as theatre, film, or television. Bland Wade, a properties director, says, "A coffee cup onstage is a coffee cup on television, is a coffee cup on the big screen." He adds, "There are different responsibilities and different vocabulary." The term "theatrical property" originated to describe an object used in a stage play and similar entertainments to further the action. Technically, a prop is any object that gives the scenery, actors, or performance space specific period, place, or character; the term comes from live-performance practice theatrical methods, but its modern use extends beyond the traditional plays and musical, novelty and public-speaking performances, to film and electronic media. Props in a production originate from off stage unless they have been preset on the stage before the production begins. Props are stored on a prop table backstage near the actor's entrance during production generally locked in a storage area between performances.
The person in charge of handling the props is called the "props master". Other positions include coordinators, production assistants and interns as may be needed for a specific project; the term has transferred to television, motion picture and video game production, where they are referred to by the phrase movie prop, film prop or prop. In recent years, the increasing popularity of movie memorabilia has added new meaning to the term "prop", broadening its existence to include a valuable after-life as a prized collector's item. Not available until after a film's premiere, movie props appearing on-screen are called "screen-used", can fetch thousands of dollars in online auctions and charity benefits. Many props are ordinary objects. However, a prop must "read well" from the house or on-screen, meaning it must look real to the audience. Many real objects are poorly adapted to the task of looking like themselves to an audience, due to their size, durability, or color under bright lights, so some props are specially designed to look more like the actual item than the real object would look.
In some cases, a prop is designed to behave differently from how the real object would for the sake of safety. Examples of special props are: A prop sack representing a burlap bag, might have another black fabric bag sewn, discreetly inside the burlap, giving it strength, hiding the contents and creating a visual void to the audience view. A prop mop, representing a string mop, but built out of a rectangular shape covered with fabric, so the mop can be slid across the stage to another actress as part of a musical number. A prop weapon that looks functional, but lacks the intentional harmfulness of the corresponding real weapon. In the theater, prop weapons are always either non-operable replicas, or have safety features to ensure they are not dangerous. Guns fire caps or noisy blanks, swords are dulled, knives are made of plastic or rubber. In film production functional weapons are used, but only with special smoke blanks with blank adapted guns instead of real bullets. Real cartridges with bullets removed are still dangerously charged which has caused several tragic instances when used on stage or film.
The safety and proper handling of real weapons used as movie props is the premiere responsibility of the prop master. ATF and other law enforcement agencies may monitor the use of real guns for film and television, but this is not necessary with stage props as these guns are permanently "plugged". Breakaway objects, or stunt props, such as balsa-wood furniture, or sugar glass whose breakage and debris look real but cause injury due to their light weight and weak structure. For such safe props often a stunt double will replace the main actor for shots involving use of breakaway props. Rubber bladed-weapons and guns are examples of props used by stuntmen to minimize injury, or by actors where the action requires a prop which minimizes injury. "Hero" props are the more detailed pieces intended for close inspection by the audience. The hero prop may have legible writing, moving parts, or other attributes or functions missing from a standard prop; the term is used on occasion for any of the items that a main character wou
In mathematics and philosophy, a property is a characteristic of an object. The property may be considered a form of object in its own right. A property, differs from individual objects in that it may be instantiated, in more than one thing, it differs from the logical/mathematical concept of class by not having any concept of extensionality, from the philosophical concept of class in that a property is considered to be distinct from the objects which possess it. Understanding how different individual entities can in some sense have some of the same properties is the basis of the problem of universals; the terms attribute and quality have similar meanings. In modern analytic philosophy there are several debates about the fundamental nature of properties; these center around questions such as: Are properties real? Are they categorical or dispositional? Are properties physical or mental? A realist about properties asserts. One way to spell this out is in terms of exact, instantiations known universals.
The other realist position asserts that properties are particulars, which are unique instantiations in individual objects that resemble one another to various degrees. The anti-realist position referred to as nominalism claims that properties are names we attach to particulars; the properties themselves have no existence. According to the categoricalist, dispositions reduce to causal bases; the fragility of a wine glass, for example, is not a property. Rather it can be explained by the categorical property of the glass's micro-structural composition. Dispositionalism, in turn, asserts that a property is nothing more that a set of causal powers. Fragility, according to this view, identifies a real property of the glass. Several intermediary positions exist; the Identity view that states that properties are both categorical and dispositional, they are just two ways of viewing the same property. One hybrid view claims that some properties are categorical and some are dispositional. A second hybrid view claims that properties have both a categorical and dispositional part, but that these are distinct ontological parts.
Property dualism describes a category of positions in the philosophy of mind which hold that, although the world is constituted of just one kind of substance—the physical kind—there exist two distinct kinds of properties: physical properties and mental properties. In other words, it is the view that non-physical, mental properties inhere in some physical substances; this stands in contrast to idealism. Physicalism claims that all properties, include mental properties reduce to, or supervene on, physical properties. Metaphysical Idealism, by contrast, claims that "something mental is the ultimate foundation of all reality, or exhaustive of reality." In classical Aristotelian terminology, a property is one of the predicables. It is a non-essential quality of a species, but a quality, characteristically present in members of that species. For example, "ability to laugh" may be considered a special characteristic of human beings. However, "laughter" is not an essential quality of the species human, whose Aristotelian definition of "rational animal" does not require laughter.
Therefore, in the classical framework, properties are characteristic qualities that are not required for the continued existence of an entity but are possessed by the entity. A property may be classified as either determinable. A determinable property is one. For example, color is a determinable property because it can be restricted to redness, etc. A determinate property is one; this distinction may be useful in dealing with issues of identity. Daniel Dennett distinguishes between lovely properties, although they require an observer to be recognised, exist latently in perceivable objects. However, taking any grammatical predicate whatsoever to be a property, or to have a corresponding property, leads to certain difficulties, such as Russell's paradox and the Grelling–Nelson paradox. Moreover, a real property can imply a host of true predicates: for instance, if X has the property of weighing more than 2 kilos the predicates "..weighs more than 1.9 kilos", "..weighs more than 1.8 kilos", etc. are all true of it.
Other predicates, such as "is an individual", or "has some properties" are uninformative or vacuous. There is some resistance to regarding such so-called "Cambridge properties" as legitimate. An intrinsic property is a property that an object or a thing has of itself, independently of other things, including its context. An extrinsic property is a property; the latter is sometimes called an attribute, since the value of that property is given to the object via its relation with another object. For example, mass is a physical intrinsic property of any physical object, whereas weight is an extrinsic property that varies depending on the strength of the gravitational field in which the res
National Register of Historic Places property types
The U. S. National Register of Historic Places classifies its listings by various types of properties. Listed properties fall into one of five categories, though there are special considerations for other types of properties which do not fit into these five broad categories or fit into more specialized subcategories; the five general categories for NRHP properties are: building, object and structure. Listed properties fall into one of five categories, though there are special considerations for other types of properties which do not fit into these five broad categories or fit into more specialized subcategories; the five general categories for NRHP properties are: building, object and district. I When multiple like properties are submitted as a group and listed together, they are known as a Multiple Property Submission. Buildings, as defined by the National Register, are structures intended to shelter some sort of human activity. Examples include a house, hotel, church or similar construction.
The term building, as in outbuilding, can be used to refer to and functionally related units, such as a courthouse and a jail, or a barn and a house. Buildings included on the National Register of Historic Places must have all of their basic structural elements as parts of buildings, such as ells and wings; as such, the whole building is considered during the nomination and its significant features must be identified. If a nominated building has lost any of its basic structural elements, it is considered a ruin and categorized as a site; the National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition, a historic district is: "a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. In addition, historic districts consist of non-contributing properties.
Historic districts possess a concentration, linkage or continuity of the other four types of properties. Objects, structures and sites within a historic district are thematically linked by architectural style or designer, date of development, distinctive urban plan, and/or historic associations." For example, the largest collection of houses from 17th and 18th century America are found in the McIntire Historic District in Salem, Massachusetts. Some NRHP-listed historic districts are further designated as National Historic Landmarks, termed National Historic Landmark Districts. All National Historic Landmarks are NRHP-listed. A contributing property is any building, object or site within the boundaries of the district which reflects the significance of the district as a whole, either because of historic associations, historic architectural qualities or archaeological features. Another key aspect of the contributing property is historic integrity. Significant alterations to a property can damage its physical connections with the past, lowering its historic integrity.
Objects are artistic in nature, or small in scale when compared to structures and buildings. Though objects may be movable, they are associated with a specific setting or environment. Examples of objects include monuments and fountains. Objects considered for inclusion on the NRHP, whether individually or as part of districts, should be designed for a specific location. Fixed outdoor sculpture, an example of public art, is appropriate for inclusion on the Register; the setting of an object is important in relation to the Register. It should be appropriate to roles, or character. In addition, objects that have been relocated to museums are not considered for inclusion on the Register. Sites may include discrete areas significant for activities in that location in the past, such as battlefields, significant archaeological finds, designed landscapes, other locations whose significance is not related to a building or structure. Sites possess significance for their potential to yield information in the future, though they are added to the Register under all four of the criteria for inclusion.
A sites need not have actual physical remains if it marks the location of a prehistoric or historic event, or if there were no buildings or structures present at the time of the events marked by the site. Site determination requires careful evaluation when the location of prehistoric or historic events cannot be conclusively determined. Structures differ from buildings, in that they are functional constructions meant to be used for purposes other than sheltering human activity. Examples include, a ship, a grain elevator, a gazebo and a bridge; the criteria of significance are applied to nominated structures in much the same fashion as they are for buildings. The basic structural elements must all be intact. An example would be a truss bridge being considered for inclusion. Said truss bridge is composed of metal or wooden truss and supporting piers. Structures that have lost their historic configuration or pattern of organization through demolition or deterioration, much like buildings, are considered ruins and classified as sites.
There are several other types of properties that do not fall neatly into the categories listed abo
Property is a 2003 novel by Valerie Martin, was the winner of the 2003 Orange Prize. In 2012, The Observer named Property as one of "The 10 best historical novels"; the book is set on a sugar plantation near New Orleans in 1828, tells the story of Manon Gaudet, the wife of the plantation's owner, Sarah, the slave Manon was given as a wedding present and who she has brought with her from the city. The story is centred on her resentment of Sarah. Sarah is not only Manon's slave, but her husband's sex slave; the private drama of the estate is played out against the backdrop of civil unrest and slave rebellion. Tim A. Ryan, "Mammy and Scarlett Done Gone: Complications of the Contemporary Novel of Slavery, 1986-2003." Calls and Responses: The American Novel of Slavery Since Gone with the Wind. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 2008: 149-84
In English common law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is land, the property of some person and all structures integrated with or affixed to the land, including crops, machinery, dams, mines and roads, among other things. The term is historic, arising from the now-discontinued form of action, which distinguished between real property disputes and personal property disputes. Personal property was, continues to be, all property, not real property. In countries with personal ownership of real property, civil law protects the status of real property in real-estate markets, where estate agents work in the market of buying and selling real estate. Scottish civil law calls real property "heritable property", in French-based law, it is called immobilier; the word "real" derives from Latin res, used in Middle English to mean "relating to things real property". In common law, real property was property that could be protected by some form of real action, in contrast to personal property, where a plaintiff would have to resort to another form of action.
As a result of this formalist approach, some things the common law deems to be land would not be classified as such by most modern legal systems, for example an advowson was real property. By contrast the rights of a leaseholder originate in personal actions and so the common law treated a leasehold as part of personal property; the law now broadly distinguishes between real personal property. The conceptual difference was between immovable property, which would transfer title along with the land, movable property, which a person would retain title to. In modern legal systems derived from English common law, classification of property as real or personal may vary somewhat according to jurisdiction or within jurisdictions, according to purpose, as in defining whether and how the property may be taxed. Bethell contains much historical information on the historical evolution of real property and property rights. To be of any value a claim to any property must be accompanied by a verifiable and legal property description.
Such a description makes use of natural or manmade boundaries such as seacoasts, streams, the crests of ridges, highways and railroad tracks or purpose-built markers such as cairns, surveyor's posts, official government surveying marks, so forth. In many cases, a description refers to one or more lots on a plat, a map of property boundaries kept in public records; the law recognizes different sorts of interests, called estates, in real property. The type of estate is determined by the language of the deed, bill of sale, land grant, etc. through which the estate was acquired. Estates are distinguished by the varying property rights that vest in each, that determine the duration and transferability of the various estates. A party enjoying an estate is called a "tenant"; some important types of estates in land include: Fee simple: An estate of indefinite duration, that can be transferred. The most common and most absolute type of estate, under which the tenant enjoys the greatest discretion over the disposal of the property.
Conditional Fee simple: An estate lasting forever as long as one or more conditions stipulated by the deed's grantor does not occur. If such a condition does occur, the property reverts to the grantor, or a remainder interest is passed on to a third party. Fee tail: An estate which, upon the death of the tenant, is transferred to his or her heirs. Life estate: An estate lasting for the natural life of the grantee, called a "life tenant". If a life estate can be sold, a sale does not change its duration, limited by the natural life of the original grantee. A life estate pur; such an estate may arise if the original life tenant sells her life estate to another, or if the life estate is granted pur autre vie. Leasehold: An estate of limited term, as set out in a contract, called a lease, between the party granted the leasehold, called the lessee, another party, called the lessor, having a longer estate in the property. For example, an apartment-dweller with a one-year lease has a leasehold estate in her apartment.
Lessees agree to pay a stated rent to the lessor. Though a leasehold relates to real property, the leasehold interest is classified as personal property. A tenant enjoying an undivided estate in some property after the termination of some estate of limited term, is said to have a "future interest". Two important types of future interests are: Reversion: A reversion arises when a tenant grants an estate of lesser maximum term than his own. Ownership of the land returns to the original tenant; the original tenant's future interest is a reversion. Remainder: A remainder arises when a tenant with a fee simple grants someone a life estate or conditional fee simple, specifies a third party to whom the land goes when the life estate ends or the condition occurs; the third party is said to have a remainder. The third party may have a legal right to limit the life tenant's use of the land. Estates may be held jointly as joint tenants as tenants in common; the difference in these two types of joint ownership of an estate in land is the inheritability of the estate and the shares of interest that each tenant owns.
In a joint tenancy with rights of survivorshi