1991 Russian presidential election
The 1991 Russian presidential election was held in the Russian SFSR on 12 June 1991. This was the first presidential election in the country's history; the election was held three months after Russians voted in favor of establishing a presidency and holding direct elections in a referendum held in March that year. The result was a victory for Boris Yeltsin. In the election of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation's lower chamber members in the 1990 legislative election anti-communist candidates won nearly two-thirds of the seats. On 31 May 1990 Boris Yeltsin was elected Chair of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation in a vote by the body's members; this made him the de facto leader of the Russian SFSR. The vote had been close, as Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev had unsuccessfully tried to convince enough members of the Supreme Soviet to vote against Yeltsin. Yelstin made an active effort to push for the creation of an office of president and for a popular election to be held to fill it.
Many saw this as a desire by Yelstin to have a mandate and power separate from the tensely divided legislature. He succeeded in having Russia hold a referendum on 14 March 1991 on whether Russia should create offices of President and Vice President and hold elections to fill them. Russians voted in favor of holding elections to these offices. Following the referendum, there was a period of more than a week in which a stalemate had caused the Congress of People's Deputies to go without deciding whether or not to vote on whether the Russian Federation should have a directly-elected president. On 4 April the Congress of People's Deputies ordered the creation of legislation to authorize the election. While still failing to set an official date for the election, the Congress of People's Deputies provisionally scheduled the election for 12 June; this provisional date would become the official date of the election. The Congress of People's Deputies would approve for an election to be held, scheduling its initial round of voting to be held three months after the referendum had been decided.
The election would jointly elect individuals to serve five-year terms as President and Vice President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Several sub-national elections were scheduled to coincide with the first round of the presidential election; this included mayoral elections in Moscow and Leningrad, executive elections in federal subjects such as Tatarstan. There were sub-national referendums scheduled to coincide with the presidential election; these included a number of referendums in which cities were determining whether or not residents wanted to revert to their historic city names, such as in Sverdlovsk and Leningrad. In difference from subsequent Russian presidential elections, a vice presidential candidate stood for election alongside with the presidential candidate. To the US presidential election system, the candidature of Vice President was exhibited along with the candidacy of the President as a joint entry on the ballot paper. Preliminary legislation outlining the rules of the election was passed on 24 April by the Supreme Soviet of Russia.
However, it took the Supreme Soviet until three weeks before the day of the election to finalize the rules that would govern the election. Any citizen of the RSFSR between the ages of 35 and 65 were eligible to be elected president. Any citizen of the RSFSR over the age of 18 was eligible to vote. 50% turnout was required in order to validate the election. The winner would need to have captured 50% of the votes cast; the president would be elected to a 5-year term, could serve a maximum of two terms. The election law stipulated that, once sworn-in, the president would be required to renounce their membership of any political parties. However, on 23 May, the parliament voted to remove this requirement. All candidates needed to be nominated. Candidates could be nominated by RSFSR political parties, trade unions, public organizations. There were two ways for candidates to achieve ballot registration; the first was by providing proof of the having the support of 100,000 voters. The second way for candidates to obtain registration is if they received the support of 25% of the members of the Congress of People's Deputies.
On 6 May it was announced. This was the deadline for nominating a vice-presidential running mate. Candidates were provided 200,000 rubles in public financing for their campaigns. In May 1991 there were some calls to postpone the election; those urging the postponement of the elections argued that the time before the scheduled 12 June election day provided too brief of a period for nominating candidates and campaigning. In response to these calls, election commission chairman Vasilii Kazakov argued that that the law stipulated that the election would be held on 12 June and that the proposed postponement of the election would only serve to "keep Russia seething" for another three months. In mid-May election commission chairman Vasilii Kazakov announced that the election would be budgeted at 155 million rubles; the results of the first round were to be announced by a 22 June deadline. It had been determined that, if needed, a runoff would be scheduled to be held within two weeks after the first round.
Due to the rushed circumstances behind the creation of the office and organization the election, many aspects of the office of President were not clear. Sufficient legislative debates were no
2004 Russian presidential election
The 2004 Russian presidential election was held on 14 March 2004. Incumbent President Vladimir Putin was seeking a second full four-year term, he was re-elected with 71.9% of the vote. Candidates are listed in the order. Observers representing the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, cited what they called abuses of government resources, bias in the state media and instances of ballot stuffing on election day. According to the ad hoc Committee by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, "the elections were well administrated and reflected the high public approval rating of the incumbent president but lacked elements of a genuine democratic contest." "While on a technical level the election was organized with professionalism on the part of the Central Election Commission, the election process overall did not adequately reflect principles necessary for a healthy democratic election process. The election process failed to meet important commitments concerning treatment of candidates by the State-controlled media on a non-discriminatory basis, equal opportunities for all candidates and secrecy of the ballot," reported observers by Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
"Localised instances of election-related abuse of official function, whilst met with an appropriately robust response by the electoral authorities in some instances, reflected a lack of democratic culture and responsibility in areas distant from the capital." Observers representing the Commonwealth of Independent States recognized the election as "free and fair". The head of the mission Yury Yarov assured that violations identified during the mission didn't affect "free expression of the electors' will and result of the election". According to report by an ad hoc Committee by the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, "The Presidential Election Law and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights Law provided the legal framework for the presidential elections, laying down conditions for the transparency in the organisation and conduct of the election." Criticizing the election campaign, the Committee claimed as "unreasonable hurdle" the requirement to collect 2 million signatures for submission to the CEC in support of persons seeking registration as candidates.
Another concern was, "The Russian Constitution stipulates that in a presidential election, if the turnout is less than 50%, a new round has to be held, with candidates registering anew. This clause raised concerns of authorities on voters turnout and a massive campaign encouraging people to participate in elections had been launched by the CEC and local authorities. In some regions, local authorities overused their power to force people to take part in the elections." The election campaign in general was "low-key and all but invisible, which could be explained by the predictability of the results of the election." Glazyev's manager reported the use of administrative resources by preventing Glazyev from campaigning in the regions. PACE reported that despite some irregularities, "credit should be given to the election administration which ensured security and professional conduct of the voting process". PACE noted the unusually high turnout in five North Caucasus republics, "Mr Putin received 98.2 % of the vote in Ingushetia, 96.5 % in Kabardino-Balkaria, 94,6 % in Dagestan, 92.3% in Chechnya and 91.25% in North Ossetia.
Taking into account that the general turnout of the election was only 64.39%, the election results in these regions seem to be unusually high and one-sided." Considering situation in Chechnya, the Moscow Times quoted election officials in the republic's capital, Grozny, as acknowledging that they had filled in several thousand ballots for Putin. The report of PACE said that "during the presidential election the International Election Observation Mission concluded that state-controlled media had displayed clear bias in favour of the incumbent in news presentation and coverage of the campaign." According to the report by Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Television is the main source of public information in the Russian Federation. Two State-controlled TV channels have countrywide outreach, while the most significant private TV stations are NTV and Ren TV… The State-controlled media comprehensively failed to meet its legal obligation to provide equal treatment to all candidates, displaying clear favouritism towards Mr. Putin.
While the other candidates had access to television and other media, through free airtime and televised debates, their access to the primetime news programmes and current affairs programmes on the State-controlled broadcasters was limited… In contrast to the coverage by State-funded TV channels, private broadcasters monitored by the EOM provided more balanced coverage, with a greater diversity of views. In the month prior to the election, state-funded Channel One Russia dedicated more than four hours of its news coverage to Putin, with the coverage being overwhelmingly positive. In contrast, the second-most covered candidate on Channel One was Kharitonov, who received a mere 21 minutes of primetime news coverage. State-funded TV Russia gave Putin nearly two hours of primetime news devoted more than two hours of its primetime news coverage to Putin, with the tone of the coverage being overwhelmingly positive. In contrast, Glazeyev was given only four minutes of coverage, the tone of which ranged from negative to neutral.
TV Centre, a television station, controlled by the Moscow City ad
2021 Russian legislative election
Legislative elections will be held in Russia no than 19 September 2021 to elect the 450 seats the 8th convocation of the State Duma, the lower house of the Federal Assembly. Going into the elections, United Russia is the ruling party after winning the 2016 elections with 54.2% of the vote and 343 seats. The election day is the third Sunday of the month in which the constitutional term for which the State Duma of the 7th convocation was elected expires; the constitutional term for which the State Duma is elected is calculated from the date of its election. The day of election of the State Duma is the day of voting, as a result of which it was elected in the authorized composition. In case of early dissolution of the State Duma, the President must call snap election; the election day in this case should be the last Sunday before the day when three months from the date of dissolution of the State Duma expire. After the 2016 elections, the United Russia party was the most popular party, its rating ranged from 40% to 55%, while the rating of the main opposition parties did not exceed 10%, the rating of A Just Russia party was less than 5%, this is not enough to go to the state Duma, as the minimum threshold is 5%.
In June 2018, after Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev announced a reform to raise the retirement age, the rating of the ruling United Russia party fell and fluctuates around 35%. At the same time, the Communist Party rating has grown and ranges from 15% to 20%; the rating of A Just Russia has increased, but still it remains small and fluctuates around 5%, why the party still risks not to go to the State Duma in the elections. The rating of the liberal democratic party, remains constant and fluctuates around 10%. Among the non-parliamentary parties, there are no parties with a sufficient rating to pass to the State Duma, no party can score more than 1%. Under current election laws, the State Duma is elected for a term of five years, with parallel voting. Half of the seats are elected by party-list proportional representation with a 5% electoral threshold, with the other half elected in 225 single-member constituencies by first-past-the-post voting. In the proportional part, candidates can be nominated only by political parties.
The lists of parties must include no more than 400 candidates. The list may include candidates who are not members of the party, but their number should not exceed 50% of the number of candidates on the list; the party list of candidates should be divided into regional parts. The regional part includes regional groups of candidates corresponding to the group of bordering federal subjects; the number of regional groups must be at least 35. No more than ten candidates may be included in the federal part of the list of candidates; the regional parts of the party list should cover the entire territory of Russia. In the majoritarian part, candidates can be nominated both by political parties and in the order of self-nomination; the political party must provide a list of candidates to the Central Election Commission, the list must contain the name and number of the constituencies in which each candidate will run. Documents of candidates-self-nominees, unlike candidates from political parties, have to submit applications to District Election Commissions.
For registration, the self-nominated candidate must collect at least 3% of the signatures of voters residing in the constituency. One and the same candidate can be nominated both in the party list and in the single-member constituency, however, in the case of its passage to the State Duma and the party list and in the single-member constituency, he will need to give up one of the places; as of 15 June 2018, 63 political parties can participate in the elections. At the same time, parties represented in the State Duma, parties that received more than 3% of the vote in the previous elections or are represented at least in one of the regional parliaments are allowed to contest in the elections without collecting signatures. Other parties need to collect signatures to participate in the elections; the official list of parties entitled to participate in the elections without collection of signatures will be announced before the election, but after the 2018 regional elections, there are only 13 such parties.
Parties represented in regional parliaments, which can participate in legislative elections without collecting signatures. 2018 presidential candidate Ksenia Sobchak has stated that her party will run for State Duma in 2021. On 15 March 2018, Ksenia Sobchak and Dmitry Gudkov announced the creation of the Party of Changes on the basis of the party Civic Initiative. Businessman Sergei Polonsky, in January 2018, announced his intention to create a political party "For All", with which he intends to participate in the 2021 election. On 19 December 2018, the leader of the Party of Growth Boris Titov announced the opening of a federal headquarters "Election–2021", thus the Party of Growth, the beginning of his campaign the first; the headquarters of the company is located in Miass city of Chelyabinsk Oblast. According to Titov, the party will focus on elections in single-mandate constituencies, not on party lists, he said: "Today, no slogans, no "locomotives" we can't win we can't cover the whole of Russia, so it's easier for us to focus on specific constituencies.
We need real candidates who will b
President of Russia
The President of Russia the President of the Russian Federation, is the head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces. In 1991, the office was known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power. In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister of Russia, who becomes Acting President of Russia; the Chairman of the Federation Council is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.
The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic and judicial officers, concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances; the president directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation. The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term; the law prohibits anyone from being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. In May 2012, Vladimir Putin became the fourth president. A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation, at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia for at least 10 years; the Constitution of Russia limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms.
Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term. The election of the President is regulated by the Presidential Election Law and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights; the Federation Council calls the presidential elections. If it does not call a presidential election, due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election; the Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections; the minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law. Terms were extended from four during Dmitry Medvedev's administration.
The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation. If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes; the last presidential election was in 2018, the next is expected in 2024. Inauguration of the President of Russia is conducted six years after the previous inauguration. If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results. Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people. Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death and removal from office.
In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office. After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president; these devices are used on special occasions. The first insignia, issued is the chain of office with an emblem; the central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms; the other eight consist of a rosette bearing the motto "Benefit and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions.
The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the stan
Valentina Ivanovna Matviyenko (Russian: Валенти́на Ива́новна Матвие́нко, IPA:, Ukrainian: Валентина Іванівна Матвієнко, is a Russian politician serving as the Senator from Saint Petersburg and Chairwoman of the Federation Council since 2011. She was Governor of Saint Petersburg from 2003 to 2011. Born in Ukraine, Matviyenko started her political career in the 1980s in Leningrad, was the First Secretary of the Krasnogvardeysky District Communist Party of the City from 1984 to 1986. In the 1990s, Matviyenko served as the Russian Ambassador to Malta, to Greece. From 1998 to 2003, Matviyenko was Deputy Prime Minister for Welfare, the Presidential Envoy to the Northwestern Federal District in 2003. By that time, Matviyenko was allied with Russian President Vladimir Putin, an alliance which secured her a victory in the gubernatorial elections in Saint Petersburg, Putin's native city. Matviyenko became the first female leader of Saint Petersburg. Since the start of Matviyenko's service as governor, a significant share of taxation money was transferred from the federal budget to the local budget, along with the booming economy and improving investment climate the standard of living increased in the City, making income levels much closer to Moscow, far above most other Russian federal subjects.
The profile of Saint Petersburg in Russian politics has risen, marked by the transfer of the Constitutional Court of Russia from Moscow in 2008. Matviyenko developed a large number of megaprojects in housing and infrastructure, such as the construction of the Saint Petersburg Ring Road, including the Big Obukhovsky Bridge, completion of the Saint Petersburg Dam aimed to put an end to the infamous Saint Petersburg floods, launching Line 5 of Saint Petersburg Metro, starting land reclamation in the Neva Bay for the new Marine Facade of the city containing the Passenger Port of St. Petersburg. Several major auto-producing companies were drawn to Saint Petersburg or its vicinity, including Toyota, General Motors, Hyundai Motor, Magna International, MAN SE, thus turning the city into an important center of automotive industry in Russia, specializing in foreign brands. Another development of Matviyenko's governorship was tourism; some actions and practices of Governor Matviyenko have drawn significant criticisms from the Saint Petersburg public, the media, opposition groups.
In particular, new construction in heavily built-up areas and several building projects were deemed to conflict with the classical architecture of the city, where the entire centre is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Some projects were cancelled or modified, such as the controversial design of a 400-metre-tall Okhta Center skyscraper, planned to be built adjacent to the historical center of the city. Another major point of criticism was Matviyenko's handling of the city's snow removal problems during the unusually cold and snowy winters of 2009–10 and 2010–11. On 22 August 2011, soon after completion of the Saint Petersburg Dam, Matviyenko resigned from office; as a member of the ruling United Russia Party, on 21 September 2011, Matviyenko was elected as Chairwoman of the Federation Council, the country's third-highest elected office. Valentina Tyutina was born in Shepetivka in the Khmelnytskyi Oblast of Western Ukrainian SSR, Soviet Union. In 1972, Matviyenko graduated from Leningrad Institute of Chemistry and Pharmaceutics, where she met her husband, Vladimir Vasilyevich Matviyenko.
They had a son, Sergey, in 1973. Matviyenko held various leadership positions within the Komsomol organization until 1984. In 1985 Valentina Matviyenko graduated from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Academy and became a party official in Leningrad's municipal government. In 1984–1986 she was the First Secretary of the Krasnogvardeysky District Committee of the Party. Matviyenko was elected as a people's deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and headed the committee on women and children affairs. Between 1991 and 1998 Matviyenko served in the diplomatic service and held several diplomatic positions including posts of Russian ambassador to Malta and Greece. On 24 September 1998, Matviyenko was appointed Deputy Prime Minister of Russia for Welfare, occupied this position until 2003. In June 1999 she worked on the Board of Directors of the ORT TV channel. Matvyenko was involved in a life-threatening car accident on 20 November 1999. On 3 February 2000 she refused to contest. On 29 February 2000, she announced that she was considering running in the St. Petersburg governor elections to be held on 14 May, on 10 March announced that she was indeed launching her campaign.
However, on 4 April she claimed that Vladimir Putin had asked her to withdraw from the elections, she did so on 5 April. On 11 March 2003 she left the Deputy PM position and was appointed presidential envoy to the Northwestern Federal District by Vladimir Putin. On 24 June 2003, after Saint Petersburg governor Vladimir Yakovlev resigned ahead of schedule, Matviyenko announced that she was ready to run for governor, her nomination was supported by the United Russia
2012 Russian presidential election
The 2012 Russian presidential election was held on 4 March 2012. There were five registered candidates; these election were the first after the constitutional amendments in 2008. In this election, the President was elected for the first time for six years, not four as before. At the United Russia congress in Moscow on 24 September 2011, President Dmitry Medvedev proposed that his predecessor, Vladimir Putin stand for the presidency in 2012, an offer which Putin accepted. Putin offered Medvedev the opportunity stand on the United Russia ticket in the parliamentary elections in December 2011 and become Prime Minister at the end of his presidential term. All independents had to register by 15 December 2011, candidates nominated by parties were required to register by 18 January 2012; the final list was announced on 29 January. On 2 March, outgoing President Medvedev addressed the nation on the national television channels about the upcoming elections, inviting citizens to vote. Putin received 63.6 % of the vote.
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe observers assessed the voting on the election day positively overall, but assessed the vote count negatively in one-third of polling stations due to procedural irregularities. The following individuals submitted documents to the Russian Central Election Commission in order to be registered as presidential candidates; the following candidates were registered by the CEC, candidates are listed in the order they appear on the ballot paper: Mikhail Prokhorov conducted a tour around the country, meeting with his supporters in various cities. He was the only candidate to do so except for Putin, who visited Russia's regions as a part of his Prime Minister of Russia duties. If elected, Prokhorov promised to reinstate elections for Russia's governorships, he promised to pardon Mikhail Khodorkovsky. He promised to reverse the recent constitutional amendment that had lengthened presidential terms from four years to six, he stated. Prokhorov promised to dismantle state control of the media and prohibit all forms of censorship and state control of major television and radio stations.
He promised to dismantle large energy monopolies, including dismantling Gazprom. He stated that he favored better relations with the European Union. In the course of the 2012 presidential campaign, in order to present his manifesto, Putin published 7 articles in different Russian newspapers. In those articles, he presented his vision of the problems which Russia solved in the last decade and the goals yet to be achieved; the topics of the articles were as follows: the general overview, the ethnicity issue, economic tasks and government efficiency, social policy and foreign policy. During the campaign Putin made a single outdoor public speech at a 100,000-strong rally of his supporters in the Luzhniki Stadium on 23 February, Russia's Defender of the Fatherland Day. In the speech he called not to betray the Motherland, but to love her, to unite around Russia and to work together for the good, to overcome the existing problems, he said that foreign interference in Russian affairs should not be allowed, that Russia has its own free will.
He compared the political situation at the moment with the First Fatherland War of 1812, reminding that its 200th anniversary and the anniversary of the Battle of Borodino would be celebrated in 2012. Putin cited Lermontov's poem Borodino and ended the speech with Vyacheslav Molotov's famous Great Patriotic War slogan "The Victory Shall Be Ours!". The BBC reported that some attendees claimed they had been paid; some said they had been told they were attending a "folk festival". After Putin spoke, popular folk band Lubeh took to the stage. Vladimir Volfovich Zhirinovsky is a veteran of Russian politics who has participated in five presidential elections in Russia. Zhirinovsky's campaign slogan for 2012 was "Vote Zhirinovsky, or things will get worse". Proshka, a donkey owned by Vladimir Zhirinovsky, became prominent during the presidential campaign, when he was filmed in an election advertisement video. In September 2011, Gennady Zyuganov again became the CPRF's candidate for the Russian presidential election.
According to Zyuganov, "a gang of folks who cannot do anything in life apart from dollars and mumbling, has humiliated the country" and called for a new international alliance to "counter the aggressive policies of imperialist circles." There were over 108,000,000 eligible voters and all 95,000 polling stations had webcams to observe the voting process. Following criticism of the vote in the December elections, 2 web cameras were dedicated to streaming the activities at each polling station, at an expense of five million dollars, i.e. about $50 per polling station. International observers from the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe found that although all competitors had access to the media, Putin was given clear prominence. Strict candidate registration requirements limited "genuine competition". According to Tonino Picula, the Special Co-ordinator to lead the short-term OSCE observer mission, There were serious problems from the start of this election; the point of elections is.
This was not the case in Russia. There was no real competition and abuse of government resources ensured that the ultimate winner of the ele
Chairman of the Federation Council (Russia)
The Chairman of the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation called Speaker, is the presiding officer of the Upper house of the Russian parliament. It is the third highest position, after the President and the Prime Minister, in the government of Russia. In the case of incapacity of the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the Federation Council becomes Acting President of Russia; the Chairman is elected from among the senators. That is the position held by one of the members of the Federation Council; the election is conducted by secret ballot using the ballot. The Federation Council may decide to hold a secret ballot using the electronic system. Candidates for the post of Chairman of the Federation Council senators offered; each member of the Council of the Federation has the right to propose only one candidate. For all candidates who have consented to stand, held a discussion during which they act at the meeting and answer questions from senators. After discussion, the Chamber approves the list of candidates for voting.
A candidate is considered elected if he received a vote of more than half of the votes of the members of the Federation Council. If the post of Chairman of the Federation Council was made more than two candidates and none of them has received the required number of votes for election, a second round of voting on the two candidates who received the greatest number of votes. 178 votes: Totally 178 votes: Totally 172 votes: Totally 166 votes: Totally 170 votes: The office of the Chairman of the Federation Council has no term limit. The Chairman remains in his post until the end of his senatorial term. If he is re-elected for a new Senatorial term, the chairmanship automatically ends. If the former chairman is re-elected as senator, he can be re-elected as Chairman of the Federation Council. Chairman of the Federation Council can be dismissed by a decision of the Council of Federation, received the majority of votes of the members of the Federation Council; the question of removal from office is considered by the Federation Council on admission of personal statements of the chairman or at the suggestion of a group of members of the Federation Council of no less than one fifth of the members of the Federation Council.
Chairman of the Federation Council: convene meetings of the Council of the Federation, including the extraordinary.