Pia de' Tolomei (Rossetti painting)
This work was painted at the start of Rossettis affair with Jane Morris, who modelled for the picture. As he was to do with Beata Beatrix, Rossetti chose a tale by Dante Aligheri to illustrate his love for his model and he continued this theme, as shown in Proserpine. Rossetti not only drew Jane exhaustively, he choreographed photographic sessions of her, amongst other representations of her, Rossetti depicts Jane as Proserpine, Queen Guinevere and Desdemona - all of whom were at the mercy of men. Jane appears disproportionately large in most of Rossettis pictures, the background is immaterial as long as the viewer focuses on the beauty of her face. In Pia de Tolomei her neck seems almost dislocated, it is so strangely elongated, Janes hair colour is misrepresented here. Her natural colour was brown, yet Rossetti paints it with an auburn tinge - closer to Lizzie Siddals hair colour than Janes. Also, her hands are twisted and intertwined in a peculiar way, london and Hudson, New York, Abrams.
Treuherz, Prettejohn and Becker, pre-Raphaelites at Home, New York, Watson-Giptill Publications. The Rossetti Archive Birmingham Museums and Art Gallerys Pre-Raphaelite Online Resource Spencer Museum of Art, Kansas
Veronica Veronese is an oil painting by Dante Gabriel Rossetti painted in 1872 with Alexa Wilding as the model. The painting was conceived as a companion to Lady Lilith, Rossetti sold the painting to one of his best clients, shipping magnate Frederick Richards Leyland. In 1923 it was acquired by the estate of Samuel Bancroft which donated it in 1935 to the Delaware Art Museum where it is now displayed, like much of Rossettis work of the 1860s and 1870s, Veronica Veronese was inspired by Venetian painting. It is believed to represent “the artistic soul in the act of creation. ”This theme is expounded by the fictitious quote inscribed on the frame of the painting. Though the quote is attributed on the frame to The Letters of Girolamo Ridolfi, suddenly leaning forward, the Lady Veronica rapidly wrote the first notes on the virgin page. It was the marriage of the voices of nature and the dawn of a mystic creation. The symbolism in the painting includes the bird, which may represent the marriage of the voices of nature.
The camomile in the cage may represent “energy in adversity, ” the primroses youth. Jane Morris lent the green dress in the picture, the violin was part of Rossettis collection of musical instruments, and the fan appeared in Monna Vanna. The few bars of musical composition on the manuscript may have borrowed from George Boyce. Leyland bought the painting from Rossetti in 1872 for £840 and it was sold at Leylands estate sale, the painting hung in Leylands drawing room with five other Rossetti paintings that Leyland called stunners. After Leylands estate sale, the painting changed hands three times until it was bought by Charles Fairfax Murray, another Pre-Raphaelite artist, murrays son, John Edward Murray, sold it to the estate of Samuel Bancroft in 1923. Bancroft and his estate accumulated one of the largest collections of Pre-Raphaelite art outside of the United Kingdom, the painting was exhibited in London in 1883, and in Washington, D. C. Richmond, Virginia and Birmingham and Williamstown, Stephen, Laurel Bradley, Deborah Cherry, John Christian, David B.
Elliott, Betty Elzea, Margaretta Fredrick, Caroline Hannah, Jan Marsh, waking Dreams, the Art of the Pre-Raphaelites from the Delaware Art Museum. The Samuel and Mary R. Bancroft, Jr. and Related Pre-Raphaelite Collections, Delaware, Delaware Art Museum,1984 Surtees, Virginia
Paolo and Francesca da Rimini
Paolo and Francesca da Rimini is a watercolour by English artist and poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti, painted in 1855 and currently housed at Tate Britain. Rossettis real name was Charles Gabriel Dante Rossetti, but his admiration for the great Florentine poet led him to change it to Dante Gabriel Rossetti, although the artist had been sketching the subject for many years, the watercolour took him just one week to complete. The buyer was the writer and critic John Ruskin, the drawing is simple and the colours generally muted. Only Francescas long golden hair looks forward to the more sensuous creatures of Rossettis works, the picture was originally planned as a triptych in oil, with the same scenes as in the watercolour, but with the lovers kissing as the central motif. Francesca was the sister-in-law of Paolo Malatesta, and both were married, but they fell in love, the triptych has several inscriptions taken from Canto V, with Rossetti bringing the story to life by writing relevant quotations in the original Italian around the edge of the composition.
Its three parts read from left to right, the scene illustrates the following lines from Dantes text, One day we read, to pass the time away, of Lancelot, of how he fell in love, alone we were, and no suspicion near us. Then he, who never from me shall separate, at once my lips all trembling kissed and their adulterous relationship uncovered, they were murdered by Francescas husband and Paolos brother, Sigismondo Malatesta, and banished to the second circle of hell. List of paintings by Dante Gabriel Rossetti The Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri Rossetti and His Circle by Max Beerbohm Ash, Oswald A Victorian Romantic, Dante Gabriel Rossetti London, Frederick Muller Fredeman, William E. The correspondence of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, London and Hudson, New York, Abrams. Dinah Roe, The Rossettis in Wonderland, the House Of Life Singleton, Charles S. Treuherz, Prettejohn and Becker, pre-Raphaelites at Home, New York, Watson-Giptill Publications
Frederick Richards Leyland
Frederick Richards Leyland was one of the largest British shipowners, running 25 steamships in the transatlantic trade. He was an art collector, who commissioned works from several of the Pre-Raphaelite painters. Leyland served as an apprentice in the firm of John Bibby, Sons & Co, in 1867, he took on the tenancy of Speke Hall, and in 1869 bought a house in London at 49 Princes Gate. At the end of 1872, when the Bibby partnership dissolved, he bought out his employers, under his direction the line expanded into transatlantic trade and by 1882 had 25 steamships. He retired from business in 1888, leaving his son Frederick Dawson Leyland in charge. Leylands first commissions were to Rossetti and James McNeill Whistler, Leyland collected Renaissance art, as well as that of the Pre-Raphaelites and Albert Moore. Leyland commissioned The Beguiling of Merlin, a painting by the Pre-Raphaelite painter Edward Burne-Jones, the painting depicts a scene from Arthurian legend, the infatuation of Merlin with the Lady of the Lake, Nimue.
Merlin is shown trapped, helpless in a bush as Nimue reads from a book of spells. In the 1870s, Leyland commissioned Whistler to decorate his dining room, the resulting Peacock Room is considered one of Whistlers greatest works. After Leylands death, his widow sold the Peacock Room to the American industrialist and it now resides in the Smithsonian Museums Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, DC. Leyland died in 1892, one of the largest shipowners in Britain, the grave is 10m west of the main path between the north entrance and colonnade but is highly recognizable due to its unique form and design. In 1892, John Ellerman made his first move into shipping by leading a consortium purchased the Leyland Line of the late Frederick Richards Leyland. In 1901, Ellerman sold this business to J. P. Morgan for £1.2 million, Leylands funerary monument is the only such work by Edward Burne-Jones – the finest Arts and Crafts funerary monument in the UK, and Grade II* listed. Leyland married Frances née Dawson on 23 March 1855, but they separated in 1879, possibly because of his liaison with his married mistress Rosa Laura Caldecott and he and Frances had four children together, Frederick Dawson, Florence married Valentine Cameron Prinsep and Elinor.
Rosa bore a son named Frederick Richards Leyland Caldecott in 1883, Leyland had two further sons with his mistress Annie Ellen Wooster. Frederick Richards and Francis George Leyland Wooster Leyland, Frederick Richards, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press,2004 Biography at University of Glasgow
It was a part of the religion in ancient Greece. Greek mythology is explicitly embodied in a collection of narratives. Greek myth attempts to explain the origins of the world, and details the lives and adventures of a variety of gods, heroes, heroines. These accounts initially were disseminated in a tradition, today the Greek myths are known primarily from ancient Greek literature. The oldest known Greek literary sources, Homers epic poems Iliad and Odyssey, focus on the Trojan War, archaeological findings provide a principal source of detail about Greek mythology, with gods and heroes featured prominently in the decoration of many artifacts. Geometric designs on pottery of the eighth century BC depict scenes from the Trojan cycle as well as the adventures of Heracles, in the succeeding Archaic and Hellenistic periods and various other mythological scenes appear, supplementing the existing literary evidence. Greek mythology has had an influence on the culture, arts. Poets and artists from ancient times to the present have derived inspiration from Greek mythology and have discovered contemporary significance and relevance in the themes, Greek mythology is known today primarily from Greek literature and representations on visual media dating from the Geometric period from c.
Mythical narration plays an important role in every genre of Greek literature. Nevertheless, the only general mythographical handbook to survive from Greek antiquity was the Library of Pseudo-Apollodorus and this work attempts to reconcile the contradictory tales of the poets and provides a grand summary of traditional Greek mythology and heroic legends. Apollodorus of Athens lived from c, 180–125 BC and wrote on many of these topics. His writings may have formed the basis for the collection, however the Library discusses events that occurred long after his death, among the earliest literary sources are Homers two epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Other poets completed the cycle, but these and lesser poems now are lost almost entirely. Despite their traditional name, the Homeric Hymns have no connection with Homer. They are choral hymns from the part of the so-called Lyric age. Hesiods Works and Days, a poem about farming life, includes the myths of Prometheus, Pandora. The poet gives advice on the best way to succeed in a dangerous world, lyrical poets often took their subjects from myth, but their treatment became gradually less narrative and more allusive.
Greek lyric poets, including Pindar and Simonides, and bucolic poets such as Theocritus and Bion, myth was central to classical Athenian drama
Tate Britain is an art museum on Millbank in the City of Westminster in London. It is part of the Tate network of galleries in England, with Tate Modern, Tate Liverpool and it is the oldest gallery in the network, having opened in 1897. It is one of the largest museums in the country, the gallery is situated on Millbank, on the site of the former Millbank Prison. Construction, undertaken by Higgs and Hill, commenced in 1893, from the start it was commonly known as the Tate Gallery, after its founder Sir Henry Tate, and in 1932 it officially adopted that name. As a consequence, it was renamed Tate Britain in March 2000, the front part of the building was designed by Sidney R. J. Smith with a classical portico and dome behind, and the central sculpture gallery was designed by John Russell Pope. Tate Britain includes the Clore Gallery of 1987, designed by James Stirling, crises during its existence include flood damage to work from the River Thames, and bomb damage during World War II. However, most of the collection was in storage elsewhere during the war.
In 1970, the building was given Grade II* listed status, the museum stayed open throughout the three phases of renovation. Completed in 2013, the newly designed sections were conceived by the architects Caruso St John and included a total of nine new galleries, with reinforced flooring to accommodate heavy sculptures. A second part was unveiled that year, the centrepiece being the reopening of the buildings Thames-facing entrance as well as a new spiral staircase beneath its rotunda, the circular balcony of the rotundas domed atrium, closed to visitors since the 1920s, was reopened. The gallery now has a dedicated entrance and reception beneath its entrance steps on Millbank. The front entrance is accessible by steps, a side entrance at a lower level has a ramp for wheelchair access. The gallery provides a restaurant and a café, as well as a Friends room and this membership is open to the public on payment of an annual subscription. As well as offices the building complex houses the Prints and Drawings Rooms, as well as the Library.
The restaurant features a mural by Rex Whistler, Tate Britain and Tate Modern are now connected by a high speed boat along the River Thames, which runs from Millbank Millennium Pier immediately outside Tate Britain. The boat is decorated with spots, based on paintings of similar appearance by Damien Hirst, the lighting artwork incorporated in the piers structure is by Angela Bulloch. The main display spaces show the permanent collection of historic British art, the gallery organises career retrospectives of British artists and temporary major exhibitions of British Art. Every three years the gallery stages a Triennial exhibition in which a guest curator provides an overview of contemporary British Art, the 2003 Tate Triennial was called Days Like These
Jupiter, Jove, is the god of sky and thunder and king of the gods in Ancient Roman religion and mythology. Jupiter was the deity of Roman state religion throughout the Republican and Imperial eras. In Roman mythology, he negotiates with Numa Pompilius, the king of Rome, to establish principles of Roman religion such as offering. Jupiter is usually thought to have originated as a sky god, the two emblems were often combined to represent the god in the form of an eagle holding in its claws a thunderbolt, frequently seen on Greek and Roman coins. As the sky-god, he was a witness to oaths. Many of his functions were focused on the Capitoline Hill, where the citadel was located and he was the chief deity of the early Capitoline Triad with Mars and Quirinus. In the Capitoline Triad, he was the guardian of the state with Juno. His sacred tree was the oak, the Romans regarded Jupiter as the equivalent of the Greek Zeus, and in Latin literature and Roman art, the myths and iconography of Zeus are adapted under the name Iuppiter.
In the Greek-influenced tradition, Jupiter was the brother of Neptune, each presided over one of the three realms of the universe, the waters, and the underworld. The Italic Diespiter was a sky god who manifested himself in the daylight, Tinia is usually regarded as his Etruscan counterpart. The Romans believed that Jupiter granted them supremacy because they had honoured him more than any other people had, Jupiter was the fount of the auspices upon which the relationship of the city with the gods rested. He personified the divine authority of Romes highest offices, internal organization and his image in the Republican and Imperial Capitol bore regalia associated with Romes ancient kings and the highest consular and Imperial honours. The consuls swore their oath of office in Jupiters name, to thank him for his help, they offered him a white ox with gilded horns. A similar offering was made by generals, who surrendered the tokens of their victory at the feet of Jupiters statue in the Capitol.
Some scholars have viewed the triumphator as embodying Jupiter in the triumphal procession, Jupiters association with kingship and sovereignty was reinterpreted as Romes form of government changed. Originally, Rome was ruled by kings, after the monarchy was abolished and the Republic established, religious prerogatives were transferred to the patres, nostalgia for the kingship was considered treasonous. Those suspected of harbouring monarchical ambitions were punished, regardless of their service to the state, in the 5th century BC, the triumphator Camillus was sent into exile after he drove a chariot with a team of four white horses —an honour reserved for Jupiter himself. His house on the Capitoline Hill was razed, and it was decreed that no patrician should ever be allowed to live there, during the Conflict of the Orders, Romes plebeians demanded the right to hold political and religious office
Oil painting is the process of painting with pigments with a medium of drying oil as the binder. Commonly used drying oils include linseed oil, poppy seed oil, walnut oil, the choice of oil imparts a range of properties to the oil paint, such as the amount of yellowing or drying time. Certain differences, depending on the oil, are visible in the sheen of the paints. An artist might use different oils in the same painting depending on specific pigments and effects desired. The paints themselves develop a particular consistency depending on the medium, the oil may be boiled with a resin, such as pine resin or frankincense, to create a varnish prized for its body and gloss. Its practice may have migrated westward during the Middle Ages, Oil paint eventually became the principal medium used for creating artworks as its advantages became widely known. In recent years, water miscible oil paint has come to prominence and, to some extent, water-soluble paints contain an emulsifier that allows them to be thinned with water rather than paint thinner, and allows very fast drying times when compared with traditional oils.
Traditional oil painting techniques often begin with the artist sketching the subject onto the canvas with charcoal or thinned paint, Oil paint is usually mixed with linseed oil, artist grade mineral spirits, or other solvents to make the paint thinner, faster or slower-drying. A basic rule of oil paint application is fat over lean and this means that each additional layer of paint should contain more oil than the layer below to allow proper drying. If each additional layer contains less oil, the painting will crack. This rule does not ensure permanence, it is the quality and type of oil leads to a strong. There are many media that can be used with the oil, including cold wax, resins. These aspects of the paint are closely related to the capacity of oil paint. Traditionally, paint was transferred to the surface using paintbrushes. Oil paint remains wet longer than other types of artists materials, enabling the artist to change the color. At times, the painter might even remove a layer of paint.
This can be done with a rag and some turpentine for a time while the paint is wet, Oil paint dries by oxidation, not evaporation, and is usually dry to the touch within a span of two weeks. It is generally dry enough to be varnished in six months to a year, art conservators do not consider an oil painting completely dry until it is 60 to 80 years old
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Romes legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans. Roman mythology may refer to the study of these representations. The Romans usually treated their traditional narratives as historical, even when these have miraculous or supernatural elements, the stories are often concerned with politics and morality, and how an individuals personal integrity relates to his or her responsibility to the community or Roman state. When the stories illuminate Roman religious practices, they are concerned with ritual, augury. Romes early myths and legends have a relationship with Etruscan religion. In particular, the versions of Greek myths in Ovids Metamorphoses, written during the reign of Augustus, because ritual played the central role in Roman religion that myth did for the Greeks, it is sometimes doubted that the Romans had much of a native mythology. This perception is a product of Romanticism and the scholarship of the 19th century.
From the Renaissance to the 18th century, Roman myths were an inspiration particularly for European painting, the Roman tradition is rich in historical myths, or legends, concerning the foundation and rise of the city. These narratives focus on human actors, with only occasional intervention from deities, in Romes earliest period and myth have a mutual and complementary relationship. As T. P. Wiseman notes, The Roman stories still matter, as they mattered to Dante in 1300 and Shakespeare in 1600, what does it take to be a free citizen. Can a superpower still be a republic, how does well-meaning authority turn into murderous tyranny. Major sources for Roman myth include the Aeneid of Vergil and the first few books of Livys history as well as Dionysius s Roman Antiquities. Other important sources are the Fasti of Ovid, a six-book poem structured by the Roman religious calendar, scenes from Roman myth appear in Roman wall painting and sculpture, particularly reliefs. The Aeneid and Livys early history are the best extant sources for Romes founding myths, material from Greek heroic legend was grafted onto this native stock at an early date.
By extension, the Trojans were adopted as the ancestors of the Roman people. Rape of the Sabine women, explaining the importance of the Sabines in the formation of Roman culture, numa Pompilius, the Sabine second king of Rome who consorted with the nymph Egeria and established many of Romes legal and religious institutions. Servius Tullius, the king of Rome, whose mysterious origins were freely mythologized. The Tarpeian Rock, and why it was used for the execution of traitors, whose self-sacrifice prompted the overthrow of the early Roman monarchy and led to the establishment of the Republic
Hades was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name. In Greek mythology, Hades was regarded as the oldest son of Cronus and Rhea and he and his brothers Zeus and Poseidon defeated their fathers generation of gods, the Titans, and claimed rulership over the cosmos. Hades received the underworld, Zeus the sky, and Poseidon the sea, Hades was often portrayed with his three-headed guard dog Cerberus. The Etruscan god Aita and Roman gods Dis Pater and Orcus were eventually taken as equivalent to the Greek Hades and merged as Pluto, the origin of Hades name is uncertain, but has generally been seen as meaning The Unseen One since antiquity. Modern linguists have proposed the Proto-Greek form *Awides, the earliest attested form is Aḯdēs, which lacks the proposed digamma. West argues instead for a meaning of the one who presides over meeting up from the universality of death. In Homeric and Ionic Greek, he was known as Áïdēs, other poetic variations of the name include Aïdōneús and the inflected forms Áïdos, Áïdi, and Áïda, whose reconstructed nominative case *Áïs is, not attested.
The name as it came to be known in classical times was Háidēs, the iota became silent, a subscript marking, and finally omitted entirely. Perhaps from fear of pronouncing his name, around the 5th century BC, Plouton became the Roman god who both rules the underworld and distributed riches from below. This deity was a mixture of the Greek god Hades and the Eleusinian icon Ploutos, and from this he received a priestess. More elaborate names of the genre were Ploutodótēs or Ploutodotḗr meaning giver of wealth. Epithets of Hades include Agesander and Agesilaos, both from ágō and anḗr or laos, describing Hades as the god who carries away all. He was referred to as Zeus Katachthonios, meaning the Zeus of the Underworld, by avoiding his actual name. In Greek mythology, Hades the god of the underworld, was a son of the Titans Cronus and he had three sisters, Demeter and Hera, as well as two brothers, the youngest of the three, and Poseidon. Upon reaching adulthood, Zeus managed to force his father to disgorge his siblings, after their release, the six younger gods, along with allies they managed to gather, challenged the elder gods for power in the Titanomachy, a divine war.
The war lasted for ten years and ended with the victory of the younger gods, following their victory, according to a single famous passage in the Iliad and his two brothers and Zeus, drew lots for realms to rule. Some myths suggest that Hades was dissatisfied with his turnout, but had no choice, Hades obtained his wife and queen, through abduction at the behest of Zeus. Despite modern connotations of death as evil, Hades was actually more altruistically inclined in mythology, Hades was often portrayed as passive rather than evil, his role was often maintaining relative balance
Oxford Union murals
The Oxford Union murals are a series of mural decorations in the Oxford Union library building. The series was executed by a team of Pre-Raphaelite artists including Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William Morris, the paintings depict scenes from Arthurian myth. In addition to Rossetti and Burne-Jones, several artists agreed to contribute. These were the painters Val Prinsep, Arthur Hughes, J. H. Pollen, John Roddam Spencer Stanhope, the process of painting the murals was notoriously chaotic. Ruskin said that the artists were all the least bit crazy, as the murals were painted directly onto the wall without plaster or adequate underpainting they began to suffer decay very quickly. William Morris completely repainted his design for the ceiling, Rossettis main work was Sir Lancelots Vision of the Holy Grail. Burne-Jones painted Nimue brings Sir Peleus to Ettarde after their Quarrel, jane Burden first appears as a model in the Oxford murals. Jane was noticed by Rossetti and Burne-Jones when she was visiting an Oxford theatre with her sister, struck by Janes beauty, they sought her to model for them.
In 1906 Rossettis Pre-Raphaelite colleague William Holman Hunt, who had not been directly involved, wrote a book on the history of the decorations
A triptych is a work of art that is divided into three sections, or three carved panels that are hinged together and can be folded shut or displayed open. It is therefore a type of polyptych, the term for all multi-panel works, the middle panel is typically the largest and it is flanked by two smaller related works, although there are triptychs of equal-sized panels. The form can be used for pendant jewelry, despite its connection to an art format, the term is sometimes used more generally to connote anything with three parts, particularly if they are integrated into a single unit. The triptych form arises from early Christian art, and was a standard format for altar paintings from the Middle Ages onwards. Its geographical range was from the eastern Byzantine churches to the Celtic churches in the west, renaissance painters such as Hans Memling and Hieronymus Bosch used the form. Triptych forms allow ease of transport, from the Gothic period onward, both in Europe and elsewhere, altarpieces in churches and cathedrals were often in triptych form.
One such cathedral with an altarpiece triptych is Llandaff Cathedral, the Cathedral of Our Lady in Antwerp, contains two examples by Rubens, and Notre Dame de Paris is another example of the use of triptych in architecture. One can see the form echoed by the structure of many stained glass windows. Although strongly identified as a form, triptychs outside that context have been created, some of the best-known examples being works by Hieronymus Bosch, Max Beckmann. The highest price paid for an artwork at auction was $142.4 million for a 1969 triptych, Three Studies of Lucian Freud. The record was broken in May 2015 by $179.4 million for Pablo Picassos 1955 painting Les Femmes d’Alger, the format has migrated and been used in other religions, including Islam and Buddhism. Likewise, Tibetan Buddhists have used it in traditional altars, a photographic triptych is a common style used in modern commercial artwork. The photographs are arranged with a plain border between them. The work may consist of images that are variants on a theme